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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2003

Clive Fletcher and Caroline Bailey

Multi‐source processes have been increasingly adopted by organisations in recent years and most projections suggest this trend will continue. As a developmental technique…

Abstract

Multi‐source processes have been increasingly adopted by organisations in recent years and most projections suggest this trend will continue. As a developmental technique, one underlying rationale to such systems is their potential impact on target managers’ self‐awareness; increasing self awareness is thought to enhance performance. The main theme of this paper relates to the potential of 360‐degree assessment for yielding measures of self‐awareness and the different ways of deriving indices of this variable. The relationship between self‐awareness indices and measures of performance are discussed in light of research findings. It is concluded that different self‐awareness measures used in the research literature are not equivalent, and may have differential relationships to performance. It is argued that self‐awareness should be assessed in selection and other settings using a variety of methods, not necessarily utilizing the kinds of measures typically associated with multi‐source feedback systems.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Kirk Chang, Sylvain Max and Jérémy Celse

Employee’s lying behavior has become ubiquitous at work, and managers are keen to know what can be done to curb such behavior. Managers often apply anti-lying strategies…

Abstract

Purpose

Employee’s lying behavior has become ubiquitous at work, and managers are keen to know what can be done to curb such behavior. Managers often apply anti-lying strategies in their management and, in particular, the role of self-awareness on lying intervention has drawn academic attention recently. Drawing on multi-disciplinary literature, this study aims to investigate the efficacy of self-awareness in reducing lying behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Following the perspectives of positivism and deductive reasoning, a quasi-experimental research approach was adopted. Employees from Dijon, France were recruited as research participants. Based on the literature, different conditions (scenario manipulation) were designed and implemented in the laboratory, in which participants were exposed to pre-set lying opportunities and their responses were analyzed accordingly.

Findings

Unlike prior studies which praised the merits of self-awareness, the authors found that self-awareness did not decrease lying behavior, not encouraging the confession of lying either. Employees actually lied more when they believed other employees were lying.

Practical implications

This study suggests managers not to rely on employee’s self-awareness; rather, the concept of self-awareness should be incorporated into the work ethics, and managers should schedule regular workshops to keep employees informed of the importance of ethics. When employees are regularly reminded of the ethics and appreciate its importance, their intention of lying is more likely to decrease.

Originality/value

To the best of the atuhors’ knowledge, the current research is the first in its kind to investigate lying intervention of employees in the laboratory setting. Research findings have brought new insights into the lying intervention literature, which has important implication on the implementation of anti-lying strategies.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2021

Chin-Ching Yin, Yi-Ching Hsieh, Hung-Chang Chiu and Jhih-Ling Yu

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, this study applies social presence theory to explore the influences of public self-awareness on consumers’ choice…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, this study applies social presence theory to explore the influences of public self-awareness on consumers’ choice inconsistency and post-choice satisfaction. Second, the authors investigate how time pressure moderates the effects of self-awareness on choice inconsistency and post-choice satisfaction so that online sellers can better align their marketing strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

This research consists of two studies. Study 1 conducted a 3 (self-awareness: public/private/control) × 2 (time pressure: high/none) experiment, and 311 online participants were recruited to explore the influence of public self-awareness and time pressure. Study 2 used a 3 (self-awareness: public/private/control) × 2 (time pressure: high/no) × 2 (self-consciousness: high/low) quasi-experiments, and the authors used 652 online participants to examine the effect of self-awareness, time pressure and public self-consciousness on choice inconsistency and post-choice satisfaction.

Findings

The results indicate that publicly self-aware consumers under high time pressure show greater inconsistency than those under no time pressure. Also, people with higher public self-consciousness exhibited higher choice inconsistency and post-choice satisfaction in public self-awareness situations than those in private self-awareness and control conditions.

Research limitations/implications

To generalize the results, this study should be replicated using more heterogeneous populations in diverse regions and cultures, as well as other product categories.

Practical implications

This study explores the implications of evoking self-awareness during online consumption and the online purchase process by observing the moderating effect of self-consciousness and time pressure. The findings provide insights to marketing practitioners who seek to increase their companies’ competitive advantage and profits through effective online manipulations of consumers’ self-awareness.

