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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent of financial fragility and its disparity across ethnic groups in Malaysia. Disparities related to income and wealth…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent of financial fragility and its disparity across ethnic groups in Malaysia. Disparities related to income and wealth are major concerns as they breed conflict and social instability. The study also compares the level of financial fragility of Malaysians with their neighboring Asian counterparts.
This study uses the World Values Survey to construct two financial fragility measures. Descriptive analysis is used to compare the level of financial fragility of Malaysia with other Asian countries. Ordinary least squares and generalized ordered logit regressions are applied to determine the existence of ethnic disparity in financial fragility in Malaysia.
There exist ethnic differences in financial vulnerability in Malaysia where Malay and Indian are in a more financially fragile situation compared to Chinese. Other socio-economic factors and character trait also impact financial fragility. Compared to neighboring countries, the level of financial fragility in Malaysia is low. Nevertheless, over 40 percent of the Malaysians are just getting by in terms of their expenditure relative to income. They may be at risk to financial shocks without adequate savings or funds.
Ethnic disparity in financial vulnerability added to the inequality in income and wealth can pose a serious threat to Malaysia which attempts to achieve long-lasting social harmony and sustainable development.
This is the first study that attempts to compare the level of individual financial fragility across Asian countries. It also makes use of a larger scale survey and a more representative sample to examine ethnic disparity in financial fragility in Malaysia. In addition, character trait is included in the analysis to provide a better understanding of human behavior in affecting financial outcomes.
This study aims to investigate the level of business exposure to corruption in Malaysia. The authors estimate the effect of bribe requests from business establishments by…
This study aims to investigate the level of business exposure to corruption in Malaysia. The authors estimate the effect of bribe requests from business establishments by public officials and identify the level of vulnerability of businesses to such requests.
This study uses firm-level data from the World Bank Malaysia Enterprise Survey 2014. The analyses are based on binary logit, tobit and generalized ordered logit regressions.
The authors find that one-fifth of firms applying for construction permits or had visits or meetings with tax officials were expected to pay bribes. Firms’ encounters with corruption were higher still when applying for import (29%) or operating license (24.7%). About 40% of the firms considered corruption an obstacle to their business operations to the degree of moderate, major and even severe. On average, 11% of firms’ total annual sales were apportioned for informal gifts or “speed money.” The authors also find that larger, younger and women-managed/owned companies were more likely to be targeted for bribe payments. The amount of bribe paid by foreign-owned firms was higher than the local firms. Manufacturing firms had lower incidences of bribe requests, but the amount paid was higher than services-related companies. Firms run or owned by women also, on average, paid a higher amount bribe.
These findings should be taken into consideration in the efforts to eradicate corruption affecting businesses in Malaysia.
This study is unique in the sense that it is based on firm-level data for a Malaysian case.
This study investigates the values of teenagers and their parents, and the influence parents have on the values of their children. Values are categorized into terminal and…
This study investigates the values of teenagers and their parents, and the influence parents have on the values of their children. Values are categorized into terminal and instrumental values. Different from previous works on values, the measurement of both these values is based on al‐Ghazali’s works in line with Islamic ethics. In addition, this study also determines the “oughtness” of both categories of values. The results reveal that overall, both teenagers and parents had good instrumental and terminal values. However, there were differences in the terminal values of teenagers and parents across ethnic groups. The analysis also shows that teenagers shared similar terminal and instrumental values as their parents, implying that parents had a significant influence on the development of their children’s values. Thus parents play an important role in transmitting good values to their children in resisting negative influences.
This paper aims to examine the long‐run and dynamic behaviors of real wage‐employment‐productivity relationship, using Malaysian manufacturing data, and to determine which…
This paper aims to examine the long‐run and dynamic behaviors of real wage‐employment‐productivity relationship, using Malaysian manufacturing data, and to determine which related labor theories are supported.
Time‐series econometric techniques, which include stationarity and cointegration tests, vector error correction model, impulse response function and variance decomposition, are applied to analyze the relationships of real wages, employment and productivity.
A long run relationship exists between real wages, employment and real productivity, with real wages being the main variable that adjusts to maintain cointegration. The theory that real wages inversely affect employment is not supported, while the performance‐based pay scheme theory, and not the efficiency wage theory, is validated.
Although the data used to measure wages and employment account for most of the production in the various manufacturing sectors, they do not include all the manufacturing industries. The analysis is also limited in time span since data for earlier periods are not available.
The findings can provide assistance to policy makers in their implementation and evaluation of labor policies.
The real wage‐employment‐productivity relationship is examined in the framework of the Malaysian manufacturing sector, and the study includes both the long‐term and short‐run behaviors of the variables.
The study examines the values that Malaysian teenagers admire, and how their values differ across age, gender, ethnic group and other characteristics. It also analyzes the…
The study examines the values that Malaysian teenagers admire, and how their values differ across age, gender, ethnic group and other characteristics. It also analyzes the relationship between students’ and perceived teachers’ admired values. Factor analysis is used to identify a number of values associated with various attributes that may be admired by students. It is found that altruistic values are the most admired, compared to attention‐seeking, self‐achievement, materialistic and anti‐social values. Values that students admire are different across various groups. In addition, there is a significant relationship between their values and values that they perceive their teachers admire. Based on the findings, policy recommendations are suggested to help solve the social problems in Malaysia.