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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Fred Luthans and Suzanne J. Peterson

Although technology still dominates, human resources and how they are managed is receiving increased attention in the analysis of gaining competitive advantage. Yet, many…

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Abstract

Although technology still dominates, human resources and how they are managed is receiving increased attention in the analysis of gaining competitive advantage. Yet, many complex questions remain. This study first examines the theoretical understanding of employee engagement. Then an empirical investigation is made of the role that a wide variety of managers’ (n = 170) psychological state of selfefficacy plays in the relationship between their employees’ (average of about 16 per manager) measured engagement and a multiple measure (self, subordinates and peers) of the managers’ effectiveness. Results of the statistical analysis indicate that the manager’s selfefficacy is a partial mediator of the relationship between his or her employees’ engagement and the manager’s rated effectiveness. Overall, these findings suggest that both employee engagement and manager selfefficacy are important antecedents that together may more positively influence manager effectiveness than either predictor by itself. Implications for effective management development and practice are discussed.

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Journal of Management Development, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2018

Paul Lyons and Randall Bandura

This viewpoint demonstrates the importance and significance of individual self-efficacy beliefs and perceptions with regard to performance and in relation to self

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1977

Abstract

Purpose

This viewpoint demonstrates the importance and significance of individual self-efficacy beliefs and perceptions with regard to performance and in relation to self-regulated learning. The concept of self-efficacy has been widely researched and reported mainly in academic journals. This viewpoint aims to clearly explain the concept and its formation, give some details of its relationship with performance and persistence in effort, and present some specific advice for managers and supervisors pertaining to guiding and assisting employees.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is built upon the following: a thorough review of the literature regarding the topic of self-efficacy, the practical experience of the authors in mentoring and supervising employees, and a desire to offer specific, helpful advice to managers/supervisors in enhancing and stimulating employee self-efficacy and personal learning.

Findings

The body of research across several domains, such as business, education (mostly pre-college), psychology, and athletics, clearly reveals that personal self-efficacy beliefs/perceptions can be highly motivational with regard to performance and improvement in learning tactics and strategies. This study finds that little attention has been given to advising managers/supervisors in assisting employees to enhance personal self-efficacy, hence the effort to provide direct advice.

Originality/value

There have been a few attempts to link self-efficacy with self-regulated learning. Both concepts are valuable when it comes to individual effectiveness in performance and in one’s personal growth; and this study highlights the coordination between the two. Originality and value are represented in the advice offered for managers/supervisors using the ordered, process steps of self-regulated learning as an organizing basis.

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Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

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Article
Publication date: 21 January 2022

Alexandra Papaioannou, Ioanna Papavassiliou-Alexiou and Sofia Moutiaga

This paper investigates the levels of career resilience and self-efficacy of the principals of primary school units, identifies the relationship between them and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the levels of career resilience and self-efficacy of the principals of primary school units, identifies the relationship between them and determines the effect of the demographic elements of the sample on their career resilience and self-efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

The convenient sample of this study was 165 principals from public schools across the prefecture of Central Macedonia. A total of 422 questionnaires were mailed to all principals of kindergarten and elementary schools, accompanied by a personal letter to inform them about the procedure and the purpose of the survey. A pilot survey took place to check the adequacy of and get feedback on the questionnaire. The questionnaire used in the study consisted of three parts: The Career Resilience Scale (CRS) by Kodama (2015), the Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES) by Tschannen-Moran and Gareis (2004) and demographic questions.

Findings

The results of the survey showed that principals have high levels of career resilience and very high levels of self-efficacy. There are four factors that form the levels of career resilience: (a) problem-solving skills (b) social skills (c) interest in innovation and (d) optimism for the future. Demographic factors play a role in shaping career resilience as they affect two of the four factors. There are two factors that shape levels of self-efficacy: (a) self-efficiency in administration and (b) self-efficiency in moral leadership. Demographic factors play a role in shaping the factor of self-efficacy that refers to administration. Finally, there was a high positive correlation and a causal relationship between career resilience and self-efficacy.

Research limitations/implications

The convenient sample used in the present study is a limiting factor, as it may not be representative of Greek primary school principals. Also, research is based on self-evaluation questionnaires, which may show a lack of objectivity, as the answers may reflect the personal worldviews of leaders and particular needs of educational institutions (Sarid, 2021). This fact may not allow us to generalize the results.

