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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Peter Y.T. Sun and John Scott

The paper sets out to provide a better understanding of the interfaces between second‐order change initiation by the “initiator” and the organizational contexts. It is an…

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1435

Abstract

Purpose

The paper sets out to provide a better understanding of the interfaces between second‐order change initiation by the “initiator” and the organizational contexts. It is an individual level study, and hence involves the dynamics experienced by the “initiator”. The type of second‐order change initiation under consideration is the book‐keeping model of cognitive replacement, i.e. a gradual and incremental replacement of the old cognitive framework.

Design/methodology/approach

A framework was developed using principles of complexity science to crystallize the thinking of the dynamics involved at the individual level initiation and organizational contexts. This formed the basis for the development of four research questions, explored using seven real world individual cases, taken from a variety of industry backgrounds.

Findings

The framework was refined using the case studies. The “initiator” goes through several stages in the gradual and incremental replacement of their cognitive framework. Four specific stages were observed: “embedded”, “embedded discomfited”, “scripted”, and “unscripted”. In each of the stages, issues in the interface with the organizational context were observed.

Research limitations/implications

Although saturation was reached after five individual cases, the research is limited by the number of individual cases.

Practical implications

Four practical avenues to nurture creativity in an organizational context are discussed: nurturing appropriate levels of contradiction in the organization, nurturing and encouraging creativity in others, developing self‐containment in individuals, and forming “opportunity‐finding teams” at middle level management.

Originality/value

The understanding of the interfaces between individual level initiation and organizational context is limited. This research provides insights into this phenomenon.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 24 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2020

Shiran Benji-Rabinovitz and Izhak Berkovich

Taking ownership is considered vital for sustaining change in organizations, particularly when second-order changes are the goal. Yet, few studies explored psychological…

Abstract

Purpose

Taking ownership is considered vital for sustaining change in organizations, particularly when second-order changes are the goal. Yet, few studies explored psychological ownership of change agents in educational organizations. Moreover, no knowledge exists on how agents' individual psychological ownership augments psychological ownership in schools and on how collective psychological ownership of change relates to school culture. The present study aims to address these two lacunae.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study method was adopted to investigate the psychological ownership of teams of change agents in schools. Six Israeli secondary state religious schools adopting a new liberal curricular program were studied. Thirty one interviews were conducted with principals, program coordinators, mid-level teacher leaders and teachers who were active change agents in the promotion of the program. The interviews were complemented by quantitative data on students' perceptions of school discipline and tolerance of diversity based on the national school culture survey.

Findings

The analyses revealed the prevalence of three types of psychological ownership in the sample of schools. The analyses also showed how key components of psychological ownership, i.e. responsibility and territoriality in relation to change manifest in the schools that were explored. Institution-level analysis shed light on the different effects psychological ownership of the change team had on sharing within the faculty. In addition, analyses showed how the scope of agreement between two key change agents, the program initiator and the principal, on psychological ownership affected various psychological ownership aspects of the team. Last, the analysis shows that two types of collective psychological ownership emerged in the course of a liberal school change, and that types were differently related to school outcomes.

Originality/value

The study offers an innovative typology of collective psychological ownership during second-order change in schools, mapping two ideal types: cooperative and fragmented collective psychological ownership. The new types provide a better understanding of the dynamic of collective psychological ownership and its outcomes in organizations in general and schools in particular.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2020

Devora Friedman and Izhak Berkovich

Principals are considered central in initiating and mobilizing changes in schools; however, their political behaviors in the course of school changes are underexplored…

Abstract

Purpose

Principals are considered central in initiating and mobilizing changes in schools; however, their political behaviors in the course of school changes are underexplored. The present research investigated the influence tactics used by school principals to induce teachers to join a process of second-order (deep and wide) change in the school teaching and culture. In specific, the authors were interested to know which influence tactics, principals and staff members considered to be efficient during such a second-order change process.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was based on a case study method focusing on four Israeli Jewish state public religious schools participating in the “Routes” program aimed at strengthening religious values in schools. Data collection included semi-structured interviews with principals, teachers with program coordinators responsibilities and teachers in four schools.

Findings

The results indicate that school principals who are considered successful in leading changes display two key influence prototypes: a hybrid type that combines soft and hard influence tactics and a unitype that relies on soft influence tactics.

Originality/value

The research study contributed to the limited knowledge in educational administration on micropolitics and political behaviors in the course of school changes.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Jeffrey D. Ford

This article explores producing and managing change within conversationally constructed realities. Conversations are proposed as both the medium and product of reality…

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6675

Abstract

This article explores producing and managing change within conversationally constructed realities. Conversations are proposed as both the medium and product of reality construction within which change is a process of shifting conversations in the network of conversations that constitute organizations. In this context, change entails bringing new conversations into a sustained existence and the job of change managers is to create the conversational realities that produce effective action rather than to align organizations with some “true” reality.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Book part
Publication date: 23 December 2005

Giuseppe Labianca and James F. Fairbank

Researchers have traditionally investigated aspects of the interorganizational monitoring process in piecemeal fashion. This conceptual piece argues that juxtaposing the…

Abstract

Researchers have traditionally investigated aspects of the interorganizational monitoring process in piecemeal fashion. This conceptual piece argues that juxtaposing the categorization process with interorganizational emulation, imitation, and competition, brings focus to organizations’ attempts to acquire information from other organizations, signal internal and external constituencies, and ultimately change. We argue that the depth or intensity with which the monitoring process is pursued as well as the breadth or degree of overlap in the sets of organizations chosen to monitor, determines the volume and diversity of information acquired, the strength of the signal sent to constituent groups, and the amount and type of change likely to emerge from the process. All of these factors will ultimately affect the firm's future performance.

