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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

R.A. Cláudio, J.M. Silva and J. Byrne

This paper aims to present a methodology, based on traditional approaches, to predict the fatigue life and non‐propagating cracks of shot peened components and the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a methodology, based on traditional approaches, to predict the fatigue life and non‐propagating cracks of shot peened components and the damaging effect of a scratch created over the treated surface.

Design/methodology/approach

The finite element method is used to determine the actual strain at surface and fracture mechanics parameters calculated from cracks at the surface. The model considers residual stress (in order to introduce the effect of shot peening) and the scratch geometry. The total fatigue life is obtained by adding initiation life, to early and long crack propagation life using appropriate criteria.

Findings

Numerical predictions were compared with previous experimental tests, showing that this method is quite reliable for predicting both fatigue life and non‐propagating cracks of shot peened components, including the effect of damage due to a scratch.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed method provides good results and a clear understanding of the fatigue process, however it requires a considerable amount of both material and shot peening parameters.

Practical implications

The methodology presented in this paper allows the determination of fatigue life and the prediction of non‐propagating cracks for components, including the effects of shot peening and scratch damage. These results can be used to quantify the scratch damage limits of components improved by shot peening.

Originality/value

This paper provides a useful tool for prediction of the effects of shot peening and scratch damage on fatigue life, using traditional approaches.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2019

Ricarose Roque and Natalie Rusk

Many initiatives are seeking to engage children in learning to code. However, few studies have examined how children’s engagement in learning and using coding develops…

Abstract

Purpose

Many initiatives are seeking to engage children in learning to code. However, few studies have examined how children’s engagement in learning and using coding develops over time. This study aims to seek young people’s perspectives on what they viewed as important in their long-term participation in a coding community.

Design/methodology/approach

This study identified youth with a high level of participation and who demonstrated emergent leadership in the Scratch online community. Using methods from qualitative research on youth development, individual interviews were conducted in which these youth were asked about memorable moments in their participation and how these experiences influenced them.

Findings

While each young person described a unique pathway and perspective, this study identified key experiences that motivated their participation, influenced their development and inspired their emergent leadership. These experiences included opportunities to learn through exploration, to receive feedback from peers, to engage in creative collaboration and to contribute to the community.

Practical implications

This study discussed these findings in light of previous research on youth development, and it suggests that building on practices and principles from research on youth programs can help more young people become engaged in developing broader skills with coding.

Originality/value

Youth highlighted experiences that enabled them to express their ideas, to build relationships, to help others and to see themselves in new ways. Their perspectives expand beyond the predominant focus of coding initiatives on computational thinking and problem-solving skills to also support social, leadership and identity development.

Details

Information and Learning Sciences, vol. 120 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5348

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Julia Hagge

The purpose of this paper is to examine the ways in which early adolescent programmers embed meaning in their digital media created within an online programming community…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the ways in which early adolescent programmers embed meaning in their digital media created within an online programming community called Scratch.

Design/methodology/approach

The author completed an 18-month descriptive case study with 5 early adolescent participants. The research design included a multimodal analytic analysis of participant artifacts and inductive analysis of semi-structured interviews and transcription frames.

Findings

Participants embedded meaning to achieve four primary purposes, namely, to guide visitors through exhibits, to story, to engage in conversation and to game. To achieve each goal, the participants embedded unique semantic cues within specific Scratch structures.

Research limitations/implications

Questions for how researchers in literacy and learning can further explore meaning-making within programming-as-writing are suggested.

Practical implications

Connections to the supportive structures within Scratch are discussed in the context of programming-as-writing. Considerations regarding the use of Scratch to promote programming-as-writing are provided for educators.

Originality/value

The findings in this study provide an introductory step toward an enhanced understanding of the ways in which youth embed meaning into digital media as they engage in programming-as-writing. Although coding has been researched within the context of computer science, the use of coding in multimodal composition should be explored as it relates to literacy practices.