Originality/value

Extant research does not address how time pressure affects the relationships among public self-awareness, choice inconsistency and post-choice satisfaction. In addition, prior research only focused on public self-awareness in customer consumption. This study bridges these gaps and has implications for e-commerce, consumer behavior and relationship marketing research fields.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Alma M. McCarthy and Thomas N. Garavan

Proposes that a crucial component of the career development process is what is termed “managerial self‐awareness” (MSA). To‐date relatively little has been written about…

Abstract

Proposes that a crucial component of the career development process is what is termed “managerial self‐awareness” (MSA). To‐date relatively little has been written about self‐awareness, particularly in the literature on managerial career development. Specifically explores the concept of self‐awareness in the context of managerial career development. The importance of self‐awareness in the managerial career development processes is examined and the relationship between self‐awareness and managerial success is also considered. The findings of a qualitative study conducted to investigate the effectiveness of two instruments used to enhance self‐awareness are reported. One of the characteristics of effective managerial career development is the creation of self‐awareness in the learner. 360‐degree feedback and personality inventories are considered useful tools in this respect.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 23 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Anna Sutton, Helen M Williams and Christopher W Allinson

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether self-awareness, which is associated with general well-being and positive life outcomes, is also of specific benefit in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether self-awareness, which is associated with general well-being and positive life outcomes, is also of specific benefit in the workplace. The authors tested the relationship between self-awareness and job-related well-being, and evaluated two different interventions designed to improve dispositional self-awareness at work.

Design/methodology/approach

Full-time employees took part in these training interventions and completed questionnaires using a switching-replications design. Questionnaires measured dispositional self-attentiveness (reflection and rumination) and job well-being (satisfaction, enthusiasm and contentment) at three time points over a period of six weeks. Statistical analyses were complemented with qualitative analysis of reported impacts.

Findings

Self-awareness was positively associated with job-related well-being and was improved by training. Employees reported gaining a greater appreciation of diversity, improved communication with colleagues and increased confidence.

Research limitations/implications

Sample size limited the extent to which the relatively weak relationships between the concepts could be identified.

Practical implications

Self-awareness is demonstrated to be of value at work, associated with higher well-being and improvements in several positive occupational outcomes. The self-awareness training is more likely to result in active work-based improvements than in reflective changes.

Originality/value

Dispositional self-awareness is shown to be subject to change through training. The study demonstrates the value of self-awareness at work and identifies a range of related work outcomes.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 39 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2007

Mike Young and Victor Dulewicz

This paper aims to present some findings from a wider study into effective command, leadership and management in the British Royal Navy (RN). Its aim is to increase…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present some findings from a wider study into effective command, leadership and management in the British Royal Navy (RN). Its aim is to increase understanding of two types of self‐awareness, emotional and congruent, and their relationship to job performance and personality.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consisted of 261 Officers and Ratings in the Royal Navy. Performance was established through the organisation's own rigorous appraisal process, while personality and competency data were gathered through the use of the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ) and the Leadership Dimensions Questionnaire (LDQ). Two difference measures were computed to assess the congruence of self‐other assessment (d1) and degree of under‐ or over‐rating (d2).

Findings

The results demonstrate that self‐evaluation of own performance (from LDQ) was significantly correlated with appraised (actual) performance. Hierarchical regression showed that both d scales explain significant variance in appraised performance, especially the d2 measure which accounted for 47 per cent. The findings establish the first empirical relationship between congruent/public (self‐evaluation) and emotional/private (self‐consciousness) self‐awareness and performance.

Research limitations/implications

Measures of self‐awareness were derived from the three data sets described, not from a separate measure. The findings relate to a single organisation and need to be replicated more widely.

Practical implications/implications

The results of this study suggest that emotional/private and congruent/public self‐awareness are related to each other and that the latter is significantly related to effective performance. The findings have implications for manager and officer assessment, selection and development.

Originality/value

Given the broad employment contexts of previous studies into external/congruent and internal/emotional self‐awareness and performance, the findings and improvement applications discussed in this paper could have practical implications for many other organisations.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Cam Caldwell and Linda A. Hayes

The purpose of this paper is to identify the relationships between self-efficacy and self-awareness and the moral obligations of leaders in understanding and developing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the relationships between self-efficacy and self-awareness and the moral obligations of leaders in understanding and developing these personal qualities. As leaders strive for excellence, self-efficacy and self-awareness can empower them to unlock their own potential and the potential of their organizations and those with whom they work.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper integrates research of self-efficacy and self-awareness as they pertain to ethical leadership and presents six propositions that increase leadership effectiveness, create value for the organization, and develop leaders considered my trusted by others.

