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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2017

Robin Nunkoo, Viraiyan Teeroovengadum, Peta Thomas and Llewellyn Leonard

The study conceptualizes service quality as a second-order factor and analyzes its influence on customer satisfaction, perceived value, image, consumption emotions and…

Abstract

Purpose

The study conceptualizes service quality as a second-order factor and analyzes its influence on customer satisfaction, perceived value, image, consumption emotions and customer loyalty by testing a structural equation model.

Design/methodology/approach

The model is tested using data collected from 672 guests staying in accommodation establishments located in South Africa. The study follows a hierarchical approach using confirmatory factor analysis to test the second-order factor model and structural equation modeling to test the overall model.

Findings

The results indicate that the second-order factor model is acceptable both empirically as well as conceptually and performs better than other competing models of service quality. The findings provide support for all hypotheses and evidence of a structural model with a high explanatory power.

Research limitations/implications

The second-order factor model is less useful when fine-grained analyses are needed, such as when a detailed assessment of the level of quality of service offered by a hospitality organization is required.

Practical implications

The second-order factor model allows for an analysis of service quality at different levels of abstraction. Accommodation managers interested in customers’ evaluation of service on a cumulative basis can make use of the global measure to determine service quality evaluations. Practitioners can also use the findings to manage the different dimensions of service quality.

Originality/value

The study demonstrates that service quality is best represented as a second-order factor, and in doing so, it provides an improved measurement of the construct. More so, by integrating the variable in a nomological network, the research develops a more parsimonious model than the existing ones.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Lihua Xu, Zane Wubbena and Trae Stewart

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factor structure and the measurement invariance of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across gender of K-12…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factor structure and the measurement invariance of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across gender of K-12 school principals (n=6,317) in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Nine first-order factor models and four second-order factor models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis.

Findings

The results suggested that the nine-factor model provided the best fit for the data. Further examination revealed that most constructs lacked convergent validity and discriminant validity. Second-order factor models were tested and the hierarchical model with two higher order factors (i.e. transformational and transactional leadership) was deemed the best fit and it was then tested for measurement invariance between females and males. The measurement model was found to be invariant across gender. Findings suggested that female school principals demonstrated significantly greater transformational leadership behaviour, while male school principals demonstrated significantly greater transactional leadership behaviour.

Originality/value

This study addressed construct and factor issues previously associated with the MLQ in the measurement of transformational and transactional leadership among a variety of organizations. By using a sample of K-12 school principals across gender, this study has provided support that may ameliorate contextual doubts of transformational leadership behaviour when examining the relational aspects needed to improve schools.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 54 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2010

Sanjit Kumar Roy and Vaibhav Shekhar

The purpose of this study is to identify the underlying dimensions of trustworthiness of financial service providers in the Indian retail banking sector and to model…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify the underlying dimensions of trustworthiness of financial service providers in the Indian retail banking sector and to model trustworthiness as a set of second‐order factors. The study replicates and extends the work of Ennew and Sekhon in the Indian context.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the trustworthiness scale developed by Ennew and Sekhon this study identifies six first‐order factors of trustworthiness for retail bankers in India using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Then the study modeled trustworthiness as a set of three second‐order factors using second‐order confirmatory factor analysis.

Findings

The first‐order factors obtained for trustworthiness of retail bankers are customer orientation, integrity and honesty, communication and similarity, shared values, expertise, and ability and consistency. The second‐order confirmatory factor analysis resulted in three higher order factors namely, competency, openness and benevolence.

Practical implications

The various dimensions of trustworthiness should be viewed as levers for improving a bank's trustworthiness in the minds of its current customers. At the same time, these dimensions will help them in reflecting an image of trustworthiness in the minds of its potential customers. Establishment of trustworthiness as an element of corporate image will provide competitive advantage to the service firms and improve their financial performance.

Originality/value

The research tests for the reliability and validity of the trustworthiness scale of Ennew and Sekhon. This study provides a window to the dimensions on which retail bank customers in an emerging economy such as India perceive a retail bank's trustworthiness. Furthermore, this study is an attempt to model trustworthiness as a set of second‐order factors.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

Sanjiv Mittal, Rajat Gera and Dharminder Kumar Batra

The purpose of this paper is to extract and validate the dimensions of service quality in retail banking services in India by adopting an integrated and hierarchical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extract and validate the dimensions of service quality in retail banking services in India by adopting an integrated and hierarchical perspective of service quality determinants.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper empirically validates a parsimonious (multi-dimensional and multi-level) model of service quality in retail banking services in India. The analysis was conducted using structural equation modeling. A hypothesized second-order model was tested and compared with a first-order model of service quality. The dimensions were extracted through exploratory factor analysis and validated through confirmatory factor analysis.

Findings

The second-order service quality model was accepted based on parsimony as it consisted of five primary dimensions: Service delivery (describing the efficiency with which the service is provided), tangibles (the quality of physical service environment), reliability (the promise of right service being provided), core service (the attributes and features of the service product) and competence (the capability of employees and systems for providing the service). The second-order model enhances the understanding of the structure of service quality for retail banking services in India. The most important dimension was tangibles, especially the physical environment which facilitates efficient delivery of service.

