Search results

1 – 10 of 24
Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Sebastian Zenker and Erik Braun

City branding has gained popularity as governance strategy. However, the academic underpinning is still poor, and city branding needs a more critical conceptualization, as…

Abstract

Purpose

City branding has gained popularity as governance strategy. However, the academic underpinning is still poor, and city branding needs a more critical conceptualization, as well as more complex management systems. This paper challenges the use of a “one size fits all” city brand, which is still common practice in many places. The paper proposes that city branding involves much more complexity than is commonly thought and outlines a strategy that enables urban policy-makers, marketing researchers and (place) marketers alike to better deal with city branding.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors integrate insights from literature on place branding, brand architecture and customer-focused marketing.

Findings

The article argues that place brands (in general and communicated place brands in particular) are by definition very complex, due to their different target groups, diverse place offerings and various associations place customers could have. Thus, an advanced brand management including target group-specific sub-brands is needed.

Practical implications

The model will be helpful for place brand managers dealing with a diverse target audience, and is likely to improve the target group-specific communication.

Originality/value

The paper provides an insight into the complexity of city brands and acknowledges that the perception of city brands can differ considerably among different target groups. Additionally, it offers a more comprehensive definition of place brands. This will be helpful for city brand managers and researchers alike in dealing with city brand complexity.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2011

Sebastian Zenker

The branding of places has gained popularity among city officials in recent years. Unfortunately, place marketers often disregard the complexity of place brands, as do…

Abstract

Purpose

The branding of places has gained popularity among city officials in recent years. Unfortunately, place marketers often disregard the complexity of place brands, as do their counterparts in the academic discussion: the focus repeatedly falls on the simple explorative description of certain city brands, rather than a proper conceptualization of a place brand that employs different measurement approaches for the different elements of the brand. Thus, this paper aims to identify those different elements and discuss measurement approaches that could prove useful in place branding.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a review of the extant literature on the measurement of brand image in general and place branding in particular, the paper outlines distinct elements, categories and dimensions of a place brand, as well as a number of approaches from place brand image measurement, with example cases of each approach.

Findings

Exploring a brand can be divided into three main approaches: in the form of free brand associations of target customers with qualitative methods, in the form of attributes with quantitative methods like standardized questionnaires and with mixed methods that combine qualitative research with quantitative methods.

Originality/value

This paper presents an extensive review of current place brand measurement studies and provides a conceptual framework for the elements of a place brand. Through these means, the paper offers a valuable concept for place branding and furthers the discussion of appropriate measurement approaches in the realm of place branding.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Sebastian Zenker and Carsten Erfgen

This paper aims to develop a participatory approach to place branding. In doing so, it offers guidance on how to implement a participatory place branding strategy within…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a participatory approach to place branding. In doing so, it offers guidance on how to implement a participatory place branding strategy within place management practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on theoretical insights drawn from the combination of distinct literatures on place branding, general marketing and collaborative governance.

Findings

The paper highlights the importance of residents in the place branding process and argues that their special functions as ambassadors for the place constitute the most valuable assets in place branding. Thus, a participatory place branding approach involving residents is needed. To implement this approach, three stages are necessary: (stage 1) defining a shared vision for the place including core place elements; (stage 2) implementing a structure for participation; (stage 3) supporting residents in their own place branding projects.

Originality/value

The inclusion of residents is often requested in contemporary place branding literature. Unfortunately, none of these articles offer a real strategy for participatory place branding so far. Thus, this conceptual essay provides a participatory place branding approach to help place managers implement such structure.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

Sebastian Zenker and Suzanne C. Beckmann

Cities increasingly compete with each other for attracting tourists, investors, companies, or residents. Marketers therefore focus on establishing the city as a brand…

Abstract

Purpose

Cities increasingly compete with each other for attracting tourists, investors, companies, or residents. Marketers therefore focus on establishing the city as a brand, disregarding that the perception and knowledge of a city differ dramatically between the target audiences. Hence, place branding should emphasize much more the perceptions of the different target groups and develop strategies for advanced place brand management. The aim of this paper is to assess the important discrepancies between the city brand perceptions of different target groups with the help of network analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

In two empirical studies, the important discrepancies between the city brand perceptions of different target groups are assessed with the help of network analysis. Study 1 consists of 40 qualitative in‐depth‐interviews and study 2 uses an online qualitative open‐ended‐question survey with 334 participants.

Findings

Structural differences for the city brand perceptions of two different target groups and the differences between perceptions of an external and internal target group are highlighted. The results and the managerial implications for place marketers are discussed.

Research limitations/implications

The study investigates the brand associations for the city of Hamburg brand with two target groups and this limits the generalizability of the results. However, the focus was on measuring for the first time the difference in the place brand perception of different target group and the results helps to understand how an advanced place brand management could deal with this challenge.

