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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2021

Shawn Best and Ravi Chinta

The self-employed are an essential segment of society who contribute to economic growth and stabilisation in their communities. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

The self-employed are an essential segment of society who contribute to economic growth and stabilisation in their communities. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate whether they enjoy a work–life balance (WLB) and life satisfaction (LS), which are two separate concerns of the self-employed in this study. Existing literature indicates that household income (HI) is a significant determinant of WLB and LS. This study investigates the levels and relationship of WLB and LS among the self-employed in the USA and the possible influence of HI on this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are from an online panel survey of 435 self-employed persons residing in the USA. The authors test the hypotheses via regression analysis and ANOVA.

Findings

This study revealed that WLB is a significant predictor of LS for the self-employed. Further, it showed that HI has a statistically significant direct effect on LS and moderates the relationship between WLB and LS. Among the control variables, only firm size was seen to contribute positively to a high level of LS. Gender, education, age, the number of dependent children, industry and hours worked were not found to be statistically significant. The study also found that WLB was most important in predicting LS of the self-employed followed by HI and then firm size.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to investigate the relations between WLB and LS among the self-employed and extends the scant existing scholarship on this issue.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 19 May 2021

Sherzodbek Safarov and Dilnovoz Abdurazzakova

This paper aims to investigate the effect of the flat tax system on self-employment by necessity and by opportunity. Specifically, the paper examines whether individuals…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of the flat tax system on self-employment by necessity and by opportunity. Specifically, the paper examines whether individuals decide to switch from wage-employment to self-employment by necessity or by opportunity when government imposes a flat tax system.

Design/methodology/approach

To analyze the association of a flat tax system with occupational choice this paper uses both multinomial and ordinary logit models. In the multi-nominal logit model, this study separates dependent variables into three categories: wage employee, self-employed by necessity and self-employed by opportunity. In the second step of analyzes using the ordinary logit model, this paper studies only self-employed individuals by distinguishing them according to their preferences.

Findings

The results suggest that, in countries with the imposed flat tax system, the probability of being self-employed by necessity is low, while the probability of being self-employed by opportunity is high. Moreover, better economic growth in the country also elevates the chances of individuals to be self-employed by opportunity.

Originality/value

Out novel contribution is documenting that flat tax system in transition countries increases the number of individuals self-employed by opportunity compared to self-employed by necessity.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Sjanne Marie Elyse van den Groenendaal, Silvia Rossetti, Mattis van den Bergh, T.A.M. (Dorien) Kooij and Rob. F. Poell

As the current “one size fits all” research approach is likely to be ineffective in identifying the conditions that promote the entrepreneurial career of the solo…

Abstract

Purpose

As the current “one size fits all” research approach is likely to be ineffective in identifying the conditions that promote the entrepreneurial career of the solo self-employed, this paper advances the current understanding of the heterogeneity among the solo self-employed.

Design/methodology/approach

A person-centered approach is used to identify groups among the solo self-employed based on their starting motives and to examine their engagement in proactive career behaviors.

Findings

Using Latent Class Analysis (LCA), six groups displaying distinct motivational profiles are identified: (1) the pushed by necessity, (2) entrepreneurs by heart, (3) control-seekers, (4) occupationally-driven, (5) challenge-seekers and (6) the family business-driven. In line with the argument that starting motives affect behavior because they reflect the future work selves that individuals aim for, results show that solo self-employed with distinct motivational profiles differ in their engagement in proactive career behaviors. For future research, it is recommended to examine the role of demographic characteristics in the engagement in proactive career behaviors.

