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Article

Bikram Jit Singh Mann and Mandeep Kaur

The paper aims to analyze and compare the branding strategies used in the three sectors namely FMCG, services and durables.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to analyze and compare the branding strategies used in the three sectors namely FMCG, services and durables.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the literature review, a more comprehensive list of branding strategies is proposed. A content analysis of 600 randomly selected brands, 200 from each sector, is performed. The branding strategies used in the three sectors are explained and MANOVA is conducted to test the hypotheses about differences in the branding strategies across the three sectors.

Findings

The results reveal that the branding strategies vary across the three sectors. Single corporate brand strategy is predominantly used for durables and credence services. On the other hand, in case of FMCG and experience services, individual brand type endorsed by the corporate brand type is the most frequently used branding strategy. Thus, there is a trend towards corporate branding as corporate brand type is popular in all the sectors. Also, other than the single corporate brand strategy, as in case of durables and credence services, single brand type strategy is rarely used. For FMCG brands and experience services brands, companies are trying to leverage brand equity of two or more brand types.

Practical implications

The paper offers insights for designing branding strategies when branding a product/service. Brand managers may rely on corporate brand type when risk associated with a purchase is high, as in case of durables and credence services. However, when the risk associated is low, as in case of FMCG and experience services, individual brand type may be preferred, but at the same time, it should be endorsed by corporate brand type.

Originality/value

This study adds value to the growing body of literature on branding strategies by identifying a more comprehensive and simplistic list of branding strategies which is a major contribution of the paper. Further, this is one of a very few empirical studies on branding strategies and is a pioneering attempt to evaluate the branding strategies in the FMCG vis‐à‐vis services vis‐à‐vis durables sectors. It empirically substantiates that the three sectors are heterogeneous among themselves and homogeneous within themselves with respect to their branding strategies.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article

Stephen Lee and Simon Stevenson

The question as to whether it is better to diversify a real estate portfolio within a property type across the regions or within a region across the property types is one…

Abstract

Purpose

The question as to whether it is better to diversify a real estate portfolio within a property type across the regions or within a region across the property types is one of continuing interest for academics and practitioners alike. However, this study is somewhat different from the usual sector/regional analysis in that this study is designed to investigate whether a real estate fund manager can obtain a statistically significant improvement in risk/return performance from extending out of a London based portfolio into firstly the rest of the South East of England and then into the remainder of the UK, or whether the manger would be better off staying within London and diversifying across the various property types.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to examine these issues we form a number of portfolios that can be directly compared to a number of benchmark portfolios, as well as to each other. Then using the statistical tests developed by Gibbons et al. and Jobson and Korkie, we investigate whether the benefits that accrue from the differing diversification strategies are statistically significant or not.

Findings

The results show that staying within only one sector and one region (London) is undesirable in terms of risk and return compared with all three benchmark portfolios considered here. Secondly diversification on a naïve basis, or in an optimal fashion, leads to significant improvements in performance, irrespective of whether it is across different property types within London or within the same sector across the regions. Finally the results indicate that staying within London and diversifying across the various property types may offer performance comparable with regional diversification, although this conclusion largely depends on the time period and the fund manager's ability to diversify efficiently.

Originality/value

The results suggest that diversification almost always offers increased performance. Indeed a little diversification can quickly lead to levels of performance that is superior to number of benchmarks as well as performance insignificantly different from that of the most diversified portfolio that could be constructed! Consequently fund managers should be encouraged to diversify, be it across the regions or across the sectors of the UK.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article

Silveli Cristo-Andrade and Mário José Franco

Based on firms’ need to remain competitive and dynamic in a scenario of constant change, the purpose of this paper is to compare the actors involved in cooperation for…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on firms’ need to remain competitive and dynamic in a scenario of constant change, the purpose of this paper is to compare the actors involved in cooperation for innovation between Brazilian small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and large firms (LFs), and also in two industries/sectors, manufacturing and services.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this objective, the database chosen was PINTEC, with data available from 1998 to 2014. The statistical analyses performed were binary logistic regression, descriptive statistics of the variables, correlation matrix and the difference of means.

Findings

The empirical evidence show that the firm’s characteristics (SME or LF) favour the use of one type of cooperation for innovation or another, highlighting SMEs’ proximity to their clients and LFs’ structures, tending to belong to business groups and having links to training centres and technical assistance networks.

Research limitations/implications

The theoretical contribution of this study lies in the evidence that types of cooperation for innovation can vary according to firm size and the type of industry/sector, and the practical contribution lies in pointing out the importance of clients for SMEs, and for LFs the importance of business groups, technical assistance and professional training centres. The importance of suppliers in cooperation for innovation stands out in the service sector, and that of clients in the manufacturing sector.

Originality/value

This study shows that the types of cooperation to innovation can vary according to firm size and type of sector, in an emerging market and with low rates of innovation. It is emphasized that most research on the subject has been carried out in developed countries or emerging Asian ones. Therefore, this study is innovative because it shows particularities of the Brazilian market that can subsequently be observed in other emerging markets.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Book part

Jacques Defourny and Victor Pestoff

There is still no universal definition of the third sector in Europe, but it can be seen as including all types of non-governmental not-for-profit entities such as…

Abstract

There is still no universal definition of the third sector in Europe, but it can be seen as including all types of non-governmental not-for-profit entities such as non-profit organizations, mutuals, cooperatives, social enterprises and foundations. This article attempts to make sense of the current shifting conceptualization of the third sector in Europe. It is based on short country summaries of the images and concepts of the third sector in 13 European countries by EMES Network’s members, first presented in 2008 (Defourny and Pestoff, 2008; nine of them were recently revised and are found in the appendix to this article.). The perception and development of the third sector in Europe is closely related to the other major social governance institutions/mechanisms, like the market, state and community and through the third sector’s interaction with them. Moreover, many third sector organizations (TSOs) overlap with these other social institutions, resulting in varying degrees of hybridity and internal tensions experienced by them. TSOs can generate resources from their activities on the market, by providing services in partnership with the state and/or by promoting the interests of a given community or group. The country overviews document a growing professionalization of TSOs in most countries and a growing dependency of public funds to provide services. This has important theoretical and practical implications for orienting the articles included in this book. Thus, it can provide a key for better understanding the discussion and analysis in the remainder of this volume.

