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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2020

Aziz Muslu

The rapid change in technology has begun to influence the maritime sector with the effect of globalization. The impact of technologies is increasing in shipping…

Abstract

The rapid change in technology has begun to influence the maritime sector with the effect of globalization. The impact of technologies is increasing in shipping management; on the other hand, the importance of the human element has also increased. International Maritime Organization has introduced regulations governing the training and social rights of seafarers. MLC 2006 has been an important improvement for the social rights of seafarers. Preventive measures for workplace bullying were started on ships. The safety regulations of STWC Manila 2010 have brought some improvements in the industry. The maritime industry will face some absolute changes brought by Industry 4.0 such as IoT, artificial intelligence, cloud technology and blockchain, although it is unclear yet what sort of changes will occur in manpower labor markets. There are some countries that carry on projects regarding unmanned ships presently. For example, Norway has realized several trial voyages, as well as some other projects, which were carried on by Finland and the EU. In spite of all these changes, seafarers obviously will be needed in the maritime industry. The main purpose of the study is to determine how, from where and how many seafarers will be demanded onboard in the future. Prospects, futurists’ approaches, opinions of sector representatives and research reports are evaluated, and the future of seafarers is discussed in this study.

Details

Contemporary Global Issues in Human Resource Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-393-9

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Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2022

Marie Grasmeier

The cargo shipping industry constitutes a gendered (male) occupation par excellence with a traditionally strong masculine occupational culture. Another prominent feature

Abstract

The cargo shipping industry constitutes a gendered (male) occupation par excellence with a traditionally strong masculine occupational culture. Another prominent feature of this global industry is its ethnically segmented labour market. The ‘racial’ divide of the workforce intersects with gender and other axes of difference. Drawing on the author’s own ethnographic data as well as on a comprehensive review of existing research on the field, the chapter gives an overview of the issues faced by women working in the sector as well as their ways of coping with those issues. Gendered workplace interactions at sea often refer to a misogynistic discourse deeply rooted in the traditionally masculine culture of the industry, attempting to symbolically exclude women from the occupational group. Drawing on Kate Manne’s theory of the ‘logic of misogyny’, the author interprets those interactional practices as attempts by men to defend the gendered identity of the occupational group against the intrusion of women.

Details

Women, Work and Transport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-670-4

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2022

Deron Danario Wilson

The maritime industry is crucial to the global economy and the scarcity of seafarers is an urgent concern. Seafarers are in short supply right now and will continue to be…

Abstract

Purpose

The maritime industry is crucial to the global economy and the scarcity of seafarers is an urgent concern. Seafarers are in short supply right now and will continue to be so in the foreseeable future. This study interrogates Jamaica’s position as a seafarer labour market through the prism of the industry’s apparent scarcity of seafarers (officers) while examining Jamaica’s maritime education and training system as a tool for nation-building. Previous studies have almost exclusively focused on specific jurisdictions, but as far as we know, very little research has investigated Jamaica as a maritime labour market.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the aim of this study, mixed-method research was applied in collecting and analyzing data.

Findings

The study revealed that Jamaican seafarers possess several positive attributes such as good communication skills, they are typically well trained and have good cross-cultural skills, making them compatible with a multicultural crew. However, the supply of Jamaican seafarers continues to be low due to several challenges, including a lack of government support for the sector, lack of key stakeholder collaboration and a lack of awareness about career prospects.

Research limitations/implications

The topic of seafarer supply is a broad one, and due to its scope and practical limitations, detailed statistical studies were not undertaken. As a result, further work is needed to establish more precise correlations between the essential variables.

Practical implications

Many findings point to Jamaica’s strengths as a provider of seafarers, yet problems and obstacles were also mentioned. The study’s findings point to a lack of maritime awareness among youth, as well as, perhaps surprisingly, among stakeholders and policymakers. The paper provides a holistic report on Jamaica’s status as a seafaring supply country that policymakers can use to inform policy and to upscale Jamaica’s seafaring output.

Social implications

A career as a seafarer can be both intriguing and lucrative. Hence, creating a conducive environment that promotes training, world-class certification and seafarers’ employment may increase seafarers’ output and, by extension, contribute to Jamaica’s economy and nation-building.

Originality/value

Jamaica’s status as a maritime labour market is insufficiently studied and as a result several key questions and notions have not as yet been discussed. This study explores the maritime labour market in Jamaica and documents what exists.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 December 2021

Chun Pong Wong

This study examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the well-being and mental health of the seafarers who had to overstay on ships after their contracts expired…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the well-being and mental health of the seafarers who had to overstay on ships after their contracts expired, identifies topics that affect their mental distress, and recommends measures to overcome these.

