This paper investigates the degree to which self-selection explains the apparent higher purchase value of research shoppers.
An online survey was administered to 594 retail shoppers. The purchase value of research shoppers and single-channel shoppers was compared before and after propensity score matching to account for self-selection effects.
Prior to matching, research shoppers spend significantly more than single-channel shoppers. This difference persists after accounting for self-selection but is reduced by 25%. The impact of self-selection differs across product categories and channels, with the online channel most likely to lead to higher purchase value.
The findings build on existing literature on the value of omni-channel retail strategies and provide insights for retailers to determine the likely impact of encouraging research shopping among their customers.
The research provides important insights into the role that self-selection plays in the value of multi-channel shoppers, and the likely value to retailers of omni-channel strategies.
For consumers, cross-channel behaviour is increasingly prevalent. Such behaviour involves consumers actively engaging in (and deriving benefit) from one channel during a…
For consumers, cross-channel behaviour is increasingly prevalent. Such behaviour involves consumers actively engaging in (and deriving benefit) from one channel during a product search but switching to another channel when making a purchase. Drawing on multi-attribute utility theory, this study proposes a cross-channel behaviour typology consisting of three key aspects: channel choice behaviour, functional and economic outcomes and consumer-specific psychographic and demographic variables.
Segmentation analysis conducted via latent class analysis (LCA) was performed on a sample of 400 US consumers collected via an online survey.
Cross-channel behaviour is not always intentional. We identify a specific segment of consumers that most often engage in unplanned, rather than intentional, cross-channel switching. We find that of all shoppers that engage in cross-channel behaviour, a fifth (20%) are forced to switch channels at the point of purchase.
Cross-channel behaviour can be mitigated by retailers via a deep understanding of the driving factors of different configurations of showrooming and webrooming.
In contrast with existing conceptualisations, this study suggests that cross-channel behaviour often stems from consumers being “forced” by factors outside of their control, but within the retailers' control. This research presents a nuanced approach to decompose consumer cross-channel behaviour from the consumer perspective as planned, forced or opportunistic.
LIBRARIANS in Britain stand at the threshold of great possibilities. Having passed through the ages of the ecclesiastical library, the rich collector's private library, the academic institutional library, and the rate‐supported public library—all general libraries —they have reached the age of the special library. The next will be that of the co‐ordinated, co‐operative library service.
From Dr No in 1962 to Spectre in 2015 the opening themes for James Bond movies have always played an important role in marketing, audience expectation and reception…
From Dr No in 1962 to Spectre in 2015 the opening themes for James Bond movies have always played an important role in marketing, audience expectation and reception. Whether instrumental or sung, brassy or orchestral, upbeat or mellow, the music and/or lyrics, alongside innovative title sequences, function as key signifiers of gender representation in the ongoing series of spy adventures. Bond’s suave machismo, for example, is immediately set out in the opening titles for Dr No created by Maurice Binder. The iconic image of Bond viewed through a gun barrel as a shot rings out, is punctuated by Monty Norman’s theme music with its swinging brass and the tough, machine-gun like sound of electric guitar being played fiercely with a plectrum. Although this theme became synonymous with the character, there was a shift towards songs written specifically to tie-in with subsequent film titles although the lyrics rarely had anything to do with the narratives of the film. The title sequences themselves also became more provocative, invariably focussing on silhouetted, naked or semi-naked female bodies or their component parts alongside gun barrels and bullets, albeit in a highly stylised and artistic manner. This chapter, then, will consider how the theme music functions with the opening credits sequences in relation to the representation of women, race and the image of Bond himself and how the character has changed over time.
The purpose of this study is to test Kim et al.’s (2012) seven-dimension memorable tourism experience (MTE) scale in a new context and with a new sample. In addition, the…
The purpose of this study is to test Kim et al.’s (2012) seven-dimension memorable tourism experience (MTE) scale in a new context and with a new sample. In addition, the study aims to test for causes or relationships between satisfaction, MTE dimensions, co-creative tourism experiences and memorability, as well as the mediating effect of memorability on tourists’ behavioural intention.
This study uses a cross-sectional survey design using a questionnaire to collect data. Three trained interviewers questioned international travellers in the boarding area in Olbia-Costa Smeralda Airport while they were waiting to board their flights home. The interviewers also distributed and administered the questionnaires. The questionnaire was in English. Data collection was carried out from August to October 2017.
In terms of the theoretical implications of this study, its findings result in a different MTE construct than that of Kim et al.’s (2012) study. Although they discuss seven important experiential tourism factors that are likely to affect the memorability of a person’s experience, what emerges from the present research is that satisfaction, novelty, refreshment, involvement and knowledge significantly influence the memorability of a tourist’s experience.