Originality/value

Although starting motives among self-employed people have been studied frequently, this research applies an innovative methodological approach by using LCA. Hereby, a potentially more advanced configuration of starting motives is explored. Additionally, this study applies a career perspective towards the domain of solo self-employment by exploring how solo self-employed with distinct motivational profiles differ in terms of managing their entrepreneurial careers.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2009

Pernilla Andersson Joona and Eskil Wadensjö

Using unique register data for Sweden we match self-employed persons to their employees. The purpose of the paper is to investigate which factors that influence the…

Abstract

Using unique register data for Sweden we match self-employed persons to their employees. The purpose of the paper is to investigate which factors that influence the composition of the workforce in terms of national background. To analyse workforce composition we estimate the probability of only employing co-nationals in the firm. A majority of the self-employed do not have employees so the used sample constitutes a small share of all self-employed. To account for the selection in the choice of having employees we estimate a selection model of Heckman type.

We find that a higher share of immigrants in the municipality increases the probability of hiring immigrants, both for native and immigrant self-employed. We also find that the probability for immigrants to only employ co-nationals decreases with time spent in Sweden. These results point to that the proximity to people from the same region and one's network plays an important part for the employment decisions for the self-employed.

Details

Ethnicity and Labor Market Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-634-2

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Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2007

Jesper B. Sørensen

Insights into the origins of entrepreneurial activity are gained through a study of alternative mechanisms implicated in the tendency for children of the self-employed to…

Abstract

Insights into the origins of entrepreneurial activity are gained through a study of alternative mechanisms implicated in the tendency for children of the self-employed to be substantially more likely than other children to enter into self-employment themselves. I use unique life history data to examine the impact of parental self-employment on the transition to self-employment in Denmark and assess the different mechanisms identified in the literature. The results suggest that parental role modeling is an important source of the transmission of self-employment. However, there is little evidence to suggest that children of the self-employed enter self-employment because they have privileged access to their parent's financial or social capital, or because their parents’ self-employment allows them to develop superior entrepreneurial abilities.

Details

The Sociology of Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-498-0

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Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2007

Howard E. Aldrich and Phillip H. Kim

Using a life course perspective, we develop a theoretical model of how parents can influence their children's propensity to enter self-employment. We draw on the…

Abstract

Using a life course perspective, we develop a theoretical model of how parents can influence their children's propensity to enter self-employment. We draw on the sociological, economic, psychological, and behavioral genetics literatures to develop a model in which parental influence occurs in different ways, depending on someone's stage in their life course. We review and summarize existing findings for parental influences on entrepreneurial entry using a three-part life course framework: childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We also analyze new data from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics on the extent to which children were involved in their parents’ businesses. From our review, we propose strong effects from genetic inheritances and parenting practice (during childhood); moderate effects from reinforcement of work values and vocational interests (during adolescence); and little influence from financial support but stronger effects from other tangible means of support (during adulthood).

Details

The Sociology of Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-498-0

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2021

Edmond Ofori

The purpose of this study was to ascertain the types of financial plan Ghanaian self-employed workers have towards their retirement, and the main forces that motivate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to ascertain the types of financial plan Ghanaian self-employed workers have towards their retirement, and the main forces that motivate these workers to financially plan for their pension.

Design/methodology/approach

The study focused on self-employed workers aged from 15 to 60 years. Questionnaires were administered in gathering data for the study. The researcher used probit model in analysing the driving forces behind self-employed workers' financial planning for retirement.

Findings

The study revealed that bank/credit union/savings and loans savings, building of apartments for renting, investment in SSNIT pension, investment in treasury bills/fixed deposits, investment in ownership of business and private insurance pension are the types of financial plan that exist for self-employed workers towards their retirement. The study found that age, marital status, level of education, household size, number of children, renting a house, life style of the future retiree, income, risk level of job and types of retirement plan are the driving forces behind the retirement plans of self-employed workers.

Practical implications

Using the identified types of financial plan and driving forces in this study, governments in the developing countries can develop and implement self-employed pension schemes, educate and encourage more self-employed workers to plan for their retirement.

