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Book part
Publication date: 19 August 2015

Pino G. Audia, Sebastien Brion and Henrich R. Greve

We examine the influence of the self-assessment and self-enhancement motives on the choice of comparison organizations in two experimental studies. Study 1 shows that: (1…

Abstract

We examine the influence of the self-assessment and self-enhancement motives on the choice of comparison organizations in two experimental studies. Study 1 shows that: (1) self-assessment generally prevailed over self-enhancement, guiding decision makers to choose organizations that were more similar and had better performance; (2) self-enhancement was more pronounced under conditions of low performance, leading participants to more frequently choose organizations that were less similar and had lower performance; and (3) self-enhancing comparisons inhibited perceptions of failure and the propensity to make changes. Study 2 extends the results of Study 1 by showing that participants were more likely to choose comparison organizations that had lower performance and were less similar when they were in a self-enhancement mindset than when they were in a self-assessment mindset. The combined effects of self-assessment and self-enhancement on the choice of comparison organizations are discussed in relation to the broader organizational literature on learning from performance feedback.

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Cognition and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-946-2

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Joon Yong Seo and Debra L. Scammon

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-enhancement and helping behavior/intentions. Some people are more inclined than others to engage in…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-enhancement and helping behavior/intentions. Some people are more inclined than others to engage in helping behaviors. Determining what individual characteristics are related to helping behavior could have important implications for both marketers and non-profit organizations. Drawing on research on self-enhancement, this paper examines the relationship between the “above-average effect” (the tendency of individuals to rate themselves more favorably than they rate others) specifically on altruistic traits and helping behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through two surveys and analyzed with correlation analysis, path analysis and structural equation models.

Findings

In two studies, we find a positive relationship between interdependence and self-enhancement and a positive relationship between self-enhancement and helping behavior (volunteering in Study 1 and donation behavior in Study 2). We further show that self-enhancement mediates the effect of interdependence on helping. Personal importance of altruistic traits is shown to underlie these relationships.

Practical implications

By understanding the antecedents of helping behaviors, non-profit and charity organizations, social marketers and other advocates of pro-social behaviors can enhance the effectiveness of their appeals. Our findings provide insights for both messaging and targeting.

Originality/value

This study examines the relationship between self-enhancement and helping behavior. In so doing, it contributes to the self-enhancement literature by identifying the relationship between self-construal and self-enhancement. It also extends understanding of the relationship between these two constructs and helping behavior by revealing the mediating role of self-enhancement on helping behavior.

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Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 31 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 23 June 2020

Klaus J. Templer

This study aimed to test Early and Ang’s (2003) proposition that self-enhancement hinders successful cross-cultural adjustment. The literature on self-enhancement is…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to test Early and Ang’s (2003) proposition that self-enhancement hinders successful cross-cultural adjustment. The literature on self-enhancement is reviewed, and the overclaiming technique as an unobtrusive measure of self-enhancement is introduced for use in global mobility contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the overclaiming technique, an international-cultural overclaiming test was developed. Expatriates in Singapore stated their familiarity with international-cultural knowledge items, with some of them being foil items, and rated their cross-cultural (general, interaction, work) adjustment. Supervisors rated the expatriates on their work adjustment and performance.

Findings

Overclaiming was not related to self-rated cross-cultural adjustment. However, overclaiming was negatively related to supervisor rated work adjustment and performance. Additionally, the results showed that international-cultural knowledge accuracy was positively related to self-rated general adjustment and to supervisor rated work adjustment and performance.

Research limitations/implications

The small sample size with a majority of expatriate teachers from international schools in the sample makes it necessary for the results to be replicated with larger and more varied expatriate samples.

Practical implications

While further validation is needed, this research indicates that the overclaiming technique could be a valuable tool for assessing self-enhancement in candidates for expatriate positions in order to gauge potential cross-cultural (mal)adjustment, as perceived by others.

Originality/value

This study was (likely) the first study that has applied the overclaiming technique in a global mobility context. An international-cultural knowledge overclaiming test is provided to academic researchers for future use.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2020

Scott Dust, Joseph Rode and Peng Wang

Assumptions regarding the effect of leader self-enhancement values on leader-follower relationships are oversimplified. To advance this conversation, we test non-linear…

Abstract

Purpose

Assumptions regarding the effect of leader self-enhancement values on leader-follower relationships are oversimplified. To advance this conversation, we test non-linear and congruence effects. We hypothesize that leader self-enhancement values (via prestige) have an inverted U-shaped relationship with employee perceptions of leader-member exchange (LMX) and leader interpersonal justice, and that leader-follower incongruence is negatively related to LMX and interpersonal justice.

Design/methodology/approach

To evaluate our hypotheses we use hierarchical regression, polynomial regression, and surface plot analysis. Our sample consists of 193 leader-follower dyads from a variety of organizations.

