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Book part
Publication date: 3 February 2022

Can Öztürk

This chapter focuses on the application of segment reporting under IFRS 8 in the context of the airline industry. It analyses the airlines’ disclosures related to segment

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the application of segment reporting under IFRS 8 in the context of the airline industry. It analyses the airlines’ disclosures related to segment reporting considering 11 aspects of segment reporting in the regional and global context. Observations reveal that reporting of segmental disclosures in the airline industry is diverse at different levels. In this regard, the following conclusions were drawn: (1) the nature of segments reported by the airlines is diverse due to methods adopted in preparation of operating segments; (2) factors such as internal reporting system, and nature of business used to identify the airline’s reportable segments were stated by most airlines; (3) types of products and services from which each reportable segment derives its revenues were stated by all airlines; (4) proportion of total revenues represented by separately reportable segments exceeds 75% of the revenue rule of IFRS 8; (5) most segmental performance measures are non-IFRS and diverse; (6) a limited number of airlines use dual reporting currency in segment reporting; (7) most airlines reported segment assets and liabilities for each reportable segment; (8) most airlines reported between 6 and 10 income and expense items in segment reporting; (9) segmental cash flow information is reported by one airline; (10) in terms of entity-wide disclosures, most airlines reported their revenue from major products and services in the revenue disclosures, most airlines reported their revenues on a geographical basis but few airlines reported their non-current assets on a geographical basis; and (11) more than half of the airlines did not declare the identity of the Chief Operating Decision Maker.

Details

Perspectives on International Financial Reporting and Auditing in the Airline Industry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-760-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 April 2022

Khurram Ashfaq, Shafique Ur Rehman, Nhat Tan Nguyen and Adil Riaz

This paper analyzes and compares segments disclosure practices of listed companies of Pakistan and Bangladesh under International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) 8…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyzes and compares segments disclosure practices of listed companies of Pakistan and Bangladesh under International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) 8 with companies from India under Accounting Standard 17 over three-year period from 2013 to 2015. Furthermore, the purpose of this paper was to investigate that how the selection of chief operating decision-maker (CODM) by management, industry type, governance and firm characteristics affects segments disclosure practices in South East Asia. Finally, how the relationship among segment disclosure, firm characteristics and corporate governance is moderated through the big 4 audit firm.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve these objectives, data were collected from annual reports of the top 100 companies of each country and selected based on market capitalization for three years period 2013–2015.

Findings

Results state that majority of companies in South East Asia are using business class for defining operating/primary segments. Regarding reporting of operating/primary segments and geographic/secondary segments along with geographic fineness score, Indian companies are continuously on the lower side as compared to companies from Pakistan and Bangladesh. Furthermore, it was found that industry type and selection of CODM have a highly significant effect on segments disclosure practices. Finally, results of regression analysis found that the application of IFRS 8 in Pakistan and Bangladesh has a significant positive effect on disclosure of operating/primary as well as geographic/secondary segments as compared to India. Further, the role of corporate governance mechanism in influencing segments disclosure was found as least in South East Asia. Further appointment of big 4 audit firm as external auditor has only significant positive effect on disclosure of segments items. Finally, based on additional analysis, it was found that big 4 auditor moderates the relationship only in the case of reporting of operating/primary segments.

Research limitations/implications

Based on these results, the performance of Indian companies regarding disclosure of operating/primary segments, geographic/secondary segments along geographic fineness score is quite low despite the fastest growing economy in the world. This raises concerns about the quality of segment reporting in India, the world’s fastest expanding economy.

Originality/value

These results imply that there is a need of an effective role by the external auditor to improve the quality of segment reporting in developing countries, which is principle based.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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Article
Publication date: 25 April 2022

Fangjun Sang, Pervaiz Alam and Timothy Hinkel

Prior studies find that US firms with managerial incentives may manipulate the earnings gap to obscure higher performing segments to competitors or to hide underperforming…

Abstract

Purpose

Prior studies find that US firms with managerial incentives may manipulate the earnings gap to obscure higher performing segments to competitors or to hide underperforming segments from external monitors. The purpose of this study is to complement extant research by examining the association between managerial incentives and segment earnings reporting of cross-listed firms in the USA and the impact of country-level characteristics on this association.

Design/methodology/approach

The dependent variable is the earnings gap between firm-level earnings and sum of segment-level earnings. Managerial incentives are proxied by proprietary cost and agency cost. Proprietary cost is measured by the Herfindahl index. Agency cost is measured by inefficient resource transfer activities across segments. Foreign firms in this study are companies listed on major US Stock Exchanges with headquarters outside the USA. Comparable US firms are selected using the Propensity Score Matching procedure as a control group.

Findings

The authors find that 1) proprietary cost motive is not the determinant of earnings gap reporting for cross-listed firms; 2) cross-listed firms motivated by agency costs are more likely to manipulate segment earnings reporting than US firms; and 3) among cross-listed firms motivated by agency costs, firms in weak rule of law countries demonstrate more manipulation in segment earnings than firms in strong rule of law countries.