Findings

The authors argue that greater understanding of self-efficacy and self-awareness is important for individual growth and can enable ethical leaders to empower themselves, their colleagues, and the organization in which they work.

Research limitations/implications

This research presents six propositions concerning self-efficacy and self-awareness and their influence on effective leadership that can be tested in future research. The ethically based nature of self-efficacy and self-awareness merits additional academic research and practitioner application.

Practical implications

This paper provides valuable insights to scholars and practitioners by proposing six propositions that will allow leaders to increase their effectiveness and add value to the organization.

Social implications

Ethical leaders add value by continuously improving themselves. Ethical leaders owe it to others and themselves to be more effective through a greater understanding of self-efficacy and self-awareness.

Originality/value

Self-efficacy and self-awareness are moral duties associated with the identities of leaders and important for leaders in understanding their own capabilities and identities. Greater knowledge of self-efficacy and self-awareness can enable ethical leaders to be more effective and create value.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 35 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Frank Shipper, Joel Kincaid, Denise M. Rotondo and Richard C. Hoffman

Multinationals increasingly require a cadre of skilled managers to effectively run their global operations. This exploratory study examines the relationship between…

Abstract

Multinationals increasingly require a cadre of skilled managers to effectively run their global operations. This exploratory study examines the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and managerial effectiveness among three cultures. EI is conceptualized and measured as self‐other agreement concerning the use of managerial skills using data gathered under a 360‐degree feedback process. Three hypotheses relating to managerial self‐awareness of both interactive and controlling skills are examined using data from 3,785 managers of a multinational firm located in the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), and Malaysia. The two sets of managerial skills examined were found to be stable across the three national samples. The hypotheses were tested using polynomial regressions, and contour plots were developed to aid interpretation. Support was found for positive relationships between effectiveness and EI (self‐awareness). This relationship was supported for interactive skills in the US and UK samples and for controlling skills in the Malaysian and UK samples. Self‐awareness of different managerial skills varied by culture. It appears that in low power distance (PD) cultures such as the United States and United Kingdom, self‐awareness of interactive skills may be crucial relative to effectiveness whereas in high PD cultures, such as Malaysia self‐awareness of controlling skills may be crucial relative to effectiveness. These findings are discussed along with the implications for future research.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Eleanor Lawrence, Maggie W. Dunn and Suri Weisfeld-Spolter

The purpose of this paper is to present an innovative, research-based approach for stimulating self-awareness, reflection and intentional leadership development and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an innovative, research-based approach for stimulating self-awareness, reflection and intentional leadership development and address a call from the academic and business community to educate and prepare graduate students for leadership in contemporary complex workplaces. Building on previous research findings and recommendations, the authors suggest that leadership potential is understood and facilitated through leadership assessment, increased self-awareness and faculty coach-supported reflection and development planning by MBA students. Based on three key constructs in leadership development, a conceptual model depicts the approach to developing potential leaders at this juncture in their professional development.

Design/methodology/approach

New MBA students completed a leadership potential assessment instrument designed to target areas for focused leadership development throughout their MBA program and beyond. The assessment process is followed by faculty coach-supported reflection and development planning as an assignment during the students’ MBA orientation course. To explore the impact of this innovative approach to accelerating the development of leadership potential, reflection papers from students who completed the process were analyzed. Data analysis consisted of content coding with an inter-rater reliability of 0.99 to classify the responses into four key categories. Survey data were also collected from 504 MBA students who attended an on-campus orientation course to measure students’ increasing understanding and awareness of the value of the leadership development opportunity.

Findings

Quantitative and qualitative results provide initial support for this approach to developing leadership potential. Results suggest that the integrative model stimulates a process of awareness, reflection and intentional development, and supports the identification and pursuit of goal-directed learning opportunities throughout students’ MBA program.

Originality/value

Graduate business school students are at a leadership inflection point in their trajectory as leaders. Business colleges play a key role in closing the leadership gap during the development cycle of the students’ MBA program. The innovative approach in this paper, which facilitates self-awareness, reflection and intentional leadership development, offers a model for business colleges exploring how to foster these necessary leadership insights and capabilities.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

Self-awareness was positively associated with job-related well-being and was improved by training. Employees reported gaining a greater appreciation of diversity, improved communication with colleagues and increased confidence.

Practical implications

The paper provides strategic insights and practical thinking that have influenced some of the world’s leading organizations.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to-digest format.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

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