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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2021

Yuli Liang, Seung-Hee Lee and Jane E. Workman

Mobile self-checkout refers to scanning products using a mobile device inside a brick-and-mortar store and completing the checkout process on mobile devices. Even though…

Abstract

Purpose

Mobile self-checkout refers to scanning products using a mobile device inside a brick-and-mortar store and completing the checkout process on mobile devices. Even though mobile self-checkout has been used in other industries for several years, it is a new application in the fashion industry and only limited numbers of retailers have implemented mobile self-checkout in their stores. The purpose of this study is to understand consumers' acceptance of mobile self-checkout in fashion retail stores by analyzing determinants of using a new system.

Design/methodology/approach

Part of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) was used as a theoretical framework. Openness to experience, variety seeking and adventure shopping were added to the model. Empirical data (with 229 valid responses) were collected from the top 20 metropolitan areas in the US via Qualtrics Panel services. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling and multi-group moderation were used to estimate construct validity and test the proposed hypotheses and theoretical framework.

Findings

The results indicated that consumers' intentions toward using mobile self-checkout in fashion retail stores were predicted by facilitating conditions, social influence and openness to experience. Moreover, consumers' previous experience of using mobile self-checkout in fashion retail stores moderated the path from facilitating conditions to behavioral intention and the path from social influence to behavioral intention. In addition, different genders and smartphone usage frequency did not vary significantly on the model paths.

Practical implications

The findings show how fashion retailers can understand consumers' preference and their willingness to use mobile self-checkout in fashion retail stores. Moreover, the authors addressed ways for fashion retailers to promote mobile self-checkout in the future.

Originality/value

As a new technology in the fashion industry, literature is deficient concerning consumers' intention to adopt mobile self-checkout. This research provided suggestions for fashion retailers about adopting and improving acceptance of mobile self-checkout. Results will lead to theoretical and managerial implications for future technology development.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2010

Hyun‐Joo Lee, Hyeon Jeong Cho, Wenwen Xu and Ann Fairhurst

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships among demographic factors (gender, age, education, and income), consumer traits (technology anxiety, need for…

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7453

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships among demographic factors (gender, age, education, and income), consumer traits (technology anxiety, need for interaction, and technology innovativeness), and intention to use retail self‐checkouts.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 285 usable responses are obtained through a web‐based survey after excluding non‐qualified respondents. Structural equation modeling is developed and tested.

Findings

The results of this paper demonstrate that demographic factors only indirectly influence intention to use retail self‐checkouts through consumer traits and thus the authors conclude that individual differences in the use of retail self‐checkouts can be attributed to consumer traits which are determined by some of the demographic factors.

Research limitations/implications

Demographic factors and consumer traits are only included as determinants of intention to use retail self‐checkouts. Therefore, future research could attempt to draw a comprehensive picture of retail self‐checkouts by incorporating other relevant factors.

Originality/value

By classifying individual difference traits into demographic factors and consumer traits, this paper provides more detailed explanations of the relationships among demographic factors, consumer traits, and intention to use retail self‐checkouts.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Cheng Wang, Jennifer Harris and Paul G. Patterson

The purpose of this paper is to explore situational influences on customers' actual choice between self‐service and personal service and to examine the impact of past…

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12124

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore situational influences on customers' actual choice between self‐service and personal service and to examine the impact of past experiences on self‐service technology (SST) attitudes and behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

A supermarket self‐checkout machine is the SST under investigation. A mixed qualitative research design was used and a total of 209 observations and 47 interviews were obtained from customers in five supermarket stores in Australia.

Findings

Perceived waiting time, perceived task complexity, and companion influence are the three situational factors that impact on a customer's actual choice between self‐service and personal service. Past experiences influence SST attitudes and behavior in a more complex manner than SST characteristics and other individual difference variables.

Research limitations/implications

The findings may not be generalizable to internet‐ or telephone‐based SST contexts.

Practical implications

By understanding what factors affect a customer's choice, better strategies can be developed to manage and coordinate multiple service delivery options. The findings also highlight the importance of preventing frequent failure and providing speedy recovery in the SST context.

Originality/value

This paper goes beyond SST attitudes/intentions and focuses on the moderating effect of situational factors on a customer's actual SST behavior. It also examines the impact of focal product and product‐norm experiences on SST attitudes and behavior.