Research limitations/implications

The research provides support for a multi-dimensional second-order model of service quality in retail banking service in India. The results show that customers form perceptions of overall service quality which are reflected by five primary dimensions. The primary dimension of tangibles is the most influential.

Practical implications

Organizations need to measure and manage overall service quality perceptions to build trust and reinforce loyalty intentions among their customers. Banks need to adopt a multi-level approach to managing service quality perceptions, i.e. both at the dimensional level and organizational level.

Social implications

This study would contribute to the enhancement of service quality outcomes in retail banking services in India which has a crucial role in the economic development.

Originality/value

The study proposes and validates a parsimonious and hierarchical model of service quality in the context of retail banking in Indian cultural context. Thus this research provides support to existing knowledge of service quality measurement and management and extends the understanding of its structure by validating the multi-level model in an emerging market context.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2008

Bindu Narayan, Chandrasekharan Rajendran and L. Prakash Sai

The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate scales to measure and benchmark service quality (SQ) in tourism industry.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate scales to measure and benchmark service quality (SQ) in tourism industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The second‐order confirmatory factor analysis is employed to validate the instrument. SQ dimensions have been modeled which have significant impact on customer satisfaction (CS) separately from those which do not have a significant impact.

Findings

Hospitality, food, logistics, security, and value for money have significant impact on satisfaction, while amenities, core‐tourism experience, hygiene, fairness of price, information centers, culture, distractions, personal information, and pubs do not have a significant impact.

Research limitations/implications

The above pattern may be different in a different destination, and in a different context. However, a major implication of the current findings is that a destination need not have natural cutting edges to be developed as a tourist destination. A destination with good logistics and assurance for security, value for money, impressive hospitality and food, can satisfy a customer.

Practical implications

The scale which has been developed by us will be useful for destination managers to measure the SQ perceptions of tourists and benchmark destinations. The distinction of SQ dimensions with and without the impact on CS could enable a manager to manage these two sets of factors separately.

Originality/value

Unlike previous works, SQ has been modeled in tourism as a second‐order factor, which appears to be a more appropriate approach. The authors have also modeled factors with and without significant impact on satisfaction separately, and the approach does not seem to have precedence in literature. The inclusion of the factor, “Fairness of Price” is also a new contribution to literature.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2020

Florian Schuberth, Manuel Elias Rademaker and Jörg Henseler

The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to propose partial least squares path modeling (PLS-PM) as a way to estimate models containing composites of composites and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to propose partial least squares path modeling (PLS-PM) as a way to estimate models containing composites of composites and to compare the performance of the PLS-PM approaches in this context, (2) to provide and evaluate two testing procedures to assess the overall fit of such models and (3) to introduce user-friendly step-by-step guidelines.

Design/methodology/approach

A simulation is conducted to examine the PLS-PM approaches and the performance of the two proposed testing procedures.

Findings

The simulation results show that the two-stage approach, its combination with the repeated indicators approach and the extended repeated indicators approach perform similarly. However, only the former is Fisher consistent. Moreover, the simulation shows that guidelines neglecting model fit assessment miss an important opportunity to detect misspecified models. Finally, the results show that both testing procedures based on the two-stage approach allow for assessment of the model fit.

Practical implications

Analysts who estimate and assess models containing composites of composites should use the authors’ guidelines, since the majority of existing guidelines neglect model fit assessment and thus omit a crucial step of structural equation modeling.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the understanding of the discussed approaches. Moreover, it highlights the importance of overall model fit assessment and provides insights about testing the fit of models containing composites of composites. Based on these findings, step-by-step guidelines are introduced to estimate and assess models containing composites of composites.

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2018

Phongpisanu Boonda, Aree Preedeekul and Phataraphon Markmee

Virtual regional service provider is a key management mechanism created to realize the health service system development plans and a mechanism established to bring about…

Abstract

Purpose

Virtual regional service provider is a key management mechanism created to realize the health service system development plans and a mechanism established to bring about integration of all elements of the health system. However, a virtual service provider office (VSPO) to support the work of the executive has not yet been formally established, and there are no operations practitioners deployed yet, who are necessary to develop the competency of regional operating officer (ROO) in each province. The purpose of this paper is to analyze training program factors to develop the competency of ROO in the VSPO in Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a descriptive research that used structural equation model. The research sample consisted of 274 executives and 664 practitioners in the Vice Chief of the provincial health office under the 12 regions; executives’ questionnaire and a VSPO questionnaire were used as tools for this study; data were statistically analyzed by three methods, namely, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), second-order confirmatory factor analysis (second-order CFA), and path analysis (PA).