Design/methodology/approach

Four research questions about the impacts on the seafarers before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were raised. A literature review and a questionnaire survey were conducted to find answers. Ship officers were asked to assess and fill in the questionnaires for the stranded seafarers onboard in order to collect sufficient samples rapidly for this study.

Findings

Despite the guidelines provided by the shipping companies are adequate to protect the seafarers from COVID-19, their mental distress levels have been worsened under the pandemic. The crew change crisis causes anxiety and negatively impacts on their working performance; however, the repatriation expectation of the stranded seafarers is of the highest concern. Three topics were identified as having impacts on the mental health of the stranded seafarers: crew change crisis, low vaccination rate, and the lack of key worker recognition. While international stakeholders are advocating for support in these issues, the shipping companies and the seafarers need to do their parts to exacerbate the mental distress, and to survive and thrive beyond the pandemic.

Originality/value

The findings of this study will help the shipping companies to navigate the challenges, and the seafarers to overcome issues caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

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Article
Publication date: 15 April 2020

Helen Devereux, Emma Wadsworth and Syamantak Bhattacharya

The purpose of this paper is to examine the ways in which workers employ rule breaking, rule bending and deviations from management defined norms in the workplace and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the ways in which workers employ rule breaking, rule bending and deviations from management defined norms in the workplace and the impact this has on their occupational health and safety (OHS) experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted with 37 seafarers working on board four vessels engaged in international trade. The data were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed using NVivo software.

Findings

The findings indicate that seafarers utilised workplace fiddles – which included rule breaking, rule bending and deviating from management defined norms – in order to engender a workable system in which they could remain safe but also profitable to those who controlled their labour. Moreover, the findings suggest that shore-side management deflected the responsibility for rule violations by deferring many of the decisions regarding features of life on board – such as the scheduling of work hours – to the senior officers on board.

Originality/value

The paper sheds light on where, in practice, responsibility for OHS lies in the international shipping industry, an industry in which workers experience relatively high rates of work-related fatalities, injuries and mental health conditions.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2010

Kathy S. Mack

The purpose of this paper is to explore the lessons of globalization from the standpoint of Norwegian seafarers' career experiences. An isolated and multicultural…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the lessons of globalization from the standpoint of Norwegian seafarers' career experiences. An isolated and multicultural shipboard social milieu provides a unique context for examining the challenges and impacts associated with globalized work.

Design/methodology/approach

Descriptions of the historical contexts of globalization, Norwegian shipping and seafaring are followed by the use of on‐line qualitative methodology to access globally dispersed and mobile informants.

Findings

By studying the historical development of globalization and analyzing seafarers' accounts, the “material realities” of global impacts may be better understood.

Research limitations/implications

The shipboard context provides scholars and practitioners with an opportunity to learn lessons about the economic/social/historical values of certain occupations. Globalization has rendered multicultural workforces both at sea and on land. Seafarers have knowledge claims about managing and working technologically advanced and diverse work environments. “Male‐only” seafarer respondents limit understanding about the availability of Norwegian women seafarers to meet the recruitment and retention challenges faced by the shipping industry.

Practical implications

The IMO has stressed that the human element, seafarer response and cooperation, is critical to the effectiveness of global maritime security initiatives. Norwegian seafarers believe that policy‐makers tend to make decisions that reflect misguided assumptions and age‐old myths about sailors and shipboard organizational life. The paper raises awareness about the “business of seafaring”; which Tony Lane, UK seafarer turned sociologist, once argued is quite different from the “business of shipping”.

Originality/value

Exploration in a maritime context provides information of original value unavailable from other types of organizations.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 24 September 2020

Pengfei Zhang, Lijun Zhao, Olga Vata and Sriram Rajagopal

This paper aims to examine three of the major issues relating to the welfare of seafarers, including wages, social security benefits and onboard and ashore welfare…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine three of the major issues relating to the welfare of seafarers, including wages, social security benefits and onboard and ashore welfare facilities and services. It is impossible to research all countries here, so this paper selects Greece – which is one of today’s primary shipping countries as for shipowning, as well as for global supply and demand for seafarers – to conduct an empirical case study.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the existing knowledge and scholarship, and primary data collected in several phases of fieldwork, this paper intends to critically examine three major issues relating to the welfare for Greek seafarers, namely, wages, social security benefits and onboard and ashore welfare facilities and services.

Findings

This paper finds that they face poor labour conditions, which are getting worse due to the depressed world and Greek economies and intense financial pressures on shipping companies. The entry into force of the Maritime Labour Convention 2006 has a significant impact on the world maritime industry.

Research limitations/implications

This paper critically examines the three major issues relating to the welfare of Greek seafarers.