Findings

LMX and interpersonal justice increase as leader self-enhancement increases, but begin to decrease at higher levels of self-enhancement values. Additionally, leader-follower self-enhancement incongruence is negatively related to interpersonal justice. Finally, LMX is lowest when leaders are higher than followers in self-enhancement values compared to when followers are higher than leaders.

Practical implications

It is critical to evaluate the level of leader self-enhancement values and/or the joint influence of the follower values (self-enhancement) to fully understand the effect of leader values on follower perceptions of the dyadic relationship. Organizations interested in facilitating high-quality leader-follower relationships should focus on the levels of the values and on mechanisms that facilitate leader-follower value alignment.

Originality/value

This work extends prior research assuming a direct, linear effect of leader self-enhancement values on follower outcomes. To fully understand the influence of leader values it is important to consider curvilinear and congruence effects.

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Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Else Ouweneel, Pascale M. Le Blanc and Wilmar B. Schaufeli

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of an individual oriented positive psychology intervention on positive emotions, self‐efficacy, and work engagement.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of an individual oriented positive psychology intervention on positive emotions, self‐efficacy, and work engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

The online self‐enhancement intervention program consists of three types of online assignments: happiness assignments, goal setting assignments, and resource building assignments. The authors expected the self‐enhancement intervention group to show a significantly stronger increase in the outcome variables compared to a self‐monitoring control group.

Findings

The results revealed that the self‐enhancement group showed a stronger increase in positive emotions and self‐efficacy compared to the control group, but not on engagement. Additional analyses showed that the positive effects of the self‐enhancement intervention are present for employees who are initially low in engagement, but not for those medium or high in engagement.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted via a semi‐public web site. The participants were all working in different organizations throughout the country and did not have the advantage of having the support of their supervisors and colleagues who were participating in a similar intervention.

Practical implications

Positive psychology interventions should target employees who are low in engagement, because they have the most unused potential and therefore have more to gain.

Originality/value

Traditionally speaking, individual interventions are carried out when something is wrong or malfunctioning, and with the sole objective of fixing it. The intervention presented in this paper includes the entire workforce, because it is based on the belief that improving employee well‐being is relevant for all.

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Career Development International, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2008

Margaret E. Ormiston and Elaine M. Wong

In this chapter, we argue that beyond the self-enhancement motive (i.e., the desire for a positive identity), other identity motives play a significant, yet underspecified…

Abstract

In this chapter, we argue that beyond the self-enhancement motive (i.e., the desire for a positive identity), other identity motives play a significant, yet underspecified role in homogeneous and diverse groups. In particular, we explore how the desire for self-verification, belonging, and distinctiveness offer alternative and, at times, even contradictory explanations for findings typically attributed to self-enhancement. We also consider the ways in which these motives are influenced in homogenous and diverse groups and the effects they have on group processes and performance. Through our examination, we aim to stimulate research on the role of multiple identity motives in homogenous and diverse groups.

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Diversity and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-053-7

Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Nicole H.W. Civettini

Purpose – The aim of this research was to test whether the motivations of self-enhancement and self-verification act independently and simultaneously, specifically in the…

Abstract

Purpose – The aim of this research was to test whether the motivations of self-enhancement and self-verification act independently and simultaneously, specifically in the context of the impostor phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach – Using both self-report measures and salivary cortisol levels, I conducted a 2×2 experiment (N=106) in which status (high or low) was crossed with competition outcome (win or lose). The “low-status winner” condition served as a simulation of the impostor phenomenon.

Findings – Winners reported greater positive affect and less negative affect, indicating self-enhancement, but salivary cortisol levels were higher in participants whose status was disconsonant with the competition outcome (high-status losers and low-status winners), reflecting self-verification.

Research limitations/implications – A potential limitation was the omission of nicotine use as a control variable.

Practical implications – Results illuminate the dual public and private nature of the impostor phenomenon, in which normative expressions of happiness overlie deeper feelings of anxiety. A better understanding would benefit educators, employers, counselors, and therapists who work with high-achieving women and minorities as well as the women and minorities they serve.

Social implications – Findings suggest that efforts should be made to bolster the confidence of promising young women and minorities, with the understanding that, despite high levels of achievement, self-confidence and a sense of deservedness may be lacking.

Originality/value – Methodological advancements included the first laboratory simulation of the impostor phenomenon and the use of both self-report and physiological measures of responses to status situations. This was the first study capable of observing the motivations to self-enhance and self-verify simultaneously and independently of one another.

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Biosociology and Neurosociology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-257-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Olukemi O. Sawyerr, Judy Strauss and Jun Yan

To investigate how an individual's value structure influences his/her attitudes toward others who are dissimilar and the moderating effects of age, gender, race, and…

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Abstract

Purpose

To investigate how an individual's value structure influences his/her attitudes toward others who are dissimilar and the moderating effects of age, gender, race, and religiosity on this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 165 respondents completed the 56‐item Schwartz Value Survey (SVS), which measures the four value types of openness to change, self‐transcendence, conservation, and self‐enhancement, and the 15‐item Miville‐Guzman Universality‐Diversity Scale Short (M‐GUDS‐S), which measures diversity attitudes. The relationships between the variables were explored using hierarchical regression.