Findings

The variable model was composed of ten factors, selected from 40 variables, which are as follows: service plan and personal administration, summary to present for administrators in the VSPO, network management and team building, summary to adjust strategies, key performance indicator (KPI) and action plan, new management skills, system thinking, analytical thinking, synthesis thinking, conflict management style, and leadership; presentation of methods and data for monitoring, presentation skill, conference management skill; researching, learning skill, communication skill exercise, action plan workshop, preparation to study in the fields workshop; fiscal and monetary, internal control and risk management; project management, monitoring, and data definition; and positive thinking, conflict management process, negotiation skill contingency management.

Originality/value

Ten factors of the variable model of training program factors to develop the competency of ROO in the VSPO in Thailand had high construct validity and they were analyzed using three methods, i.e. EFA, second-order CFA and PA, that were appropriate to be used for developing a training program.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Simona Sternad, Miro Gradisar and Samo Bobek

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have been implemented in most organizations for a few years. ERP solutions go through three phases of lifecycle: selection…

Abstract

Purpose

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have been implemented in most organizations for a few years. ERP solutions go through three phases of lifecycle: selection, implementation and operation phase; the operation phase consists of the stabilization stage and the routine stage. To improve the efficiency and effectiveness of ERP system use in the operation phase, organizations need to research the factors that have impact on users' satisfaction. A literature shows that few published studies have examined users' adoption of ERP systems through a technological acceptance model (TAM) or examined external factors that have influence the intention to use an ERP system, or ERP use in the stabilization stage. The purpose of this paper is to expose and research external factors which have influence on ERP users in the operation phase of ERP lifecycle and to investigate the impact of those factors on ERP system use.

Design/methodology/approach

The TAM proposed by Davis has been the most widely‐used model for researching user acceptance and usage of information technology/information systems. Despite the existence of several additions to TAM connected with ERP use, the authors aim to make further contribution in the area of external factors. Within this context the present research is focused on the mature use of ERP system (more than one year of ERP use in an organization). A limited number of external factors mentioned in already published papers connected with TAM regarding ERP use has also been extended. The authors have researched the effect of external factors through the second‐order factors on the original TAM. The model has been empirically tested using the data collected from a survey of 161 ERP users from a national telecom company, which has been using an ERP system since 1999. The model has been analysed using PLS approach.

Findings

The study shows that extended external factors observed through the second‐order factors have important influence on ERP usefulness and ERP ease of use; they also have a strong influence on the attitude toward using ERP system by ERP users in the routine (maturity) stage.

Originality/value

The paper researches the factors which have an impact on ERP solution use in the routine (mature) stage of ERP lifecycle. The paper adds to the literature, in that few previous studies have examined the users' adoption of ERP systems through the TAM or examined external factors that have influence on the intention to use an ERP system or ERP use in the stabilization stage.

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Charles Chi Cui and Edward I. Adams

The national identity scale (NATID) was recently reported in the literature for identifying the core elements that define the uniqueness of a given culture or nation in so…

Abstract

The national identity scale (NATID) was recently reported in the literature for identifying the core elements that define the uniqueness of a given culture or nation in so far as their association with marketing is concerned. This study examined the conceptual strengths and empirical limitations of NATID, and assessed the relevance of the national identity construct in Yemen. Confirmatory factor analysis of the data from a sample of 208 Yemeni respondents revealed that the NATID scale did not fit the Yemeni data. Modification of the scale was made through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, which resulted in four dimensions in two alternative models similar to NATID. Results from the second‐order confirmatory factor analysis of the two alternative models supported NATID’s multi‐dimensionality of the national identity construct in the Yemeni context. Implications for future research are discussed and limitations noted.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2018

Henrik Nielsen, Thomas Borup Kristensen and Lawrence P. Grasso

The purpose of this paper is to study management control mechanisms (social, behavioral, and output control mechanisms) and their complementary effects on firm performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study management control mechanisms (social, behavioral, and output control mechanisms) and their complementary effects on firm performance in lean manufacturing firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses second-order structural equation modeling to analyze survey data from 368 different lean manufacturing facilities.

Findings

The paper finds that the complementary effects of management control mechanisms in lean manufacturing firms outweigh their additive effects on firm performance.

Research limitations/implications

Applying isolated lean management control mechanisms leads to inferior performance, as these management control mechanisms are complementary. Thus, to realize the full potential of lean manufacturing, this paper suggests that lean management control mechanisms should be implemented as an integrated control system.

Practical implications

Firms seeking to benefit from the implementation of lean manufacturing should understand the complementarity among the management control mechanisms, as the performance effects of lean management control mechanisms when applied together are greater than their isolated additive effects.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to provide empirical evidence of the superior firm performance effects of complementary lean management control mechanisms compared with their additive effects. This paper also expands the understanding of how to conceptualize lean management control mechanisms. Specifically, this is the first paper to distinguish between social cultural control and social visual control mechanisms as well as between non-financial and financial control mechanisms. This paper is also the first to use a second-order structural equation model to properly test and account for the complementary effects on firm performance that stem from multiple control mechanisms.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 38 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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