No other region of the world has suffered from such devastating epidemics in the recent past than sub-Saharan Africa. HIV/AIDS poses the worst single health threat on the…
No other region of the world has suffered from such devastating epidemics in the recent past than sub-Saharan Africa. HIV/AIDS poses the worst single health threat on the continent and approximately 28.5 million of people infected with HIV/AIDS are in sub-Saharan Africa, yet, less than 8% have access to treatment. As African countries start or continue to expand their HIV/AIDS treatment programs with the assistance of international donors, they are facing several ethical and health policy challenges, including difficult decisions on how to ration available treatment, the high cost of drugs, the complexity of treatment regimens, the inadequacy of health and delivery systems, the lack of knowledge about treatment, and the threat of drug resistance.
Objectives: To discuss whether, during an influenza pandemic, public health authorities could be ethically justified in implementing a mandatory vaccination program…
Objectives: To discuss whether, during an influenza pandemic, public health authorities could be ethically justified in implementing a mandatory vaccination program directed at health care professionals.
Methods: Ethical analysis is carried out by examining arguments that can be made in favor or against such a mandatory measure and by seeking a reasonably balanced position between them. Arguments under consideration are based on the duties of health professionals and public health authorities, the consequences of their actions and on other ethical principles. The importance of relevant empirical data is stressed without any attempt to review or analyze them systematically.
Results: Mandatory vaccination of some health care professionals during a serious pandemic of influenza can be justified, but only under certain limited conditions.
Conclusions: In the throes of an influenza pandemic, health care professionals (and to a variable degree, other health care workers) have an ethical obligation to accept influenza vaccination if it is reasonably safe and effective. The ethical responsibility of public health authorities is to limit the impact of a pandemic on the population by all reasonable means, which clearly includes the appropriate use of vaccine. Consequently, the vaccination of health care staff can be made mandatory under certain conditions. However, a critical objection to this conclusion, which upholds that a voluntary vaccination program (an ethically much less problematic intervention) is just as effective, needs to be addressed.
The 2003 global outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) was an abrupt reminder that infectious diseases pose a continuing threat to human health. In 1967…
The 2003 global outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) was an abrupt reminder that infectious diseases pose a continuing threat to human health. In 1967, U.S. Surgeon General William H. Stewart declared “it was time to close the book on infectious diseases” (Garrett, 1994, citing W.H. Stewart, “A Mandate for State Action,” presented at the Association of State and Territorial Health Officers, Washington, DC, December 4, 1967). In the latter half of the twentieth century, many shared this bold view that medical science had vanquished infectious disease. As a result, public health struggled to remain relevant in the face of advances in pharmaceuticals, surgery, genetics and other areas that were becoming increasingly dominant in the quest to extend and enhance human life. SARS forced many to rethink the significance of public health and the crisis, though relatively short-lived, (for commentary on the disparities between the responses to HIV and SARS, see e.g. Altman (2003)) underscored the need to rebuild public health capacity that had been allowed to slip down the health system priority list.
Recent criticism of the UK's public sector has rekindled the debate about public service leadership in comparison with the private sector, particularly in the context of…
Recent criticism of the UK's public sector has rekindled the debate about public service leadership in comparison with the private sector, particularly in the context of the financial austerity we face for years ahead. This article first reviews recent research on leadership and compares the public and private sectors, finding both commonalities and differences. The article then considers the kind of leadership required of public service leaders in the present economic climate and to handle crises and emergencies. The place of individual leadership and collective leadership and consensus is discussed, with a suggestion that charismatic individual leadership may play a more important role in the public sector than it typically has done in less turbulent times in the past. The public sector is becoming more like the private sector in this respect. The article ends with key implications of the analysis for leadership in practice.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight about factors affecting Big Data Analytics (BDA) utilization and adoption in Indian firms. Research studies have so far…
The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight about factors affecting Big Data Analytics (BDA) utilization and adoption in Indian firms. Research studies have so far focused on BDA adoption in developed economies. This study examines the factors that influence BDA usage and adoption in the context of emerging economies.
This study proposed a theoretical model of factors influencing BDA utilization and adoption. Two independent research streams – first, the top managers’ perceived strategic value (PSV) in BDA and second, the factors that influence the adoption of BDA theoretically – have been integrated with the technology-organization-environment (TOE) framework. In the BDA context, there was a theoretical necessity to identify the driver and barriers of BDA from the TOE framework on PSV and adoption of BDA. A qualitative exploratory study using face-to-face semi-structured interviews was carried out to collect data from 22 different enterprises and service providers in India. India was selected as the context as it is one of the fastest growing large economies of the world with huge potential of BDA to improve the business landscape.
The results showed that the major reason behind BDA non-adoption is that the organizations did not realize the strategic value (SV) of BDA, and they were not ready to make the changes because of technological, organizational and environmental difficulties. The findings corroborate previous results about significant factors affecting IT adoption and implementation and provide new and interesting insights. The main factors identified as playing a significant role in organizations’ adoption of BDA were SV of BDA, complexity, compatibility, IT assets, top management support, organization data environment, perceived costs, external pressure and industry type.
The main limitation related to this study is the difficulty in generalizing the findings to a larger population of enterprises. To overcome this, a statistical survey has been planned to be conducted in the future.
The BDA adoption model in this study will have both managerial implications for practitioners in India, as well as those in other developing countries, and academic implications for researchers who are interested in BDA adoption in developing counties, in terms of formulating better strategies for BDA adoption. For managers, using the research model of this study could assist in increasing their understanding of why some organizations choose to adopt BDA, while similar ones facing similar conditions do not. Also, the understanding of the strategic utilization of BDA in different business processes may improve the adoption of BDA in organizations.
This paper contributes in exploring and enhancing the understanding of the factors affecting the utilization and adoption of BDA in organizations from an Indian perspective. This study is an attempt to develop and explore a BDA adoption model by the fusion of PSV and TOE framework. The effect of the three contexts of this framework (technological, organizational and environmental) on the strategic utilization of BDA has been studied for the first time.