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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 20 February 2017

Rosalie van Stormbroek and Rob Blomme

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of psychological contract (PC) fulfilment and violation on turnover intention and self-employment intentions.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of psychological contract (PC) fulfilment and violation on turnover intention and self-employment intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 132 Dutch organizationally employed individuals was used to test the effect of PC fulfilment on turnover intention and self-employment intention. Also, mediation effects of violation on the relation between PC fulfilment and turnover intention and its effect on the relation between PC fulfilment and self-employment intention were examined.

Findings

Consistent with existing literature, the results show that lower ratings for PC fulfilment and feelings of violation of this contract can explain intentions to leave. Moreover, the results demonstrate that lower ratings for PC fulfilment are also related to self-employment intentions. This relationship is partly mediated by turnover intentions.

Research limitations/implications

This research measured intention to turnover, thus not the actual turnover. In addition, self-employment was measured by means of a self-designed scale.

Practical implications

Managing the PC is a delicate but crucial process to prevent valuable employees from leaving the organization.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature on PC fulfilment and employee attitude. In addition, little is known about the influence of PC fulfilment on an employee’s intention to pursue self-employment.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Tobias Schölin, Per Broomé and Henrik Ohlsson

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence that family factors have on an individual’s intention to be self-employed.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence that family factors have on an individual’s intention to be self-employed.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors selected, from Swedish national registers, all full siblings born between 1945 and 1960 and their biological children, who were born before 1985. The authors created one family database consisting of male individuals (n=1,204,436) and one family database consisting of female individuals (n=1,349,904). The authors defined the outcome variable during the years 2003-2010. Separate analyses were conducted for each of the four outcome variables: all self-employed individuals, owners of limited liability companies, sole traders and hybrids. The authors used multi-level logistic analysis for this study.

Findings

The study demonstrates that the influence that family factors have on an individual’s choice of company type is strong; however, it varies depending on intentions transferred within the family.

Originality/value

The authors divide self-employment into three distinct parts based on the company type, which enables a sophisticated analysis of self-employed individuals and of the transference of intentions to be self-employed within families. The authors contribute to the understanding of why individuals become self-employed by examining the impact of family factors on the intention of an individual to choose different types of company.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Innocent Otache

The purpose of this paper is to conceptually explore the relationship between Entrepreneurship Education (EE) and undergraduate students’ self- and paid-employment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conceptually explore the relationship between Entrepreneurship Education (EE) and undergraduate students’ self- and paid-employment intentions. Specifically, the paper aims to examine the effect of paid-employment intention on the relationship between EE and self-employment intention.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviewed extensively related literature on EE, entrepreneurial intentions and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). The detailed literature review undertaken formed the basis for the development of the conceptual framework.

Findings

It is found that undergraduate students have two opposing employment intentions within them, namely, self- and paid-employment intentions. The two employment intentions interact and have a tendency to dominate each other, and consequently lead to different employment behaviours. The dominant employment intention determines whether a graduate will exhibit self- or paid-employment behaviour. This confirms that graduates are faced with two career paths or choices, namely, self- and paid-employment.

Research limitations/implications

It is not an empirical paper. Thus, the conceptual framework needs to be further empirically tested. More specifically, the proposition that undergraduate students’ paid-employment intentions moderate the impact of EE on their self-employment intentions needs to be empirically validated.

Practical implications

This paper provides some insightful and practical implications for the government and the policymakers in the education sector, particularly in tackling the menace of graduate unemployment and its associated problems. It provides an insight into the problem of graduate unemployment. The government and the policymakers should initiate enlightenment programmes that will reorient undergraduate students away from having the mentality of securing paid-jobs after graduation. Equally, undergraduate students should be enlightened about the difficulties in securing paid-jobs and the benefits of being a self-employed graduate.

Originality/value

It is the first to explore the moderating effect of undergraduate students’ paid-employment intentions on the relationship between EE and their self-employment intentions. Therefore, it makes a valuable contribution to the existing literature on EE and entrepreneurial intentions. It further strengthens the TPB by applying it to explain how undergraduate students’ paid-employment intentions could neutralise the impact of EE on their self-employment intentions.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 61 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 December 2017

Per Broomé and Henrik Ohlsson

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of ability, desire and opportunity on the individual’s intention to be self-employed.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of ability, desire and opportunity on the individual’s intention to be self-employed.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors created a database from Swedish national registers consisting of all individuals residing in Sweden sometime during the period 1997-2010 and selected all 333,001 full sibling pairs, 12,810 maternal half sibling pairs and 15,944 paternal half sibling pairs. Three types of entrepreneurs were defined based on information from the Swedish Tax Register. The authors divided the intention to be self-employed into ability and desire and defined ability as a genetic factor and desire as a common family factor. A classical twin model was used to separate the variance of the outcome variables into genetic, common and unshared environmental factors.