Originality/value

Analysing the driving forces behind retirement plans of self-employed people in developing economies.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

Kofi Osei Adu and Stephen Amponsah

This paper aims to investigate the correlates of tax registration among self-employed in Upper Denkyira East municipal and Upper Denkyira West district in Ghana.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the correlates of tax registration among self-employed in Upper Denkyira East municipal and Upper Denkyira West district in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 783 self-employed were interviewed and discriminant analysis was used to examine the factors that influence a self-employed person’s decision to register with Ghana Revenue Authority.

Findings

The study found that, age of the self-employed, number of times tax officers visit and inspect self-employed, experience in business, number of years of schooling, distance to tax office and estimated annual profit are important discriminants of tax registration compliance.

Originality/value

Tax registration is the fundamental element of tax compliance since any effort to exact compliance from taxpayers begins with registration with the tax authority. However, previous studies in the Ghanaian informal sector such as Baba (2010), Baba and Asante (2012) and Razak and Adafula (2013) have focused mainly on aggregate tax compliance (registration, filing, reporting and payment combined) without given specific attention to this fundamental component of tax compliance risk. Therefore, this study seeks to address the gap in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 62 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2020

Ute Stephan, Jun Li and Jingjing Qu

Past research on self-employment and health yielded conflicting findings. Integrating predictions from the Stressor-Strain Outcome model, research on challenge stressors…

Abstract

Purpose

Past research on self-employment and health yielded conflicting findings. Integrating predictions from the Stressor-Strain Outcome model, research on challenge stressors and allostatic load, we predict that physical and mental health are affected by self-employment in distinct ways which play out over different time horizons. We also test whether the health impacts of self-employment are due to enhanced stress (work-related strain) and differ for man and women.

Design/methodology/approach

We apply non-parametric propensity score matching in combination with a difference-in-difference approach and longitudinal cohort data to examine self-selection and the causal relationship between self-employment and health. We focus on those that transit into self-employment from paid employment (opportunity self-employment) and analyze strain and health over four years relative to individuals in paid employment.

Findings

Those with poorer mental health are more likely to self-select into self-employment. After entering self-employment, individuals experience a short-term uplift in mental health due to lower work-related strain, especially for self-employed men. In the longer-term (four years) the mental health of the self-employed drops back to pre-self-employment levels. We find no effect of self-employment on physical health.

Practical implications

Our research helps to understand the nonpecuniary benefits of self-employment and suggests that we should not advocate self-employment as a “healthy” career.

Originality/value

This article advances research on self-employment and health. Grounded in stress theories it offers new insights relating to self-selection, the temporality of effects, the mediating role of work-related strain, and gender that collectively help to explain why past research yielded conflicting findings.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Alicia Morgan Plemmons

The purpose of this study is to analyze how occupational licensing costs within a state affect the performance of self-employed firms, as measured through annual sales.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze how occupational licensing costs within a state affect the performance of self-employed firms, as measured through annual sales.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilizes an empirical approach to determine if there are additional effects on the annual sales for firms that are self-employed in high-cost states that are not explained through the individual estimations. Since the choice of self-employment is plausibly nonrandom, this study also uses a propensity score matching method to develop a matched subsample of self-employed and employee-maintaining firms. This selection methodology ensures that the set of self-employed and employee-maintaining firm observations are similar in all measurable attributes besides their regulatory environment and firm structure. Using this representative subsample, the empirical framework is repeated to reevaluate the effects of high occupational licensing fees on the sales of self-employed firms.

Findings

In both the unmatched and matched samples, there are significant, large, negative interactions representing a reduction in annual sales per employee within self-employed firms relative to employee-maintaining firms when located in states with above-average occupational licensing costs. The results using the matched subsamples are noticeably smaller in magnitude, which indicates that future policy assessments would benefit from ensuring that the sample pool, when dealing with self-employment, is limited only to firms under a common convex hull in order to not skew the size of results.

Originality/value

This study contributes new understanding of the financial relationship of self-employed firms and occupational licensing costs using firm-level observations of sales and firm structure. This has important policy implications for the development and evaluation of occupational licensing policies when considering effects on the self-employed.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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