Findings

Respondents who scored higher on the values of openness to change and self‐ transcendence had more positive diversity attitudes than those who scored lower. Respondents who scored higher on self‐enhancement had less positive diversity attitudes than those who scored lower. The prediction that those who score higher on conservation would have less positive diversity attitudes was not supported. Age, gender, and race were found to interact with values to predict diversity attitudes. None of the interaction effects for religiosity was significant.

Originality/value

This paper provides evidence of the predictive strength of an individual's value structure on their attitudes towards diversity. More specifically, this paper shows that the impact that a person's values have on his/her attitudes towards diversity is moderated by his/her age, race, and gender. The results suggest that diversity training needs to be more targeted and designed to take into consideration the values, age, gender, and race of the trainees.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 19 December 2019

Hongjing Cui, Taiyang Zhao, Slawomir Smyczek, Yajun Sheng, Ming Xu and Xiao Yang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of self-worth on status consumption, focusing on the mediation of self-enhancement and self-compensation and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of self-worth on status consumption, focusing on the mediation of self-enhancement and self-compensation and the moderation of power distance belief (PDB) in the relationship of threats to self-worth and consumer choice.

Design/methodology/approach

Experiments are used to collect data. Three studies are designed to test the relationship between self-worth, self-enhancement and self-compensation, PDB and status consumption. In total, 180 MBA students participate Study 1, 186 and 244 undergraduate students participate Studies 2 and 3, respectively. ANOVA and bootstrapping method are adopted to analyze the data by using SPSS version 19.0. Study 1 tests the influence of self-worth on status consumption; Study 2 examines the mediation role of self-enhancement and self-compensation; and Study 3 tests the moderation role of PDB.

Findings

Results indicate that situational self-worth perception has dual path effects on status consumption. Both improvements in – and threats to – self-worth have a positive impact on status consumption. Improvements in self-worth affect status consumption through the mediation of self-enhancement motives. Threats to self-worth affect status and non-status consumption through the mediation of the self-compensation motive. In the context of a threat to self-worth, compared with consumers with a low PDB, high-PDB consumers have higher purchase intention for status goods but not non-status goods.

Research limitations/implications

In this study, improvements in – and threats to – self-worth are momentarily manipulated. The authors present one product in each experiment, but what would happen if both status goods and non-status goods were shown to participants? Which one will the authors choose under different self-worth manipulations? And how long can the effects last? These questions should be answered in future research.

Practical implications

This research provides a venue for marketers to introduce and advertise status goods. Marketing practitioners should establish the link between self-worth and status consumption appeals. In the Asia-Pacific markets, Confucian value is important to consumers, and high power distance is important in Confucianism. Thus when developing markets in China, international companies should emphasize Confucian values in the design of advertisements or other promotional items. Further, marketing for status goods should attach importance to the expression of their symbolic meanings.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on self-worth and status consumption. It also explores the dual path of the effect of self-worth on status consumption. The motives of self-enhancement and self-compensation are first proposed and tested to explain the mechanism, which differentiates the study from prior work and gives a more reasonable explanation for status and compensatory consumption. The moderation role of PDB delineates the boundary for the effect of a threat to self-worth on status consumption.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Seckyoung Loretta Kim, Soojin Lee and Seokhwa Yun

By applying conservation-of-resource (COR) theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of a leader’s destructive behaviors, i.e., abusive supervision, on…

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Abstract

Purpose

By applying conservation-of-resource (COR) theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of a leader’s destructive behaviors, i.e., abusive supervision, on employee knowledge sharing and the moderating effects of learning goal orientation and self-enhancement motives on the aforementioned relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses were tested using regression analysis on data from 245 employees in South Korea.

Findings

The results showed that abused employees who experience depleted resources are likely to reduce their level of knowledge sharing, in accordance with COR theory. Furthermore, this research demonstrated that the negative effects of abusive supervision may differ depending on individual factors. Specifically, when an individual employee has low internal motivation or available resources for knowledge sharing (low learning orientation and high self-enhancement motive), the detrimental consequence of abusive supervision on knowledge sharing is worsened.

Practical implications

The research suggests that managers should be aware of the deleterious effects of abusive supervision on knowledge sharing and should invest more time and effort in preventing abusive supervision in the workplace.

Originality/value

Although organizations might invest significant amounts of effort in knowledge sharing, abusive supervision could be a barrier that discourages employees’ knowledge sharing. Yet, the strength of aforementioned relationship is dependent on individual factors. In order to achieve organizational effectiveness through knowledge sharing, the critical role of leaders’ behavior and employees’ characteristics or motivation should not be overlooked.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000