Findings

The study demonstrates that the influence from opportunity on the intention to be self-employed is generally strong and that all factors, ability, desire and opportunity, differ, both in size and content, for the three outcomes of entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

The authors divide self-employment into three distinct company types, which enables a sophisticated additive genetic analysis of the ability, desire and opportunity to be self-employed. The authors contribute to the understanding of why individuals become self-employed by examining the influences from internal and external factors of family on the intentions of self-employment.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Gerry Segal, Dan Borgia and Jerry Schoenfeld

Since the 1950s, organizational psychology research investigating work‐related motivation has progressed from static content models to dynamic process models…

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Abstract

Purpose

Since the 1950s, organizational psychology research investigating work‐related motivation has progressed from static content models to dynamic process models. Entrepreneurship research has evolved along a similar trajectory, adapting organizational psychology findings to better understand the motivation to become an entrepreneur. This paper reviews motivation research from both fields, explores some of the commonalities among current theories, and presents a new model of entrepreneurial motivation.

Design/methodology/approach

In an exploratory study, the ability of tolerance for risk, perceived feasibility, and perceived net desirability to predict intentions for self‐employment is examined in a sample of 114 undergraduate business students at Florida Gulf Coast University.

Findings

Results indicated that tolerance for risk, perceived feasibility and net desirability significantly predicted self‐employment intentions, with an adjusted R2 of 0.528.

Research limitations/implications

Because the sample consisted entirely of undergraduate business students, findings may not be generalizable to non‐student populations. This research did not examine the role of negative motivations, or “push” factors. The cross‐sectional rather than longitudinal design of the study raises the usual caveats regarding lack of causal evidence. Finally, a limitation of any survey research is the inability to ask follow‐up questions and explore in more depth the reasoning behind any finding. Future research including qualitative interviews and/or focus group sessions could therefore provide rich explanatory information that could add value to the survey data.

Practical implications

As a result of this research, educators, government officials, and others interested in stimulating entrepreneurial motivation should consider how their words and actions affect potential entrepreneurs’ perceptions of entrepreneurial feasibility and net desirability.

Originality/value

Although the model is original and unique, it is based on established theories and models. It provides a well‐supported explanation of the motivation to become an entrepreneur that will be useful to potential entrepreneurs and those who encourage and guide them.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 January 2022

Degsew Melak and Tegegne Derbe

Given the different manifestations of the unemployment crisis, the main purpose of this study was to identify what characteristics influence the participation of youth in…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the different manifestations of the unemployment crisis, the main purpose of this study was to identify what characteristics influence the participation of youth in key self-employment business options.

Design/methodology/approach

The study has used both probability and nonprobability sampling techniques. Purposive sampling methods were used to identify target study areas (districts and Kebeles) while the systematic random sampling method was used to locate sample respondents. A total of 424 sample respondents were interviewed through interview scheduled questionnaires. Statistical data analysis was carried out using STATA 14 software.

Findings

Agriculture, local value-added business activities, food-related services, petty trade and local transportation were common business choices where unemployed youths were engaged in. The findings of the study also showed that sex, loan size, loan repayment period and training gap were predictors of youth engagement in various self-employment career choices.

Practical implications

Increasing loan size has a positive and significant influence on youth engagement in all self-employment business choices and has reminded us the need to revise or lift up loan size celling to assist youths in engaging in productive sectors. Similarly, the favourable correlation between female youths and value-added activities necessitates a well-designed female-specific intervention.

Originality/value

An understanding of the key determinants of youth preference to engage in specific self-employment career choices enables practitioners to intervene where necessary in supporting youth self-employment engagement. A combination of skill training, relaxed loan size and relaxed repayment is likely to gain sustainable business, which would benefit the local economy by transforming small businesses to a higher level and creating more job opportunities.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 21 April 2022

Pushkar Dubey

Unemployment is the biggest issue for all the developing countries, especially India, where millions of educated people are passed out every year from different…

Abstract

Purpose

Unemployment is the biggest issue for all the developing countries, especially India, where millions of educated people are passed out every year from different educational institutes, but against this, the jobs are not being generated. This situation will only be addressed effectively when the government/authorities make more efforts to identify/create potential entrepreneurs. The present study investigates the relationship of entrepreneurial characteristics on entrepreneurial attitude and intention among engineering undergraduates engaged in various technical institutions in Chhattisgarh state.

Design/methodology/approach

Stratified random sampling was used to collect sample of 1,000 engineering undergraduates enrolled in third and fourth year at different technical institutions of Chhattisgarh state.

