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To evaluate the extent to which a person’s educational attainment moderates the relationship between his or her objective markers of health and self-rated health (SRH).
To evaluate the extent to which a person’s educational attainment moderates the relationship between his or her objective markers of health and self-rated health (SRH).
I use 10 years’ worth of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2009; N = 30,823) to examine how diagnosed medical conditions, health behaviors, and biomarkers are differentially associated with SRH by educational attainment. I use regression analysis to evaluate these relationships.
Results show that while medical conditions are negatively associated with SRH equally across education levels, behaviors and biomarkers have stronger association with SRH among individuals with greater education. Those with more education are more likely to have had their blood pressure and cholesterol checked in recent months. They are also more likely to correctly identify themselves as overweight when their body mass index exceeds 25.
The chapter’s findings indicate that education may play a role in how people interpret and evaluate their own health. Real differences in how people evaluate their health can impact the conclusions that researchers can draw when comparing SRH between education groups. In addition these results can motivate further research in the causes of health disparities. Self-evaluation of health can potentially influence how people monitor and manage their health. Differences in self-evaluation between levels of educational attainment could contribute to disparities in health and mortality.
This chapter examines the relationship between self-rated health, objective markers of health, and education in a novel framework.
Purpose: This study examines the relationship between marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction, as well as other contributing factors, in the lives of older American…
Purpose: This study examines the relationship between marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction, as well as other contributing factors, in the lives of older American adults.
Design/methodology/approach: Data from a restricted sample (N = 1,278) from the second wave of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) was analyzed. Regression models were used to examine associations with marital satisfaction.
Findings: Within ordinary least squares regression gender, education level, mental health, self-rated happiness, the absence of sexual quality, physical satisfaction, and emotional satisfaction were each statistically significant. Females reported higher marital satisfaction than males. Higher educated individuals expressed less satisfaction within their marriages than those with less formal education. Those that rated their mental health, happiness, and physical and emotional satisfaction high also reported higher marital satisfaction. Participants that reported an absence of sexual quality generally rated their marital satisfaction lower.
Originality/value: Most studies focus on the experiences of younger and middle-aged adults, often excluding older adults. Further, while there have been efforts to focus more research on the relationships of adults in midlife to late life, sexuality is still largely ignored.
A large extant literature examines the association between unemployment and self-rated health. Most of these studies reveal that unemployment diminishes self-rated health…
A large extant literature examines the association between unemployment and self-rated health. Most of these studies reveal that unemployment diminishes self-rated health. Another strand of this literature, albeit sparse, suggests that the relationship between unemployment and self-rated health is gendered. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to examine whether unemployment is correlated with self-rated health in Ghana; and second, to explore whether and to what extent men differ from women on the basis of this relationship.
The authors used data from the Wave 6 of World Values Survey in Ghana (n=1552) and probit and instrumental variable probit regressions to empirically examine the association between unemployment and self-rated health in Ghana.
The results confirm that unemployment is negatively correlated with self-rated health among Ghanaians. Specifically, the unemployed are about 6.84–7.20 percent less likely to report good health status in a pooled sample. Further, after correcting for endogeneity, unemployed men are about 26.68 percent less likely to report good health. However, the association is not statistically significant for unemployed women.
The study contributes to the literature by providing empirical evidence from Ghana.
Although established theoretical models suggest that race differences in physical health are partially explained by exposures to environmental toxins, there is little…
Although established theoretical models suggest that race differences in physical health are partially explained by exposures to environmental toxins, there is little empirical evidence to support these processes. We build on previous research by formally testing whether black–white differences in self-rated physical health are mediated by the embodiment of environmental toxins.
Using cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007–2008), we employ ordinary least squares regression to model environmental toxins (from urine specimens) and overall self-rated health as a function of race and ethnicity. We employ the Sobel test of indirect effects to formally assess mediation.