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Hafida Boudkouss and Souad Djelassi

The purpose of this research is twofold: (1) to identify and understand consumer motivations to use interactive technologies in stores through the lens of the uses and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is twofold: (1) to identify and understand consumer motivations to use interactive technologies in stores through the lens of the uses and gratifications (UGT) approach and (2) to understand how these gratifications differ between different interactive technologies (interactive kiosks and self-checkouts).

Design/methodology/approach

This research presents a dual qualitative study based on 32 in-depth interviews with 20 consumers, eight salespersons and four phygital experts.

Findings

The data analysis identified three specific gratifications sought in using interactive kiosks (information-seeking, hedonic and social interaction) and two gratifications common to both interactive kiosks and self-checkouts (control and time-saving).

Originality/value

From a media perspective (UGT), this research provides a deeper understanding of gratifications sought in using interactive technologies in a phygital store. It also contributes significantly to previous research by highlighting that gratifications differ between different technology types.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 49 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Hyun-Joo Lee

The purpose of this paper is to understand the underlying mechanism of how consumer-to-store employee and consumer-to-self-service technology (SST) interaction qualities…

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3486

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the underlying mechanism of how consumer-to-store employee and consumer-to-self-service technology (SST) interaction qualities contribute to consumer retail patronage.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 300 surveys for each type of in-store kiosk were used for the data analysis. The proposed model was analysed using structural equation modelling.

Findings

This study suggests a direct link from SST usage frequency to perception of SST service quality. Also, retail patronage intentions were positively influenced by both interpersonal service quality and SST service quality, and SST usage intentions were positively affected by retail patronage intentions. Lastly, three causal links were shown to be dissimilar between the two types of in-store kiosk: interpersonal service quality-retail patronage intentions, SST service quality-retail patronage intentions, and SST service quality-SST usage intentions. The remaining links were similar for both types of in-store kiosks.

Originality/value

Previous empirical work on this topic has mostly been limited to investigations of service quality of either a human- or a technology-based service option. In contrast, the current study incorporates both interpersonal service quality and SST service quality as critical factors affecting retail patronage intentions and thus provides an important opportunity to advance the understanding of consumer-to-store employee and consumer-to-SST interaction qualities and their contribution to consumer retail patronage.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 43 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2009

Hyun‐Joo Lee, Ann E. Fairhurst and Min‐Young Lee

The purpose of this study is to examine ways in which service quality delivered by self‐service kiosks influences consumers' retail patronage intentions.

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3970

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine ways in which service quality delivered by self‐service kiosks influences consumers' retail patronage intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

The model was tested in two self‐service kiosk settings: self‐checkout and information kiosk. Survey participants were members of a consumer panel from an online survey agent. A total of 1,230 e‐mails were distributed. Of these, 600 usable surveys were used for data analysis. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The study demonstrates that service quality delivered by self‐service kiosks is a direct and an indirect determinant of consumers' retail patronage intentions; service quality delivered by self‐service kiosks directly influences consumers' retail patronage intentions and also indirectly influences consumers' retail patronage intentions through three dimensions of retail service quality (i.e. reliability, personal interaction, and problem solving).

Originality/value

Compared with previous studies that were heavily focused on consumer acceptance or trial of self‐service technologies, the study attempts to address formerly unexplored aspects of self‐service kiosks' contribution to retail patronage. A second contribution of the study which makes it different from prior studies that were mostly conducted in the context of self‐checkouts is that it tests a conceptual model related to two types of self‐service kiosks (i.e. self‐checkout and information kiosk) to examine whether the proposed relationships are similar or dissimilar across the two types.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Ipek Kazancoglu and Emel Kursunluoglu Yarimoglu

The purpose of this paper is to predict customers’ intentions to use self-checkouts based on the technology acceptance model (TAM).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to predict customers’ intentions to use self-checkouts based on the technology acceptance model (TAM).

Design/methodology/approach

The questionnaire consisted of constructs taken from the existing literature such as perceived ease of use (PEU), perceived usefulness (PU), behavioral intentions, technology anxiety (TA), perceived risk (PR), need for interaction (NI), and situational factors (SF). Before preparing the questionnaire, the focus group studies were organized to gain deeper insights regarding customers’ views about self-checkouts. Based on the results of the focus groups, some items in the constructs were adapted, and the questionnaire was generated. The field study was conducted via face-to-face survey with 500 customers chosen by stratified random sampling. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to validate the relationships hypothesized in the conceptual model among constructs.