Findings

Structural equation modelling and hierarchal multiple regression analysis were incorporated, and the analysis revealed that the entrepreneurial characteristic was found to be a significant predictor of entrepreneurial attitude and intention of engineering undergraduates. The study also discusses managerial implications, limitations and avenues for future research.

Originality/value

Looking at the current scenario, the present study discusses with several factors influencing entrepreneurial attitude and intention of engineering undergraduates, which might be the only solution to a significant issue, i.e. unemployment. In addition, there is a huge lack of research in addressing unemployment issue through entrepreneurship in the state of Chhattisgarh.

Details

Journal of Business and Socio-economic Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2635-1374

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2010

Muhammad Nizam Zainuddin and Mohd Rozaini Mohd Rejab

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of undergraduates' specialised entrepreneurship programmes in Malaysian universities that have been made available…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of undergraduates' specialised entrepreneurship programmes in Malaysian universities that have been made available to “ME generation” students. By analysing the antecedents and predicting self‐employment intention, the paper evaluates the impact of such programmes upon the employability value of undergraduates who are part of the ME generation in a developing country such as Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

A census survey was conducted on final and penultimate year students from major public and private universities in Malaysia. From these data, analyses of variables that affect self‐employment intention were performed, and the prediction of self‐employment intention was obtained.

Findings

The results show that the students do not perceive self‐realisation as their most salient beliefs and perceived that their entrepreneurship lecturers' expectations towards them to become self‐employed are not highly influential and need to be complied with. However, they believed that specialised entrepreneurship education (SEE) contributes to increasing entrepreneurial self‐efficacy and subsequently towards their self‐employment intention, and thus increases their employability value.

Research limitations/implications

This research only studies students' self‐employment intention in their respective universities and not their actual behaviour. Results from the paper are limited in ability to demonstrate “actual” outcomes that result from the interaction of the antecedents in universities' confinement.

Practical implications

The paper provides an important analysis of the current status of entrepreneurship students in Malaysian universities. The findings provide insight on the development of effective entrepreneurship programme deliveries and methodologies.

Originality/value

The paper provides a basis to improve the effectiveness of SEE in Malaysian universities and in turn produce highly employable graduates.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 52 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2021

Dianne H.B. Welsh, Dalia Othman, Baker Alserhan, Jusuf Zeqiri, Amro Al-Madadha and Veland Ramadani

We investigate the entrepreneurial intentions of a population under crisis — namely, recent Syrian refugees in Jordan — and Jordanian citizens to start small businesses…

Abstract

Purpose

We investigate the entrepreneurial intentions of a population under crisis — namely, recent Syrian refugees in Jordan — and Jordanian citizens to start small businesses during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a structured two-part survey, data were collected through online self-reported questionnaires in which respondents subjectively reported self-perceptions. The first part dealt with respondents’ characteristics and the second with their entrepreneurial intentions. The survey took place in Jordan, sampling Jordanian citizens and Syrian refugees. A nonprobability sampling technique was used to collect the data.

Findings

The results show that net desirability for self-employment, tolerance for risk and self-efficacy are related to entrepreneurial intentions. We find significant differences between the Syrian refugees and the Jordanian citizens in terms of risk-taking and self-efficacy as determinants of engagement in entrepreneurial activities.

Originality/value

This study offers guidance to institutions working with refugees during times of crisis. Implications are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 September 2020

Innocent Otache, Dorcas Omanyo Oluwade and Ele-Ojo Jeremiah Idoko

Undergraduate students have two opposing employment intentions, viz. self-employment intentions and paid-employment intentions (SEIs and PEIs). While a plethora of studies…

Abstract

Purpose

Undergraduate students have two opposing employment intentions, viz. self-employment intentions and paid-employment intentions (SEIs and PEIs). While a plethora of studies have explored the links between entrepreneurship education (EE) and SEIs, it has been noted that previous studies have ignored the effects of PEIs on the relationship between EE and SEIs. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to empirically explore the effects of PEIs on the relationship between EE and SEIs.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted a descriptive research design and a self-reported questionnaire was administered to collect data from a randomly selected sample of 95 accounting students from two polytechnics in Nigeria. To test the hypotheses formulated, partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was performed using SmartPLS.

Findings

The results of Model 1 showed that EE had a significantly positive link with SEIs. On the other hand, the analysis of Model 2 revealed an inverse relationship between PEIs and SEIs. Furthermore, it was observed that the impact of EE on SEIs did not only reduce significantly when PEIs was added to Model 1 but also the relationship between EE and SEIs that was erstwhile statistically significant became nonsignificant.

Practical implications

The findings have implications for EE curriculum developers, governments and career guidance counsellors.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to provide empirical evidence of the effects of PEIs on the relationship between EE and SEIs. The findings provide important insights into the fundamental issue, which underlies the problem of graduate unemployment.

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