Originality/value

Such issues, which Greece is facing are also common in other countries, so the findings and suggestions revealed from this paper are of importance for the global shipping industry and other states.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2019

Alka Rai

To deal with the agenda of extensive research to establish employer branding as a valuable Human Resource (HR) practice, this study aims to examine perception of seafarer

Abstract

Purpose

To deal with the agenda of extensive research to establish employer branding as a valuable Human Resource (HR) practice, this study aims to examine perception of seafarer to explore the attributes related with employer branding in maritime industry. This study intends to explore the applicability of instrumental-symbolic framework of employer branding in maritime industry to understand the dimensions related with attractiveness of seafarers’ jobs.

Design/methodology/approach

Sample of the study is Indian seafarers include only officers from both deck and engine. Total 276 usable responses were considered at the end for data analysis.

Findings

Both, the instrumental and symbolic attributes explained significant variance in predicting attractiveness of seafarers’ occupation, thus supporting hypotheses 1 and 2. In particular, among instrumental dimensions, social/team activities, structure, advancement, travel opportunities and pay and benefits positively predicted seafarers’ attraction towards their job. As symbolic dimension, sincerity, competence and prestige was positively related, and ruggedness was negatively related to attractiveness of the present job among seafarers.

Practical implications

Overall, the present findings ascertain the utility of the framework as a conceptualization of employer brands and support the applicability of instrumental-symbolic framework for understanding the dimensions of occupational attractiveness in different context and culture, i.e. Indian Seafarers.

Originality/value

Although the popularity of employer branding is growing amongst human resources practitioners, but still, there is dearth of academic (mainly empirical research) literature on the subject, `appeals to management researchers (Cable and Turban, 2001; Backhaus and Tikoo, 2004, Edwards, 2009; alniacik and alniacik, 2012; Kucherov and Zavyalova, 2012). With this in consideration and to deal with the agenda of extensive research to establish employer branding as a valuable HR practice, the present study examines perception of seafarer to explore the attributes related with employer branding in maritime industry.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2017

Chaur-Luh Tsai and Yan-Wei Liou

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the aims of discovering the problems existing in the seafarer recruitment management system and of finding out an efficiency…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the aims of discovering the problems existing in the seafarer recruitment management system and of finding out an efficiency recruitment system for shipping companies to retain skillful seafarers continue serving in their companies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study interviewed with the senior managers of shipping companies to clarify the seafarers’ problems they have encountered and conducted questionnaire survey to collect the seafarers’ perceptions for further analysis. Exploratory factor analysis and multi-regression analysis were applied for the data analysis.

Findings

There were four primary dimensions relating to seafarers’ management, namely, work attitude, loyalty, payment and welfare and opportunity. The results revealed that dimensions of payment and welfare and opportunity were significantly positive effect on seafarers’ loyalty; only the dimension of payment and welfare was found to significantly effect on the work attitude. However, these four dimensions were all found a positive effect on the work performance as well.

Research limitations/implications

The results of cross-section research cannot fit all economic fluctuation conditions.

Practical implications

The ship owners and the operators should consider both the environmental motivation and the hygiene factor to establish a proper seafarers’ recruitment management system to retain seafarers and lead to better performance of the seafarers. The study findings also suggest the shipping company should pay attention to hire local seafarers, i.e. seafarers from the place where the company is based, as those local seafarers might have more work commitment than seafarers from other countries.

Originality/value

The findings of the study show that welfare and opportunity is the most important factor on loyalty, while it also exerts significant effect on work attitude and work performance. The results suggest that the motivation and performance are not merely dependent upon environmental needs (payment). The findings provide evidences of the importance of non-monetary remuneration within the seafarers’ recruitment management system.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Helen Sampson and Neil Ellis

This paper aims to, using the example of the highly globalised shipping industry, shed light upon the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and the extent to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to, using the example of the highly globalised shipping industry, shed light upon the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and the extent to which it might be relied upon to fill international regulatory gaps.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws upon findings from a questionnaire study of shipboard accommodation.

Findings

The paper finds that seafarers’ welfare remains under-considered by many companies. It suggests that the consolidation of regulation pertaining to seafarer living conditions under the Maritime Labour Convention (MLC) has been timely. However, a priority for the international community should be to develop the relatively low standards currently required by existing regulation to provide for better standards of seafarer welfare across the global fleet.

Research limitations/implications

This evidence from the shipping industry challenges arguments for the normative basis for CSR and lends weight to those suggesting that the apparent exercise of CSR by multinational companies should broadly be understood as an exercise in public relations.

Social implications

The research points to the need for the MLC to be amended to raise the mandatory standards of shipboard accommodation in the merchant shipping industry.

Originality/value

The paper contributes unique data on seafarers’ living conditions and augments the body of knowledge concerning the exercise of CSR in global sectors.

Details

Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

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1 – 10 of 317