Practical implications

The present study showed that resilience and self-efficacy have a causal relationship and that one enhances another, making their relation pivotal for a successful educational leadership. Regarding the professional development of school leaders, educational leadership training programs could be designed and offered by the Greek Ministry of Education (Dexter et al., 2020). Coaching programs and practices that help principals develop social skills, coping mechanisms, emotional capacities and confidence in one's knowledge should be widely introduced. Governments have to take the necessary initiative to ensure that, particularly in adverse contexts, education stimulate and nurture resilience and self-efficacy among citizens, by promoting appropriate lifelong learning programs and by ensuring the continuous training of employees (Renko et al., 2020).

Social implications

Career resilience and self-efficacy ensures economic prosperity in times of crisis, globalization and rapid technology development and may be the best way to create strong and successful leaders. Coaching programs and practices that help principals develop social skills, coping mechanisms, emotional capacities and confidence in one's knowledge should be widely introduced. The results of the present research could prove helpful in developing strategic plans, building networks between organizations to improve communication and flow of information, through employee exchange programs.

Originality/value

This research, which combined career resilience and self-efficacy, took place for the first time in Greece. The CRS by Kodama (2015) was also used for the first time in Greek population.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 3 December 2021

Tuan Mastiniwati Tuan Mansor, Akmalia Mohamad Ariff, Hafiza Aishah Hashim and Abdul Hafaz Ngah

This study aims to examine the roles of perceived organisational support (POS), attitude and self-efficacy in understanding the external whistleblowing intentions among…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the roles of perceived organisational support (POS), attitude and self-efficacy in understanding the external whistleblowing intentions among senior auditors through the lens of stimulus–organism–response theory.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses data from 119 senior auditors in audit firms in Malaysia. POS is predicted to be a stimulus factor from the external environment that affects the attitude and self-efficacy (organism) of the auditors and reassures them to act to whistleblow (response).

Findings

POS has a significant impact on self-efficacy and on attitude. Self-efficacy is shown as a significant mediator between POS and external whistleblowing intentions, but there is no statistical support for self-efficacy having a mediating effect on the relationship between the attitude of senior auditors and external whistleblowing intentions.

Practical implications

The findings can assist accounting professional bodies in understanding the psychological behaviours of auditors that contribute to their intention to shine a light on wrongdoing in audit firms and in providing a better insight into the critical factors that could influence auditors to whistleblow.

Originality/value

This study is among the earliest to investigate the application of stimulus–organism–response theory in whistleblowing, and hence it illustrates how the theory can be applied in studies on the ethical behaviours of actors in professional careers. The findings shed light on the role of self-efficacy as a significant mediator between POS and external whistleblowing intentions.

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Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2021

Songmee Kim, Seyoon Jang, Woojin Choi, Chorong Youn and Yuri Lee

“Contactless service” refers to the use of technology in providing products or services without a salesperson. This study explores the mechanism underlying Millennial and…

Abstract

Purpose

“Contactless service” refers to the use of technology in providing products or services without a salesperson. This study explores the mechanism underlying Millennial and Generation Z (M/Z generations) consumers' preference for contactless service over salespersons in retail stores. In addition, this study tests differences between the M/Z generations.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers predict characteristics to be antecedents of young consumer's preference for contactless service over salespersons and that the effects are mediated by technology self-efficacy. Next, a moderating variable (perceived consumer conformity) is added in the path between technology self-efficacy and the preference for contactless service. The hypotheses are tested among 142 Gen Z and 137 Millennial respondents.

Findings

The results show that M/Z generations’ characteristics significantly influence the preference for contactless service, except for security seeking. Also, interests in new technology and safety seeking are perceived higher by M/Z generations. The influence of technology self-efficacy on the preference for contactless service is moderated by social conformity.

Originality/value

As retail technology rapidly develops, the service industry is expected to change from the past, where salespersons played an important role, to contactless services. This study has academic and practical values, for the authors clarify the underlying psychological mechanisms of why young consumers prefer retail technology rather than communication with salespersons.

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Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Dena Hale, Ramendra Thakur, John Riggs and Suzanne Altobello

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a scale to determine the consumer’s level of decision-making self-efficacy for a high-involved service purchase…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a scale to determine the consumer’s level of decision-making self-efficacy for a high-involved service purchase, specifically the purchase of medical insurance. One question to ask is how service providers can help consumers purchase the services that best meet their needs? Before interventions can occur, it is necessary to benchmark consumers’ perceptions of their own decision-making control and abilities.