This study has some limitations. First, it is highly site-specific and based on a convenience sample, rendering the findings non-generalizable to either the destination under investigation or any other tourism destination. Further studies should be conducted in other Mediterranean cities to generalise the significance of these findings. Although English can be considered the primary international language, the fact that the survey has been written only in English could have excluded non-English speakers from participating in the study. In addition, the study has not considered national domestic tourists. In the future, translating the survey into different languages and interviewing domestic tourists visiting the island might be useful.
Tourism service providers could gather feedback forms from tourists to measure and improve their satisfaction. Additionally, the multiplicity of actors involved in the tourism sector should coordinate and cooperate with one another to create tourism experiences that result in high overall visitor satisfaction. Tourism service providers could also offer new and diverse encounters, for example, the chance to attend local festivals to arouse curiosity, as studies suggest that such novel activities make the experiences particularly memorable. Public officials should also focus on site rejuvenation to appeal to novelty seekers who have visited previously.
Overall, the study highlights the discrepancies in the effects of satisfaction, MTE dimensions and co-creative tourism experience on the memorability of a trip experience in relation to previous studies. The results of the analysis refute the assumption that the seven MTE dimensions are representative across a variety of destination-specific tourist experiences. Besides the identified five dimensions, opening up the discussion on other factors that might influence the memorability of tourists’ experiences presents an updated agenda.
本研究的目的是在新的环境中用新的样本测试Kim等人（2012年）的七维MTE量表。此外, 该研究旨在测试满意度、MTE 维度、共同创意的旅游体验和纪念品之间的原因或关系, 以及纪念品对游客行为意图的中介作用。
就本研究的理论意义而言, 其发现得出了与Kim等人（2012年）研究不同的MTE结构。虽然他们讨论了七个重要的体验旅游因素, 可能影响一个人的体验的纪念性, 从目前的研究得到的是, 满意度, 新奇, 精力恢复, 参与和知识显著影响游客体验的纪念性。
这项研究有一些局限性。首先, 它高度基于特定的地点, 并且基于便利样本, 使得调查结果无法与此次调研的目的地或其他旅游目的地通用。未来应在其他地中海城市进行进一步的研究, 以概括这些发现的重要性。虽然英语被认为是主要的国际通用语言, 但仅以英文编写的调查问卷可能使非英语使用者无法参与研究。此外, 该研究没有考虑国内游客。未来研究可以将调查翻译成不同的语言并采访访问该岛的国内游客。
旅游服务提供者可以从游客那里收集反馈表, 以衡量和提高他们的满意度。此外, 旅游活动的多方参与者应相互协调和合作, 创造旅游体验, 使游客的总体满意度达到较高水平。研究表明, 新颖的活动可以使旅游经历特别令人难忘, 因此, 旅游服务提供者也可以提供新的和多样化的接触, 例如, 有机会参加当地节日以唤起好奇心。政府官员还应关注网站活力, 以吸引访问网站的新奇探索者。
总体而言, 该研究强调了满意度、MTE 维度和共同创意旅游体验对旅行体验的影响与之前研究相比的差异。分析结果驳斥了七个 MTE 维度在各种特定目的地的旅游体验中具有代表性的假设。除了讨论发现的五个维度外, 此研究对可能影响游客体验的可纪念性的其他因素展开了讨论, 推动并更新了现有的研究议程。
El propósito de este estudio es probar la escala MTE de Kim et al. (2012) y sus siete dimensiones, en un nuevo contexto y con una nueva muestra. Además, el objetivo del estudio es evaluar las causas o las relaciones entre, satisfacción, dimensiones MTE, experiencias co-creativas de turismo y la memorabilidad, así como el efecto mediador de la memorabilidad, en la intención de comportamiento de los turistas.
Este estudio emplea un diseño de encuesta transversal y utiliza un cuestionario para recopilar los datos. Tres entrevistadores interrogaron a viajeros internacionales en el área de embarque en el aeropuerto Olbia-Costa Smeralda, mientras esperaban en el embarque de sus vuelos de retorno. Los entrevistadores también distribuyeron y administraron los cuestionarios. El cuestionario estaba en inglés. La recolección de datos se realizó de agosto a octubre de 2017.
En términos de implicaciones teóricas del estudio, los resultados desprenden una construcción MTE diferente a la del estudio de Kim et al. (2012). Si bien, discuten los siete factores del turismo experiencial, que probablemente afecten a lo memorable de la experiencia de una persona. Lo que surge de la presente investigación es que, la satisfacción, la novedad, el refrigerio, la participación y el conocimiento influyen significativamente en en todo lo memorable de la experiencia de un turista.