Findings

Out of the 16 hypotheses, 10 were found to be significant. The hypotheses related to the effects of PR, PEU, PU, intentions, while the effects of NI on PU and intentions; the effects of SF on intentions were not accepted in the study. According to the findings, PEU, PU, and TA affected intentions whereas PR, NI, and SF did not.

Research limitations/implications

There were some limitations related to demographics, attitudes, SF, and actual usage of self-checkouts.

Practical implications

To avoid queues, retailers should install a sufficient number of user-friendly and simple interfaced self-checkouts with well-trained employees to encourage usage and reduce the perceived risk and anxiety.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this study was that the effects of different constructs were measured on Turkish customers’ intentions to use self-checkouts, which could be used in formulating marketing strategies as well as considering future research directions. The paper also provided additional insights into the effects of SF, TA, NI, and PR, all of which were added to the TAM in this study.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Katja Gelbrich and Britta Sattler

The purpose of this paper is to propose and to test a model that illustrates the impact of technology anxiety on the intention to use a self-service technology (SST) in…

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4255

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and to test a model that illustrates the impact of technology anxiety on the intention to use a self-service technology (SST) in public. The study includes two context variables that are relevant in public settings: perceived crowding and perceived time pressure.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional survey was conducted to reflect individual perceptions and intentions when initially using a self-checkout. The proposed relationships and interaction effects were examined using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The analysis confirms the core relationships of the model (technology self-efficacy→technology anxiety→perceived ease of use→ intention to use) and yields three important results. First, technology anxiety has a direct negative effect on intention to use, which is greater than the indirect effect through the reduction of ease of use. Second, perceived crowding reinforces the negative effect of technology anxiety. Third, when perceived crowding coincides with perceived time pressure, technology anxiety almost completely inhibits the intention to use the SST in public.

Research limitations/implications

Technology anxiety is examined as the only antecedent of perceived ease of use.

Practical implications

Initial encounters to public self-service technologies should be provided in servicescapes that avoid or at least reduce perceptions of crowding and time pressure.

Originality/value

The approach highlights the impact of technology anxiety on the acceptance of self-service technologies used in public by considering two context variables that are salient in public settings: perceived crowding and perceived time pressure.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2020

Bertrand Audrin

The purpose of this paper is to explore the implementation of self-service technologies (SST) in two competitors and unravel the process of change in two related setups…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the implementation of self-service technologies (SST) in two competitors and unravel the process of change in two related setups, offering a comparison as well as an association of cases.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on two extensive case studies of SST adoption by leading retailers in a Western European country. The analysis is based on a material-discursive approach using Greimas actantial model to identify actors’ roles in the implementation process.

Findings

Results highlight the key role of technology and organizational identity as legitimizers of the change process. The findings also emphasize the role of competition in justifying change.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the specific situation of the market in the country of study (both retailers share 70 percent of the grocery market), this research offers a textbook example of the role of competition in technological change. This helps to understand the role of competition in technological change.

Originality/value

This study explores the implementation of SST in two competitors and unravels the process of change in two related setups, offering a comparison as well as an association of cases.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2008

Dwane H. Dean

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of shopper age on attitudes toward and use of retail self‐service technology (SST). The age variable has received…

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7161

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of shopper age on attitudes toward and use of retail self‐service technology (SST). The age variable has received relatively little attention in the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaire responses from three age groups are compared. Also, cluster analysis is used to group subjects based on similarity in attitudes toward and use of SST.

Findings

Compared to younger consumers, older consumers had experience with fewer types of SSTs, less confidence in using SST, reported missing human interaction to a greater degree, used self‐checkout less often when the option was available, were less willing to pay a premium for express checkout, and were more likely to attribute a corporate self‐interest for the introduction of SST. For the total sample of 718 subjects, 40 percent reported using store self‐checkout 15 percent of the time or less when the option was available. Only 25 percent of subjects reported using automated store checkout on more than half of their shopping occasions.

Research limitations/implications

Only eight types of SST were studied and only one technology was investigated in depth.

Practical implications

Based on the findings of this study, four managerial actions are recommended that may potentially increase traffic throughput at automated retail checkout.

Originality/value

This is believed to be the first study to find significant differences among age groups on multiple dependent variables associated with SST. Also, the identification of consumer clusters based on attitudes toward and use of SST may be novel.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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