Details

Strategy Process
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-340-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

Jean M. Bartunek and Michael K. Moch

Third‐order change in organizations refers to attempts to helporganizational members to transcend their shared schemata. It has notpreviously been explored in depth. Uses…

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1890

Abstract

Third‐order change in organizations refers to attempts to help organizational members to transcend their shared schemata. It has not previously been explored in depth. Uses mystical experience as a model of how the third‐order change process may occur. Discusses several characteristics of mystical experience, focusing in particular on the central characteristic of transconceptual understanding. Presents an example of Teresa of Avila, a Spanish woman from the sixteenth century whose mystical life was reflected in her organizing activities. Suggests how mystical experience can inform understanding of the third‐order organizational change process and presents a preliminary model of ways in which the third‐order change capacity might be developed.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Janja Nograšek and Mirko Vintar

The purpose of this study is to develop a more comprehensive framework that would provide better insight into the characteristics of organisational transformation (OT) of…

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1113

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a more comprehensive framework that would provide better insight into the characteristics of organisational transformation (OT) of the public sector organisations in the e-government era. Despite the widespread opinion that successful implementation of information communication technology (ICT) is strongly correlated with the appropriate OT of the public sector, a critical analysis of the available literature within the field indicates that this important dimension of e-government development has been dealt with only partially. Accordingly, the paper attempts the following: to develop a more comprehensive framework for observing OT, to empirically explain the framework through analysis of three Slovenian e-government projects and to develop some general characteristics of ICT-induced OT in the public sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The development of the framework is based on an analysis of the available literature, whereas the explanation of such is based on a multiple-case study approach.

Findings

The paper contributes to a clearer understanding of what the main characteristics of OT in the e-government era are and how they should be observed.

Research limitations/implications

The findings can help researchers to more accurately focus their attention on the most critical aspects of OT. The identified attributes can provide an important basis for future research, particularly from the methodological perspective.

Practical implications

The framework can help public managers to focus their attention on the most important attributes of ICT-induced OT to exploit ICT potentials more efficiently.

Originality/value

The paper attempts to demystify the concept of OT in the e-government field and place it in a more solid theoretical and empirically explained framework.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Jon Maskály, Sanja Kutnjak Ivkovich and Peter Neyroud

This study adds to the developing literature on how coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affected policing. Unlike prior research, which focused on police agencies, the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study adds to the developing literature on how coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affected policing. Unlike prior research, which focused on police agencies, the authors focus on the perceptions and experiences of police officers. Specifically, about changes in workload or activities during the peak of the pandemic compared to prior to the pandemic. Additionally, officers report on changes in potential second-order effects resulting in changes from the pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

The data come from the survey responses of 167 police officers from seven police agencies of various sizes from around the USA. The authors assessed mean level differences between organizations using a general linear model/ANOVA approach and report a standardized effect size.

Findings

There is a considerable heterogeneity in police officers' perceptions of organizational and operational changes made by their police agencies in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The results show that perceptions of some changes were more strongly by the agency than were others. The study’s results show there are substantive differences in how police officers from different police agencies viewed these operational and organizational changes (i.e. between agency differences). Most of the variance was primarily explained by differences between police officers within the same agency (i.e. within organization differences).

Originality/value

This study moves beyond the monolithic approach to studying how the pandemic affected the police agency and moves to asking officers about their experiences with these changes and the second-order effects of these changes.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Gianluca Brunori, Jet Proost and Sigrid Rand

This chapter aims at building a conceptual framework that could inspire innovation policies able to take into account the emerging agricultural and rural agenda, based on…

Abstract

This chapter aims at building a conceptual framework that could inspire innovation policies able to take into account the emerging agricultural and rural agenda, based on a comprehensive conceptualization of the innovation system. The systems of innovation and the broader processes of knowledge creation (and co-creation), transfer and adoption represent a crucial set of conditions influencing family farms' trajectories in response to the various opportunities and drivers of change, as well as their capability to contribute to sustainable food systems and FNS. This chapter analyzes the concept of innovation in relation to transition towards new configurations with a non-linear and multidimensional vision based on actors assembling themselves in a geographical space where resources and information are used to generate change. This leads to consider knowledge as an asset co-generated by the interaction of different actors within agricultural knowledge and innovation systems (AKIS) (Leeuwis & van den Ban, 2004). Agriculture and countryside are experiencing deep transformations towards concentration and globalization on one side and post-productivism and rural development on the other (Van der Ploeg et al., 2000). These processes of change require innovation policies aimed at pursuing ‘second-order’ innovation based on new goals and new rules. From a transition perspective (Geels, 2004) these radical innovations can develop within niches to a certain extent protected from mainstream market forces, to be then progressively embodied into higher structuration levels (the ‘regimes’).

Details

Innovation for Sustainability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-157-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

Karin Breu and Mary Benwell

The processes of management development within a change management context have mostly been informed by models which assume that individuals can be developed by planned…

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2098

Abstract

The processes of management development within a change management context have mostly been informed by models which assume that individuals can be developed by planned and purposive intervention to perform effectively within a new, forecast, but essentially stable environment. Alongside such shifts at individual and organisational level, the last decade has seen revolutionary change in national economies as the former state socialist countries transform themselves to participate in the global market economy. This paper, based on an in‐depth analysis of interviews with 73 chief executives and senior managers of 61 key companies in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), identifies a model of the individual transition process of managers during the process of state transformation. From this the authors draw lessons for the practice of management development under conditions of transformative change.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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