Design/methodology/approach

A scale that measures consumers’ service decision-making self-efficacy was developed using the principles established for scale development validation. A four-study approach was used to reach the research objective.

Findings

The research consisted of four studies designed to: generate items to measure consumer service decision-making self-efficacy (CSDMSE); purify the scale and assess its dimensionality (second-order structure); establish the reliability and validity of the scale; and establish norms to provide details on its usefulness for aiding consumers with service purchases. The scale was found to be a higher-order construct, comprising three lower-order constructs.

Originality/value

Research suggests that consumer self-efficacy may affect their decision-making. The greater the consumer’s self-efficacy for decision-making tasks, the more efficient the decision-making process strategies are expected to be. This is the purpose for which the CSDMSE scale measure was created: to understand how, where and when service professionals can assist consumers with making appropriate service-related decisions and purchases.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2021

Philippe Chereau and Pierre-Xavier Meschi

This study explores the relationship between intense exposure to entrepreneurship education and training (EET), defined as the deliberate practice of entrepreneurial…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the relationship between intense exposure to entrepreneurship education and training (EET), defined as the deliberate practice of entrepreneurial learning, and self-efficacy, for entrepreneurs in the post-creation stage. When analyzing this relationship, we account for individuals' entrepreneurial experience gained through parental ties with entrepreneurs as a moderating variable. In doing so, our research aims to contribute to the literature on the relationship between EET and entrepreneurial self-efficacy in several ways. First, we address the relationship by bridging the gap between intention and action in the context of actual entrepreneurs engaged in the early stages of their new ventures. In doing so and drawing on the theory of planned behavior, we complement the important stream of research on entrepreneurial intention by highlighting antecedents of entrepreneurial self-efficacy in the post-creation stage. Second, when analyzing the relationship between EET and self-efficacy for actual entrepreneurs, we approach EET as a deliberate practice of voluntary exposure to new entrepreneurial knowledge. Third, we provide new insights into the EET–self-efficacy relationship by exploring the moderating effect of entrepreneurial vicarious learning and, more specifically, the individual's embeddedness in an entrepreneurial parental environment. Finally, drawing from Kirkpatrick's (1959a, b, 1960a, b, 1996) reference framework on training and education evaluation, we provide empirical observations of EET outcomes evaluated in the later (“behavior” and “results”) stages.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the theory of planned behavior as well as role modeling and absorptive capacity, we develop hypotheses that we examine using a sample of 76 French entrepreneurs who have created new ventures since less than five years.

Findings

The results show no significant direct influence of the intensity of EET on the different dimensions used to measure entrepreneurial self-efficacy. However, we find that entrepreneurial parental environment and non-entrepreneurial parental environment constitute two distinct moderating learning contexts leading to opposite EET intensity–self-efficacy relationships.

Originality/value

Our research has several implications for both scholars and practitioners. From a theoretical standpoint, we extend the debate on direct and vicarious experiences and their respective impact on self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977; Baron and Henry, 2010). In the context of actual entrepreneurs in the post-creation stage, our results neither support nor invalidate the superiority of one specific type of experience. In our research, vicarious experience appears fully effective when interacted with other sources of learning such as EET. As such, theoretical attention should shift from the stand-alone effect of vicarious experience on self-efficacy to its fostering effect on other learning sources. Rather than opposing these two (direct and vicarious) types of experiences, future research should theorize their joint effect on entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Moreover, in showing the importance of entrepreneurial parental environment, our research responds to the call to further study the contingent factors enhancing the impact of EET (and deliberate practice of entrepreneurial learning) on entrepreneurial self-efficacy (Fayolle and Gailly, 2015; Litzky et al., 2020; Rideout and Gray, 2013). From a practical standpoint, our results help formulate recommendations on how to design EET programs to enhance nascent and actual entrepreneurs' self-efficacy. Given the central role of an entrepreneurial parental environment in developing self-efficacy, we suggest that, in addition to teaching traditional entrepreneurial academic content, EET programs should allow students to vicariously experience the entrepreneur's curriculum through in-depth role modeling. More precisely, this role modeling should go beyond mere testimonials and engage students in trusted, intense, repeated interactions with inspiring instructors, both entrepreneurs and lecturers, to create and activate the fostering conditions of an entrepreneurial (parental) environment. In simulating quasi-parental role modeling within EET programs, academic institutions can contextualize the positive impact of EET on entrepreneurial venturing.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Peter Knight, Karen Peesker and Claudia C. Mich

