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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Temitope Egbelakin, Suzanne Wilkinson and Jason Ingham

The purpose of this paper is to examine why building owners are often reluctant to adopt adequate mitigation measures despite the vulnerability of their buildings to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine why building owners are often reluctant to adopt adequate mitigation measures despite the vulnerability of their buildings to earthquake disasters, by exploring the economic-related barriers to earthquake mitigation decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study research method was adopted and interviews chosen as the method of data collection.

Findings

Critical economic-related impediments that inhibited seismic retrofitting of earthquake-prone buildings were revealed in this study. Economic-related barriers identified include perception about financial involvement in retrofitting, property market conditions, high insurance premiums and deductibles, and the high cost of retrofitting. The availability of financial incentives such as low interest loans, tax deductibles, the implementation of a risk-based insurance premium scale and promoting increased knowledge and awareness of seismic risks and mitigation measures in the property market place are likely to address the economic-related challenges faced by property owners when undertaking seismic retrofitting projects. The provision of financial incentives specifically for seismic retrofitting should be introduced in policy-implementation programme tailored to local governments’ level of risks exposure and available resources.

Practical implications

The recommendations provided in this study suggest strategies and answers to questions aimed at understanding the types of incentives that city councils and environmental hazard managers should focus on in their attempt to ensure that property owners actively participate in earthquake risk mitigation.

Originality/value

This paper adopts a holistic perspective for investigating earthquake risk mitigation by examining the opinions of the different stakeholders involved in seismic retrofit decisions.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

H. Kit Miyamoto, Amir S.J. Gilani and Akira Wada

School buildings have suffered disproportionate damage during past and recent earthquakes. For example, during the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, many school buildings…

Abstract

Purpose

School buildings have suffered disproportionate damage during past and recent earthquakes. For example, during the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, many school buildings collapsed, resulting in loss of life. School buildings in many other parts of the world are also susceptible to this type of widespread damage because of inadequate design, detailing, or poor construction quality. The purpose of this paper is to show how these fatal flaws can be mitigated prior to future catastrophe by using good engineering practice to retrofit vulnerable schools.

Design/methodology/approach

Conventional and innovative, cost‐effective, and reliable tools are available to prevent damage to schools. It is often necessary to examine a group of buildings or all structures in a locality and develop a comprehensive risk management plan for the vulnerable buildings. As an example, a comprehensive evaluation and retrofit project, under the auspices of the World Bank, is currently under way in Istanbul, Turkey, to address vulnerable school and hospital buildings as discussed in the paper. As part of this effort in Turkey, a guideline that relies on state‐of‐the‐art evaluation and retrofit methods has been developed to assist the local engineers.

Findings

Implementation of the program based on the uniform standards developed in the retrofit guidelines, has significantly reduced the seismic risk to schools in Istanbul.

Practical implications

The proposed evaluation and implementation technique can be utilized by governments worldwide to prevent further damage to key infrastructure and save millions of lives.

Originality/value

Innovative retrofits can be used to provide enhanced performance and provide seismic resiliency for cluster of school buildings.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2008

Mauli Vora, Zu‐Hsu Lee and Wenshen Pong

This paper first aims to estimate the economic loss due to an earthquake, such as building‐related losses, the damage of debris generation and fire, and the social impact…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper first aims to estimate the economic loss due to an earthquake, such as building‐related losses, the damage of debris generation and fire, and the social impact. Then, it seeks to evaluate the feasibility of retrofit to prevent buildings from seismic structural damages.

Design/methodology/approach

The HAZUS software is used for the seismic loss estimation using default demographic data, which were obtained from San Francisco Assessor record. The HAZUS estimates the damage using the earthquake of 6.7 magnitude. Based on the HAZUS report incorporated with probabilistic scenarios of earthquakes, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) guidelines are used to calculate the cost of structural rehabilitation in San Francisco.

Findings

It is recommended that either Options 1 and 3 or Options 2 and 3 provided by FEMA 156 and 157 respectively should be used to calculate the cost of seismic rehabilitation of a structure. The results provide estimated costs of retrofit plans for different types of existing buildings.

Practical implications

The implementation of quantitative and computer methods in the field of natural hazard management is demonstrated. The outcome provides economic guidelines for assessment and prevention (or reduction) of possible seismic loss and building damage.

Originality/value

The study may be a useful reference for retrofit plans for homeowners and business management. The cost estimation also can help government establish or revise some policies properly to provide homeowners with economic incentives (e.g. tax reduction, low interest loan) in retrofitting their homes.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2020

Ching-Shan Chen

Taiwan experiences frequent seismic activity. Major earthquakes in recent history have seriously damaged the school buildings. School buildings in Taiwan are intended to…

Abstract

Purpose

Taiwan experiences frequent seismic activity. Major earthquakes in recent history have seriously damaged the school buildings. School buildings in Taiwan are intended to serve both as places of education and as temporary shelters in the aftermath of major earthquakes. Therefore, the seismic performance assessments of school buildings are critical issues that deserve investigation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops a methodology that uses principal component analysis to generalize the seismic factors from the basic seismic parameters of school buildings, uses data mining to cluster different school building sizes and uses grey theory to analyze the relationship between seismic factors and the seismic performance of school buildings. Additionally, this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to deduce the seismic assessment model for school buildings. Finally, it adopts support vector machine to validate the ANN’s deductive results.