Limitaciones/implicaciones de la investigación
Este estudio tiene algunas limitaciones. Primero, es altamente específico del sitio y se basa en una muestra de conveniencia, lo que hace que los hallazgos no sean generalizables, ni para el destino, bajo investigación, ni para ningún otro destino turístico. Se deben realizar más estudios en otras ciudades mediterráneas para poder generalizar la importancia de estos resultados. Aunque el inglés puede considerarse el principal idioma internacional, el hecho de que la encuesta se haya escrito solo en inglés podría haber excluido a los que no hablan inglés a la hora de participar en el estudio. Además, no se ha considerado a los turistas nacionales. En el futuro, podría ser útil traducir la encuesta a diferentes idiomas y entrevistar a los turistas nacionales que visitan la isla.
Los proveedores de servicios turísticos podrían recopilar formularios de comentarios de los turistas para medir y mejorar su satisfacción. Además, la multiplicidad de actores involucrados en el sector turístico debe coordinarse y cooperar entre sí para crear experiencias turísticas que resulten para una alta satisfacción de los visitantes. Los proveedores de servicios turísticos también podrían ofrecer nuevos y diversos encuentros; por ejemplo, la oportunidad de asistir a festivales locales para despertar curiosidad, ya que los estudios sugieren que actividades novedosas hacen que las experiencias sean particularmente memorables. Los funcionarios públicos también deberían centrarse en el rejuvenecimiento del sitio para atraer a los buscadores de novedades que hayan visitado anteriormente.
En general, el estudio destaca las discrepancias entre los efectos de la satisfacción, las dimensiones de MTE y la experiencia turística co-creativa en la memorabilidad de una experiencia de viaje en relación con estudios anteriores. Los resultados del análisis refutan la suposición de que las siete dimensiones MTE son representativas en una variedad de experiencias turísticas específicas del destino. Además de las cinco dimensiones identificadas, abrir la discusión sobre otros factores que podrían influir en la memorabilidad de las experiencias de los turistas presenta una agenda actualizada.
WE are pleased to devote this Special Number of THE LIBRARY WORLD to a discussion of Irish libraries and librarianship. Our contributors are all distinguished members of the profession in Ireland, none more so than Dermot Foley, to whom we are greatly indebted for having convened this issue.
In recent years, the number of journals focusing on a single literary figure has increased substantially. No longer are only a few select authors the sole focus of a…
In recent years, the number of journals focusing on a single literary figure has increased substantially. No longer are only a few select authors the sole focus of a journal or newsletter. With the proliferation of single‐author periodicals, implications for their use in locating literary criticism increases the importance of identifying such publications and recommending them to users. The importance of the effective use of journals devoted to a single author is highlighted by the fact that many such titles are not indexed in MLA International Bibliography, long deemed the most complete of the traditional sources for locating literary criticism. Perhaps the greatest strength of the relatively recent American Humanities Index lies is its coverage of single‐author titles. Humanities Index and Abstracts for English Studies also provide access to such journals. Arts and Humanities Citation Index does include a number of the titles too, but it is relatively difficult to use because of its subject approach.
THIS month the Editor finds himself in rather a quandary. Since the number of staff that may justifiably be employed on a specialized journal of relatively limited circulation is not large, there must inevitably be some overlapping of the various functions involved in its publication, and we therefore have occasion to concern ourselves to some extent with the subscription side of The Library World, as well as with its production. We have been glancing through some of the 1957 issues of the journal, which at that time were appearing some three months later than their publication dates, and noting also the circulation figures of those issues. We then turned to the issues for the first six months of 1959, the second half of Volume 60, and their circulation, which showed an increase of roughly 20% on the earlier figures.
THE fact that the forthcoming conference of the Library Association is to be held at Eastbourne this year should provide it with an additional official interest, as it is here that the Association Hon. Solicitor and Legal Adviser holds the important office of Town Clerk. Mr. Fovargue is the authority on Library Law in all its aspects, and is the author of several books on this important subject. We are particularly happy in being able to print an article from his pen in our special Conference number. The programme of the proceedings is by now, no doubt, in the hands of our readers, and will be found to be less crowded, but no less useful for that, than in previous years. Apart from the usual business programme, which should prove full of interest, the social side has been fully catered for and delightfully arranged. Several interesting motor trips are to take place, and delegates will be afforded an opportunity of enjoying the charms of the beautiful county of Sussex as well as those of one of our most favoured of seaside resorts.