Details

Accountability and Social Accounting for Social and Non-Profit Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-004-9

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Article

Janet Mack and Christine Ryan

The purpose of this research is to investigate the role and importance of the annual report as a source of information about public sector entities.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to investigate the role and importance of the annual report as a source of information about public sector entities.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a survey methodology to access users of public sector annual reports and is innovative because it has directly studied actual users across the entire public sector.

Findings

The findings of this research indicate that the annual report is an important source of information about public sector entities but it is not the most important source of information. This study also found that the annual report is not regarded as equally important across all public sector entity types. Differences in the importance attached to the annual report by different stakeholder groups were also noted.

Research implications/limitations

These findings have important implications for policy makers with respect to the information content of public sector annual reports. In particular the blanket approach to legislative requirements for annual reporting may need to be reviewed in view of the findings of this research that there are differing levels of importance attached to the annual report as an information source by users from different public sector entity types.

Originality/value

The research in this paper is original in that it has, systematically and directly accessed users of public sector annual reports to determine their information sources.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article

Mike Bull

The purpose of this paper is to review current conceptualisations of social enterprise and present a new theoretical model for social enterprise in the UK.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review current conceptualisations of social enterprise and present a new theoretical model for social enterprise in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper draws on the rise of social enterprise in the UK context. Social enterprise in the UK emerged around the 1980s, in both political consciousness and as an academic discipline. The paper explores organisational antecedents to develop a conceptual model that prioritises different legal forms of social enterprise in the UK regulatory framework.

Findings

In critiquing policy, practitioner and academic publications, as well as the theoretical models that operationalise social enterprise, there are two observations from the literature this paper examines: first, Theories to date have tended to conceptualise social enterprise as a single hybrid form, neglecting a consideration of the various legal identities, ownership and governance types; second, Theoretical models have tended to overlook the cultural, regional and political-economic histories within their conceptualisations.

Originality/value

The value and originality of this paper lies in offering a new paradigm in the conceptualisation of social enterprise in the UK. This is a new contribution to knowledge that strengthens an understanding of the field. This paper creates the space to broaden and appreciate ideologically and operationally different hybrid business types of social enterprises that include charitable, solidarity and entrepreneurial type social enterprises.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

The Corporate, Real Estate, Household, Government and Non-Bank Financial Sectors Under Financial Stability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-837-2

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Article

Majd Megheirkouni

The purpose of this paper is to understand the factors influencing leadership development (LD). It responds to the following question: what are the factors influencing the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the factors influencing leadership development (LD). It responds to the following question: what are the factors influencing the phenomenon of LD in the Syrian context.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research method has been adopted, using face-to-face interviews with leaders in middle and top management.

Findings

The findings revealed that there are two types of factor influencing LD: determinant factors to LD and influencing factors on the application of LD.

Research limitations/implications

Research data has been conducted in an unstable environment because of what is called the Arab Spring, so data were collected only from for-profit sector companies that presented more flexibility for participation than state and non-profit sector organisations.

Practical implications

The paper explored two different types of factors influencing LD: factors influencing the application of LD, and factors determining LD. This helps designers of LD programmes and companies operating in Syrian context to differentiate between these two factors.

Originality/value

The study offers data and interpretation on factors influencing LD in a specific context on which foundation further studies in the Middle Eastern context can be developed.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 35 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article

Ettore Panetti

This paper aims to reconsider the role of asset-market participation in Diamond-Dybvig economies, to reconcile the existence of asset markets as a channel for financial…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to reconsider the role of asset-market participation in Diamond-Dybvig economies, to reconcile the existence of asset markets as a channel for financial integration with the distortions that they might impose on the banking system.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a two-sector Diamond-Dybvig model of financial intermediation, with comparative advantages in the investment technologies, and introduces the possibility for the depositors to participate in an economy-wide asset market, when they can trade a bond without being observed by their banks.

Findings

The two-sector competitive banking equilibrium with hidden trades is not equivalent to autarky, is the unique Nash equilibrium of a “participation game” and is a constrained efficient.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to characterize the equilibrium of a two-sector Diamond-Dybvig economy with hidden trading in the asset market, and produces novel results, in contrast to the existing literature, with respect to the rationale for the existence of a financial system, its coexistence with asset markets and its efficiency. These conclusions also have important implications in terms of policy, in particular, regarding the case for the introduction of financial regulation.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

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Article

Yvonne Brunetto and Rod Farr‐Wharton

There is an assumption that the implementation of managerialism within public sector organisations has improved the efficiency and effectiveness of their management of…

Abstract

There is an assumption that the implementation of managerialism within public sector organisations has improved the efficiency and effectiveness of their management of processes and the outcome achieved. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the impact of changes post managerialism to organisational processes on outcomes for different types of employees. The findings suggest that the implementation of managerialism within the Australian public sector organisation has been significantly different depending on the type of employee examined. The implications for management in general are that most of the outcomes were counterintuitive and further research is required to examine the impact of the implementation of managerialism within different types of public sector organisations.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 42 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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