Findings

An empirical study was conducted on 326 school buildings in the central area of Taichung City, Taiwan, to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Results show that thickness of wall and width of middle-row column relate significantly with school-building seismic performance.

Originality/value

This paper provides a model that structural engineers or architects may use to design school buildings that are adequately resistant to earthquakes as well as a reference for future academic research.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 37 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Hadi Faghihmaleki, Elmira Khaksar Najafi and Ali Hooshmand Aini

The purpose of this paper is to present a probabilistic assessment and verify the effectiveness of seismic improvement schemes against earthquake, blast and progressive…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a probabilistic assessment and verify the effectiveness of seismic improvement schemes against earthquake, blast and progressive collapse. The probabilistic analysis is performed by taking into account the uncertainties in loading such as planar configuration and amplitude of the blast loading. A standard Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method is employed to generate various concepts of the uncertain parameters within the problem. For a given concept, various local dynamic analyses are performed within a certain range of distance, in order to quantify and locate the damage induced by impact wave on structural elements. In the next step, a limit state analysis is performed in order to investigate whether a progressive collapse mechanism forms under the acting loads or not.

Design/methodology/approach

( | ) and ( | ) are blast fragility and seismic fragility, respectively; ( ) and ( ) are annual occurrence rate of earthquake and blast, respectively. The purpose of the current study is to calculate for the primary structure as well as the retrofitted structure. Annual occurrence rate of earthquake can be calculated by using probability seismic hazard analysis for the site of interest, where the structure is located. In this paper, blast fragility and seismic fragility are defined rather differently; in other words, seismic fragility is defined as the probability of structural collapse given a specified level of seismic intensity whereas blast fragility is defined as the probability of collapse given that a significant blast event takes place. Both blast and earthquake loading conditions involve the activation of energy dissipation mechanism and, as a consequence, both can be resisted employing ductility enhancing techniques, such as column wrapping or jacketing and steel bracing.

Findings

The current paper aims to present a probabilistic assessment of progressive collapse under blast and earthquake loads. Non-dependent and incompatible events are considered to obtain a general rate of collapse. Finally, probabilistic collapse rate was obtained for a moment frame before and after modifying with convergent steel brace (CBF). The purpose of doing so is to investigate whether seismic improvement schemes can reduce collapse risk of different critical events or not.

Originality/value

Objective of the present work is to present a methodology for calculating the annual risk of collapse for a civil structure subjected to both seismic and blast loads, using a bi-hazard approach. Given that a blast event takes place, the probability of progressive collapse is calculated using a MC simulation procedure. The simulation procedure implements an efficient non-linear limit state analysis, formulated and solved as a linear programming problem. The probability of collapse caused by an earthquake event can be calculated by integrating the seismic fragility of the structure and the seismic hazard for the site.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2010

Euripidis Mistakidis

The purpose of this paper is to provide the research and practising engineers with insight on the benefits of using low‐yield point steel with respect to ordinary steel as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide the research and practising engineers with insight on the benefits of using low‐yield point steel with respect to ordinary steel as a construction material for shear wall panels. The paper seeks to focus on the behaviour of such panels when installed in new or existing structures in order to improve their seismic performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element models are applied in order to approximate the structural response of low‐yield steel panels, used for seismic applications. Owing to the specific characteristics of the problem at hand, geometric and material nonlinearities have to be accurately considered. For comparison reasons, low‐yield point steel and ordinary steel are considered as construction materials for the aforementioned panels. The paper examines both the case of “pure shear” steel panel and also the more realistic case that the panel is encased in the surrounding frame.

Findings

The paper reaches a number of interesting conclusions. The beneficial behaviour of low‐yield steel panels with respect to ordinary steel panels is verified. Comments are made distinguishing the differences in the behaviour of panels surrounded by strong elements (“encased” panels) compared with that of panels submitted to pure shear. Finally, the improved seismic behaviour of existing structures retrofitted by shear wall panels is verified.

Originality/value

The paper exhibits numerically the advantages of low‐yield point steel with respect to ordinary steel as a construction material for panels and, second, contributes to the comprehension of the realistic panel behaviour of encased panels. More specifically, the paper focuses on the differences in the behaviour of encased steel panels with respect to the “pure shear” steel panels.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2010

Temitope Kikelomo Egbelakin and Suzanne Wilkinson

The purpose of this paper is to examine the behavioural and sociological impediments to successful implementation of earthquake hazard mitigation and to recommend possible…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the behavioural and sociological impediments to successful implementation of earthquake hazard mitigation and to recommend possible intervention strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered through a case study methodology and interviews adopted as the research strategy. A semi‐structured questionnaire was chosen as a data‐collection instrument, with 33 interviews conducted for various stakeholders involved in seismic retrofit decision‐making process.