Originality/value

Extant research with regard to segment reporting exclusively focuses on US firms, and little is known about the practice of segment reporting by cross-listed firms originating from different legal regimes. This study fills the gap in the literature by comparing cross-listed firms to US firms in the reporting of segment earnings. The results of this study have implications for regulators and investors who are interested in evaluating the extent of cross-listed firms’ financial reporting quality.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Sameh Kobbi-Fakhfakh, Ridha Mohamed Shabou and Benoit Pigé

This study aims to provide some empirical evidence on the determinants of segment reporting quality, and to propose a new measurement tool of segment reporting quality …

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide some empirical evidence on the determinants of segment reporting quality, and to propose a new measurement tool of segment reporting quality – segment reporting quality index (SRQI).

Design/methodology/approach

On the basis of hand-collected segment data for a sample of 171 European Union publicly listed companies from the 2006-2012 annual reports, the study uses multiple regression model to investigate the determinants of segment reporting quality. A new measurement of segment reporting quality is constructed. It aggregates different segment reporting practices indicators, including the number of segments, the extent of information disclosed and the geographic fineness. Additional estimations are conducted to test the robustness of the results.

Findings

The results suggest that there is a substantial variation in the quality of segment reporting among the sampled European Union firms. Large corporations, audited by Big 4 auditors and more internationally oriented, tend to provide a higher quality of segment reporting. In contrast, debt leverage negatively impacts the quality of segment reporting. However, the quality is not significantly related to profitability. The findings are fairly robust to a number of econometric models that control, for year fixed effects and pre- and post-International Financial Reporting Standards 8 adoption. Overall, the findings are generally consistent with the predictions of agency theory.

Research limitations/implications

The results imply that considerable managerial discretion exists. Despite the IFRS commitment to enhance comparability of the financial statements, segment information remains very disparate. It enables investors to get a better understanding of a firm’s activities, but it does not allow for a better assessment of a firm as compared to the other firms of the same sector. As compared with other IFRS standards, the segment reporting has more relation with corporate governance structure and specific institutions that regulate a sector or a country. Furthermore, the results show that firm characteristics are associated with the study’s aggregated measure of segment reporting quality (SRQI) consistently with theoretical and empirical evidence. SRQI can, thus, be used by researchers for replication or to study new questions on firms’ segment disclosure behavior on a much wider set of firms in the economy. While this research makes several noteworthy contributions, the authors acknowledge that SRQI considers only multisegments firms that disaggregate their primary/operating segments by line-of-business and disclose secondary/entity-wide level geographic information.

Originality/value

This study offers new evidence on the determinants of segment reporting quality following IFRS adoption, in the European Union context. This study contributes to the existing literature by proposing an aggregated measure of segment reporting quality (SRQI). Unlike previous measures, which were usually limited to researcher self-constructed indexes, SRQI captures different facets of segment information in terms of disaggregation and disclosure extent.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Nina Franzen and Barbara E. Weißenberger

– The purpose of this paper is to assess the changes in segment reporting practices of German listed firms under the new segment reporting standard IFRS 8.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the changes in segment reporting practices of German listed firms under the new segment reporting standard IFRS 8.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors compare hand-collected segment disclosures of German firms in the first IFRS 8 year with those reported in the last IAS 14R year.

Findings

The authors do not find substantial changes in the segment disclosures of German firms under IFRS 8. While the number of reportable segments slightly increased, the amount of information disclosed for each reportable segment decreased. The same applies to geographic areas reported as secondary segments under IAS 14R compared to entity-wide disclosures under IFRS 8. Furthermore, even though more country-specific information was provided, many firms still disclosed only broad geographic areas.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should extend the analysis to consider more than one year of data following IFRS 8’s adoption and to examine the impact of the standard on smaller firms. Moreover, investigating economic benefits for investors and other financial statement users following IFRS 8’s adoption could be an avenue for future research.

Practical implications

The findings indicate that the International Accounting Standards Board’s (IASB) expectations regarding changes in segment reporting practices under IFRS 8 have only partially been met. The results also reveal some cases of segment reporting practice where compliance is at least questionable. Both findings are of interest to standard-setters and regulators.

Originality/value

The paper provides new insights into the effects of IFRS 8’s adoption in Germany and thus contributes to the post-implementation review of IFRS 8 carried out by the IASB in 2012/2013. The study sheds light on the consequences of applying the “management approach” to segment reporting, thereby contributing to the theoretical discussion on the adequacy of the different concepts for disclosing segment information.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2019

Lisa Hinson, Jennifer Wu Tucker and Diana Weng

The rule change for segment reporting in 1998 has arguably made segment reporting more relevant through the adoption of the management approach. Meanwhile, the management…

Abstract

The rule change for segment reporting in 1998 has arguably made segment reporting more relevant through the adoption of the management approach. Meanwhile, the management approach has resulted in a decrease in the comparability of segment income. We introduce firmspecific measures of changes in relevance and comparability due to the rule change. Our treatment firms experienced an increase in the relevance of segment reporting but a large decrease in the comparability of segment income; our benchmark firms barely experienced any changes in relevance and comparability. We examine earnings forecasts before vs. after the rule change issued by financial analysts—a major user group of segment reporting. Relative to benchmark firms, treatment firms’ analyst forecast error reductions around the segment disclosure event are not significantly different after the rule change than before the rule change, but treatment firms’ forecast dispersion reductions around the segment disclosure event are significantly larger after the rule change than before the rule change. These results suggest that despite the decrease in comparability, the new segment reporting rule has increased the decision usefulness of segment information by decreasing disagreement among analysts.