Originality/value

Place branding is increasingly popular in urban management. This paper highlights the challenge of diverse target audiences in this process and discusses implication for an advanced place brand management.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

Erik Braun, Mihalis Kavaratzis and Sebastian Zenker

This paper deals with the importance of residents within place branding. The aim of this paper is to examine the different roles that residents play in the formation and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper deals with the importance of residents within place branding. The aim of this paper is to examine the different roles that residents play in the formation and communication of place brands and explores the implications for place brand management.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on theoretical insights drawn from the combination of the distinct literatures on place branding, general marketing, tourism, human geography, and collaborative governance. To support its arguments, the paper discusses the participation of citizens in governance processes as highlighted in the urban governance literature as well as the debate among marketing scholars over participatory marketing and branding.

Findings

The paper arrive at three different roles played by the residents: as an integral part of the place brand through their characteristics and behavior; as ambassadors for their place brand who grant credibility to any communicated message; and as citizens and voters who are vital for the political legitimization of place branding. These three roles make the residents a very significant target group of place branding.

Originality/value

Residents are largely neglected by place branding practice and their priorities are often misunderstood, even though they are not passive beneficiaries but are active partners and co‐producers of public goods, services and policies. This paper highlights that only meaningful participation and consultation can produce a more effective and sustainable place branding strengthening the brand communication and avoiding the pitfall of developing “artificial” place brands.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 March 2009

Sebastian Zenker

Today we have to face the challenge of competing in a globalized world for scarce goods, such as residents in general, and in particular for those with talents, the…

Abstract

Purpose

Today we have to face the challenge of competing in a globalized world for scarce goods, such as residents in general, and in particular for those with talents, the so‐called “creative class”. This class is the driving force for economic growth, so winning the competition for these individuals is one of the main tasks for cities and regions today. However, to face this challenge using place marketing and city branding, we have to understand the needs and preferences of this target group. The purpose of this paper is to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In a field study (n=1,258) the basic needs and preferences of the creative class were analyzed. The creative class with the non‐creative class were compared using a univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Findings

Structural differences were found for the ratings of the importance of different needs for the creative class and the non‐creative class. Consequences for creative class theory are discussed.

Research limitations/implications

It may not be possible to generalize the results found in this German sample to a sample with a different cultural background without further intercultural comparisons. Furthermore, the focus was on four basic factors of city evaluation, not on specific needs for single subgroups. Further research questions are identified and discussed.

Originality/value

The creative class as a target group is very popular in place marketing. This paper discusses the needs and preference structure of this target group and the need for a more precise definition of the creative class.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Sebastian Zenker and Adrian Seigis

To develop a city, officials frequently invest a great deal of taxpayers' money in large‐scale place development projects, which are often sparsely supported by the…

Abstract

Purpose

To develop a city, officials frequently invest a great deal of taxpayers' money in large‐scale place development projects, which are often sparsely supported by the citizens because such projects often lead to unwanted effects (such as gentrification). This results in conflicts between planners and citizens, which are expressed in public protest and resistance. The instrument of citizen participation is repeatedly raised as a solution for such conflicts, but it remains unclear how and especially why this concept should be effective. The purpose of this paper is to empirically highlight the mediating role in this process: the feeling of being respected. By this means, the paper will contribute to a better general understanding of citizen participation.

Design/methodology/approach

In an experimental scenario study (n=368), different types of citizen participation (i.e. cases where the result was binding for the city vs non‐binding) were researched using a between‐groups design. To validate results, in a second step, the outcome was discussed with three experts, all of whom have worked in the field.

Findings

Surprisingly, it seems that neither the type of participation nor satisfaction with the project makes a difference with regards to citizen satisfaction, but simply the condition of being asked. One could argue that the feeling of being respected is the main mediator in this process. These results show the effectiveness of the participation tool in general, and give a possible explanation for this effect.

Originality/value

This paper concentrates on the variables underlying citizen participation. It shows empirically that the feeling of being respected is the mediator within this process. By this means, the paper offers a valuable insight into citizen participation in general and discusses its usage in place marketing.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Dominic Medway, Kathryn Swanson, Lisa Delpy Neirotti, Cecilia Pasquinelli and Sebastian Zenker

The purpose of this paper is to report on a special session entitled “Place branding: Are we wasting our time?”, held at the American Marketing Association’s Summer…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on a special session entitled “Place branding: Are we wasting our time?”, held at the American Marketing Association’s Summer Marketing Educators’ conference in 2014.

Design/methodology/approach

The report details the outcome of an Oxford-style debate with two opposing teams of two persons – one team supporting and one team opposing the motion. The opening speaker of each team had 10 minutes to put their case across, and the closing speaker had 8 minutes. Teams took to the stand alternately, matching up against each other’s arguments.

Findings

The outcome of the debate points towards a need for place brands to develop as more inclusive and organic entities, in which case it may be best for place practitioners to avoid creating and imposing a place brand and instead help shape it from the views of stakeholder constituencies. This shifts the notion of place branding towards an activity centred on “curation”.

Originality/value

The use of a competitive debating format as a means for exploring academic ideas and concepts in the place management field.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2011

Ares Kalandides and Mihalis Kavaratzis

Abstract

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

1 – 10 of 24