The purpose of this exploratory study is to investigate the impact of sales education on recent graduates' career preparedness and understand how sales programs might…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this exploratory study is to investigate the impact of sales education on recent graduates' career preparedness and understand how sales programs might prepare students better for successful sales careers. We investigate the known competencies leading to sales success that were, or were not, adequately developed by their university sales programs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected and analyzed qualitative data from in-depth interviews with a sample of 20 recent university sales graduates working in a sales career. Over 23 h of interviews were transcribed and analyzed via NVivo. Braun and Clarke’s (2006) framework was applied in this study to code the data.

Findings

The study identifies that while respondents are positive about their overall sales education and feel confident about their knowledge of the sales process, they are not always confident in their ability to deal with ambiguity and the unknown. This study revealed that constructs of self-leadership and career choice self-efficacy deserve further consideration as components of the university sales program curriculum.

Research limitations/implications

As with all exploratory research, there are limits to generalizability; however, this study revealed that the constructs of goal setting, self-leadership and self-knowledge hold promise for further study as a means to increase sales-related self-efficacy and career readiness.

Practical implications

Respondents were positive about their overall sales education experience but identified a need for more effective sales education in cold calling, prospecting and the inherent level of rejection to be prepared for inside sales positions in which sales graduates increasingly start their careers.

Social implications

Lower turnover and better educational preparedness of sales program graduates clearly will accrue socioeconomic benefits.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the impact of sales education on recent graduates’ career preparedness and the first study for this journal to focus on sales as an area of professional competency and related sales pedagogy. Further, the qualitative methodology, which is relatively unique in sales research, provides rich data that is particularly useful for exploratory research to help provide a structure for universities to strengthen their sales programs through targeted training to help students enhance self-leadership and career preparedness.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2021

Fayez Ahmad and Francisco Guzmán

Despite skepticism, consumers rely on online reviews for their purchase decisions. However, academics mostly argue that skepticism has an inverse relationship with…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite skepticism, consumers rely on online reviews for their purchase decisions. However, academics mostly argue that skepticism has an inverse relationship with consumer decision-making. This study aims to investigate the relationship among skepticism, reliance and consumer purchase decisions in an online review context. It also investigates the moderating role of review self-efficacy and regulatory focus in the relationship between skepticism and reliance on online reviews.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey with a nationally representative sample and two experimental studies are conducted.

Findings

Skepticism negatively affects consumers’ reliance on online reviews and reliance on online reviews mediates the relationship between skepticism and review-based purchase decisions. High review self-efficacy participants tend to rely more on online reviews than low review self-efficacy participants. Promotion-focused people rely more on online reviews than prevention-focused people, despite similar levels of skepticism.

Research limitations/implications

The findings contribute to the skepticism, self-efficacy and regulatory focus literature. The general framework of the relationship among skepticism, reliance and purchase decision is also applicable in an online review context.

Originality/value

The results provide evidence of a stronger reliance on online reviews of high review self-efficacy and promotion-oriented consumers compared to low review self-efficacy and prevention-oriented consumers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2010

Robert M. Klassen and Ellen L. Usher

For half a century, psychologist Albert Bandura has worked to advance a cognitive interactional model of human functioning that emphasizes the role of cognitive and…

Abstract

For half a century, psychologist Albert Bandura has worked to advance a cognitive interactional model of human functioning that emphasizes the role of cognitive and symbolic representations as central processes in human adaptation and change. In his seminal 1977 publication, Bandura emphasized that these representations – visualized actions and outcomes stemming from reflective thought – form the basis from which individuals assess their personal efficacy. An efficacy belief, he contended, is the “conviction that one can successfully execute the behavior required to produce the outcomes” one desires (p. 193). Efficacy beliefs serve as the primary means by which people are able to exercise a measure of control over their lives. During the next two decades, Bandura (1986, 1997) advanced his social cognitive theory, in which people are viewed as self-organizing, proactive, self-reflecting, and self-regulating rather than as solely reactive organisms, products of environmental or concealed inner influences. From this agentic perspective, people are seen as contributors to their life circumstances, not just recipients of them. In this way, people are “partial architects of their own destinies” (Bandura, 1997, p. 8).

Details

The Decade Ahead: Theoretical Perspectives on Motivation and Achievement
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-111-5

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