Details

Journal of Accounting Literature, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-4607

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2007

Mohammad Talha, Abdullah Sallehhuddin and Junaini Mohammad

This paper seeks to investigate the level of competitive disadvantage experienced by Malaysian listed companies by disclosing segmental information as required by the new…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to investigate the level of competitive disadvantage experienced by Malaysian listed companies by disclosing segmental information as required by the new accounting standard on segments disclosure by Malaysian Accounting Standards Board.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 116 Malaysian listed companies are included in the study. Their annual reports for financial year ended 2002 are the main sources. The dependent variable is competitive disadvantage, which is proxied by Total Performance Index. The independent variables are quality of segmental disclosure by employing weighted average correlation technique, size of companies, the use of stricter accounting standard and the choice of business segment or geographical segment as the primary segment. To examine the developed hypotheses of the study; a multivariate least square regression model is employed. The analysis is also supported by correlation technique.

Findings

The outcomes of the study indicate that competitive disadvantage exists by disclosing segments information but it is not significant. In addition, larger companies experience greater competitive disadvantage than smaller companies, more extensive segment disclosure standard leads to less competitive disadvantage and the state of competitive disadvantage is greater when geographical segment is disclosed as the primary segment.

Research limitations/implications

Since the standard allows the reporting companies to disclose their segment information based on internal structure of the organization, the potential existence of materiality judgement may distort the comprehensiveness of the outcome. In addition, the limited number of companies included in the final sample leads to a more cautious approach in generalizing the findings.

Practical implications

Since the new accounting standard governing segment disclosure in Malaysian environment took effect in 2002, the study is considered timely. It allows the relevant accounting bodies to continue monitoring the level of compliance among the listed companies towards the new standard and, more importantly, it permits further improvement of the standard given the level of competitive disadvantage that may be experienced by reporting companies.

Originality/value

The remarkable contribution of the study lies in its timely effort to investigate the potential competitive disadvantage suffered by reporting companies in the first year of the implementation of the new accounting standard governing segment disclosure.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 17 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Jacqueline Birt, Mahesh Joshi and Michael Kend

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the value relevance of segment information for both public and private sector banks in India. In doing so, this paper examines…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the value relevance of segment information for both public and private sector banks in India. In doing so, this paper examines a rapidly developing economy and perhaps its most critical sector during this period of strong economic growth.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study uses the simplified Ohlson model, for a sample of 136 private sector and public sector banks for the period 2007-2010 in India.

Findings

The paper finds that public sector banks have higher share prices, higher earnings and more equity compared with private sector banks. Segment earnings data is highly value relevant for both sectors; however, segment equity data is only marginally value relevant for Indian banks. The number of segments is also value relevant and associated with higher share prices.

Originality/value

The results of this study contribute additional evidence to the literature on segment reporting by studying the effect of adoption of segment reporting in an emerging market. Findings from the paper are particularly relevant as India is currently in the process of changing its segment reporting requirements and moving to an IFRS-based segment standard.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 3 February 2022

Abstract

Details

Perspectives on International Financial Reporting and Auditing in the Airline Industry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-760-8

Book part
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Helen Kang and Sidney J. Gray

Our aim is to investigate the quality of segment disclosures by companies in Brazil, Russia, India and China (known as the BRIC economies) that are expanding their…

Abstract

Purpose

Our aim is to investigate the quality of segment disclosures by companies in Brazil, Russia, India and China (known as the BRIC economies) that are expanding their operations internationally, and in so doing to assess the extent of convergence with globally recognized standards, that is, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).

Methodology

We examine the financial statements and narrative information provided by the largest BRIC companies. We carry out a content analysis and also apply multivariate regression techniques to evaluate if key firm-specific factors are associated with the number of operating and geographic segments disclosed.

Findings

Our results show that the extent of disclosure by the majority of BRIC companies is of a high standard taking into account both quantitative and narrative data. The disclosure of operating segments is commonly based on business lines though most companies also report additional geographic information. As expected, operating segment disclosures are positively associated with the extent of internationalization (percentage of foreign sales) and majority state ownership.

Limitations

We have examined only the largest companies in each BRIC country and so there are limitations regarding the generalizability of our results. Future research could usefully examine the practices of a wider range of companies within each of the BRIC countries. This could also be extended to a study of disclosure behaviour in other emerging economies.

Originality/value

Our study provides new evidence concerning the quality of corporate financial reporting in the BRIC economies with special reference to a comparative international analysis of the segment disclosure practices of major BRIC companies expanding internationally.

Details

Emerging Market Firms in the Global Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-066-7

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