Findings

The research main findings include the role of risk perception in diminishing earthquake hazard mitigation, difficulties in assessing benefits and values of seismic retrofit implementation and the hazard mitigation approach adopted by governmental organisations. The findings suggested that stakeholders involved in retrofit decision‐making should have a good understanding of the risks faced as well as the implications of their decisions.

Originality/value

The paper investigates earthquake hazard mitigation of commercial buildings at the stakeholders‐level by adopting a multidisciplinary approach that incorporated decision sciences, policy perspectives and socio‐behavioural perspectives. The findings highlight the significance of stakeholders approach to foster adequate mitigation of earthquake risks.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2020

Ji-Won Moon, Ha Hwang and Ji-Bum Chung

The purpose of this paper is to examine how experiencing moderate earthquakes influences risk perception and preparedness.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how experiencing moderate earthquakes influences risk perception and preparedness.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was conducted on a nationally representative sample of Korean adults after the moderate earthquake in Pohang in 2017. Statistical analyses were conducted to identify the determinants of willingness to pay (WTP) for seismic retrofitting and earthquake insurance.

Findings

The results show that risk perception, housing ownership, earthquake experience and income level significantly influenced WTP for seismic retrofitting and earthquake insurance. The results also indicate that a greater number of damage-free earthquake experiences reduced the WTP that could be explained by normalcy bias. Finally, people who believed that the Pohang earthquake might be an example of induced seismicity (i.e. triggered by the geothermal power plant) tended to have a lower WTP for seismic retrofitting.

Originality/value

This study offers valuable findings on public attitudes about enhancing earthquake preparedness policies in moderate earthquake zones, regions that few studies have examined despite their high vulnerability due to a lack of preparedness.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Mohamad Naja and Hoda Baytiyeh

The purpose of this paper is to offer an assessment of seismic structural vulnerability of a sample of public schools using Lang survey questionnaire. The structural…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer an assessment of seismic structural vulnerability of a sample of public schools using Lang survey questionnaire. The structural integrity of public schools in Lebanon is a source of deep concern due to their outdated design and deteriorated status, their apparent lack of compliance with seismic design regulations, the unknown status of their safety and stability, their substandard maintenance and their low construction quality. These schools have not undergone any strengthening improvements to enhance their load-carrying capacity or their resistance to earthquake activity.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on survey questionnaire illustrating the seismic risk exposure of public schools in Lebanon. It offers an assessment of seismic structural vulnerability of a sample of public schools using Lang survey questionnaire. It stresses the needs of retrofitting of public school buildings to enhance their functional capacities against future destructive earthquakes.

Findings

The findings of the survey emphasize the seismic structural vulnerability of the majority of public schools in Lebanon and call for deeper assessment and investigation that involve government officials for strengthening and retrofitting of public school buildings as part of holistic disaster risk-reduction strategy to prevent the induced serious risk to children in the event of a devastating earthquake.

Originality/value

This article should alert school administrators, public leaders and government officials regarding the seismic threats and their subsequent effects on the structural safety of public school buildings in Lebanon. The assessment of seismic structural vulnerability has rarely been performed or even discussed in the Lebanese-related literature.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2018

Benedetto Manganelli, Marco Vona and Pierfrancesco De Paola

The purpose of this study is the evaluation of the cost and benefits of earthquake protection of buildings to verify whether the legislative push, through tax incentives…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is the evaluation of the cost and benefits of earthquake protection of buildings to verify whether the legislative push, through tax incentives, will produce results and lead to a redevelopment of private real estate assets.

Design/methodology/approach

Through contingent valuation, this research aims to measure the propensity of homeowners to invest in the seismic security of their properties. The sample of homeowners was selected in a southern Italy city, which was characterized by a medium-high seismic hazard. The willingness to pay, once made independent from the family income, was compared with the actual cost of a seismic retrofitting technique to assess its cost-effectiveness.

Findings

The analysis developed on an example case shows that the economic sustainability of the intervention is only verified when considering the current tax incentives for this type of intervention.

Practical implications

Choosing to introduce a system to compulsory insurance against seismic risk could certainly be a strong incentive for the implementation of retrofitting interventions on private real estate assets. In this direction, investigations like this can be fundamental to establish the fair risk premium.

Originality/value

The need for effective seismic risk mitigation policies is also based on the growing awareness of the, often fatal, effects of seismic events, emphasized by the recent medium and high intensity events that hit Italy. The issue of the security of residential buildings is therefore a very topical issue in view of their high seismic vulnerability and the vast number of buildings requiring major seismic retrofitting. Therefore, the propensity of owners to intervene in improving the seismic performance of their properties can be crucial in seismic risk mitigation.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

Keywords

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