Our results show that non-Hispanic black respondents tend to exhibit higher levels of total toxins, lead, and cadmium in their urine and poorer physical health than non-Hispanic whites, even with adjustments for age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). Our mediation analyses suggest that blacks may exhibit poorer physical health than whites because they tend to embody higher levels of cadmium.
Research limitations include cross-sectional data and restricted indicators of SES.
Originality/Value of Paper
This study contributes to previous work by bridging the fields of social epidemiology and environmental inequality and by formally testing established theoretical models.
The purpose of this paper is to compare sickness presence (SP) and sickness absence (SA) regarding the strength of their relationship to health/ill‐health. In a previous…
The purpose of this paper is to compare sickness presence (SP) and sickness absence (SA) regarding the strength of their relationship to health/ill‐health. In a previous Canadian study a stronger association between SP and health/ill‐health than between SA and health/ill‐health was shown.
Five Swedish data sets from the years 1992 to 2005 provided the study populations, including both representative samples and specific occupational groups (n=425‐3,622). Univariate correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. The data sets contained questions on SP and SA as well as on various health complaints and, in some cases, self‐rated health (SRH).
The general trend was that correlations and odds ratios increased regularly for both SP and SA, with SP showing the highest values. In one data set, SRH was predicted by a combination of the two measures, with an explained variance of 25 percent. Stratified analyses showed that the more irreplaceable an individual is at work, the larger is the difference in correlation size between SP and SA with regard to SRH. SP also showed an accentuated and stronger association with SRH than SA among individuals reporting poor economic circumstances.
The results support the notion that SA is an insufficient, and even misleading, measure of health status for certain groups in the labor market, which seem to have poorer health than the measure of SA would indicate.
A combined measure of sickness presence and absence may be worth considering as an indicator of both individual and organizational health status.
Introduction. This study examined the association between self-rated physical and oral health, cigarette smoking, and history of criminal justice contact (i.e., never…
Introduction. This study examined the association between self-rated physical and oral health, cigarette smoking, and history of criminal justice contact (i.e., never arrested; arrested, but never incarcerated; or incarcerated in reform school, detention, jail, or prison) among African American men and women. Methods. We conducted descriptive statistical, linear regression, and multinomial regression analyses of the African American subsample (n = 3,570) from the National Survey of American Life (2001–2003). Results. Overall, African American women reported lower arrest rates and histories of incarceration than African American men. Additionally, we found that criminal justice contact was associated with lower self-rated physical health and oral health and higher levels of smoking for both men and women. African American women who had been arrested and detained in facilities other than jail had more chronic health problems than their male counterparts. Furthermore, having been arrested or spent time in a reform school, detention center, jail, or prison significantly increased the odds of African American men being a current smoker. Lastly, among African American women, those who had any level of criminal justice contact were likely to be current smokers and former smokers compared to those without a history of criminal justice contact. Conclusion. Addressing the health of African Americans with criminal justice contact is a critical step in reducing health disparities and improving the overall health and well-being of African American men and women. Furthermore, attention to differences by gender and specific types of criminal justice contact are important for a more precise understanding of these relationships.
This study tests the first two tenets of the fundamental causes theory – that socioeconomic status influences a variety of risk factors for poor health and that it affects…
This study tests the first two tenets of the fundamental causes theory – that socioeconomic status influences a variety of risk factors for poor health and that it affects multiple health outcomes – by examining the associations between adverse socioeconomic circumstances and five measures of health.
We employ bivariate and logistic regression analyses of data from the Centers Disease Control and Prevention 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) to test the individual and cumulative associations between three measures of socioeconomic position and five measures of health risk factors and outcomes.
The analysis demonstrates support for the fundamental causes theory, indicating that measures of adverse socioeconomic conditions have independent and cumulative associations with multiple health outcomes and risk factors among U.S. adults aged 18–64.
The findings of this chapter are generalizable to adults aged 18–64 living in the United States and may not apply to individuals living outside the United States, older Americans, and children.
Originality/value of chapter
Adverse socioeconomic circumstances are not only associated with self-rated health but are also associated with the two leading causes of death in the United States (cancer and heart disease) and risk factors that contribute to these causes of death (smoking and high blood pressure). Improving access to socioeconomic resources is critical to reducing health disparities in leading causes of death and health risk factors in the United States.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate general psychosocial work conditions and specific workplace health promotion (WHP) measures in relation to employee health and…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate general psychosocial work conditions and specific workplace health promotion (WHP) measures in relation to employee health and sickness absence in Swedish municipal social care organizations.
In a random sample of 60 out of the 290 municipalities in Sweden, 15,871 municipal social care employees working with elderly and disabled clients were sent a questionnaire concerning psychosocial work environment, WHP, and self-rated health. The responses (response rate 58.4 per cent) were complemented by register data on sickness absence (>14 days). All data were aggregated to employer level.
A structural equation modelling analysis using employer-level data demonstrated that employers with more favourable employee ratings of the psychosocial work conditions, as well as of specific health-promoting measures, had better self-rated health and lower sickness absence level among employees.
The results from this representative nationwide sample of employers within one sector indicate that employers can promote employee health both by offering various health-specific programmes and activities, such as work environment education, fitness activities, and lifestyle guidance, as well as by forming a high-quality work environment in general including developmental and supportive leadership styles, prevention of role conflicts, and a supportive and comfortable social climate.
This study with a representative nationwide sample demonstrates: results in line with earlier studies and explanations to the challenges in comparing effects from specific and general WHP interventions on health.
In this chapter, we investigate two-way causality between health and the hourly wage. We employ insights from the human capital and compensating wage differential models…
In this chapter, we investigate two-way causality between health and the hourly wage. We employ insights from the human capital and compensating wage differential models, a panel formed from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, and dynamic panel estimation methods in this investigation. We adopt plausible specifications in which a change in health induces a change in the wage with a lag and a change in the wage induces a change in health, also with a lag. We uncover a causal relationship between two of the five measures of health and the wage in which a reduction in health leads to an increase in the wage rate in a panel of US young adults who had completed their formal schooling by 2006 and were continuously employed from that year through 2011. There is no evidence of a causal relationship running from the wage rate to health in this panel. The former result highlights the multidimensional nature of health. It is consistent with an extension of the compensating wage differential model in which a large amount of effort in one period is required to obtain promotions and the wage increases that accompany them in subsequent periods. That effort may cause reductions in health and to a negative effect of health in the previous period on the current period wage. In this framework, employees have imperfect information about the effort requirements of a particular job when they are hired, and employers have imperfect information about the amount of effort new hirers are willing to exert. The result is also consistent with a model in which investments in career advancement compete with investments in health for time – the ultimate scarce resource. The lack of a causal effect of the wage on health may suggest that forces that go in opposite directions in the human capital and compensating wage differential models offset each other.
Nonstandard work schedules are increasingly common in today’s economy, and work during these nonstandard hours has a negative impact on health. Scholars investigating work…
Nonstandard work schedules are increasingly common in today’s economy, and work during these nonstandard hours has a negative impact on health. Scholars investigating work schedules have yet to explore how marital status, which is linked with better health, may protect the health of US workers with nonstandard schedules. This study uses binomial logistic regression models to analyze pooled data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 6,376). Interaction terms are utilized to test if marital status variations occur in the relationship between work schedule and health for men and women.
The results demonstrate that while working a nonstandard schedule puts men and women at a lower odds of reporting good health compared to those who work a standard schedule, there is no difference in this relationship across marital status for men. However, nonstandard schedules are worse for the health of cohabiting and divorced, separated, or widowed women than for married women. The results indicate a significant interaction between work schedule and marital status exists for female workers and should be considered when examining the health of the population with nonstandard work schedules.