Details

English Teaching: Practice & Critique, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1175-8708

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Article
Publication date: 13 October 2020

Haiyong Wu and Hui Huang

Mechanical wear is the main wear form of abrasive single crystal diamond (SCD) grit. The mechanical wear of SCD grit has a significant influence on the tool life and…

Abstract

Purpose

Mechanical wear is the main wear form of abrasive single crystal diamond (SCD) grit. The mechanical wear of SCD grit has a significant influence on the tool life and machining quality. This paper aims to investigate the influence of grit–workpiece contact form on the mechanical wear characteristics of SCD grit.

Design/methodology/approach

Three different grit–workpiece contact forms, which involved point/line/face contact forms, are investigated to reveal the wear mechanism of SCD grit scratching on Ta12W. The wear morphology, wear volume and scratching forces are measured, and the stress models of different contact forms are analyzed.

Findings

The results show that mechanical wear mainly occurs in the grit–workpiece contact area and increases gradually from contact area to entire SCD grit. The scratching forces vary with the mechanical wear progress of SCD grits. The SCD grit with point contact form is the most prone to produce wear. The SCD grit with face contact form can remove more material volume than the other two SCD grits, and it is the most wear resistant. The stress state is closely related with the mechanical wear of SCD grit. The contact form has a significant influence on the mechanical wear of SCD grit.

Originality/value

The results of this study can provide a theoretical basis for the fabrication of abrasive tools.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Tony Worsley, Wei Chun Wang, Pradeep Wijeratne, Sinem Ismail and Stacey Ridley

There is increasing interest in the domestic preparation of food and with the postulated health benefits of “cooking from scratch”. The purpose of this paper is to examine…

Abstract

Purpose

There is increasing interest in the domestic preparation of food and with the postulated health benefits of “cooking from scratch”. The purpose of this paper is to examine the demographic and food preparation associations of this term in order to examine its operational value.

Design/methodology/approach

A national online survey was conducted during 2012 in Australia among 1,023 domestic food providers, half of whom were men. Questions were asked about cooking from scratch, demographic characteristics, food preparation practices and interest in learning about cooking.

Findings

Three quarters of the sample reported they often or always “cooked from scratch” (CFS). More women than men always CFS; fewer 18-29 year olds did so often or always but more of the over 50s always did so; fewer single people CFS than cohabiting people. No statistically significant ethnic, educational background or household income differences were found. High levels of cooking from scratch were associated with interest in learning more about cooking, greater use of most cooking techniques (except microwaves), meat and legume preparation techniques, and the use of broader ranges of herbs, spice, liquids/ sauces, other ingredients and cooking utensils.

Research limitations/implications

In future work a numerical description of the frequency of cooking from scratch should be considered along with a wider range of response options. The data were derived from an online panel from which men were oversampled. Caution is required in comparisons between men and women respondents. The cross-sectional nature of the sample prevents any causal attributions from being drawn from the observed relationships. Further replication of the findings, especially the lack of association with educational background should be conducted.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the associations of demographic characteristics and cooking practices with cooking from scratch. The findings suggest that cooking from scratch is common among Australian family food providers and signifies interest in learning about cooking and involvement in a wide range of cooking techniques.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2019

Thomas Hainey, Gavin Baxter and Amanda Ford

Rudimentary programming is an essential, transferrable, problem solving skill in many higher education (HE) programmes in academic institutions including Software…

Abstract

Purpose

Rudimentary programming is an essential, transferrable, problem solving skill in many higher education (HE) programmes in academic institutions including Software Engineering, Business Information Technology, Computer Games Development, Design and Technology. The purpose of this paper is to address some of the problematic issues associated with teaching programming by the utilisation of a new novel teaching approach called games-based construction learning (GBCL) to attempt to increase motivation, engagement and learning effectiveness. An international and national trend is to introduce coding at earlier education levels resulting in upper primary education (PE) being the focus of this paper to ascertain if GBCL using Scratch to teach programming concepts is more effective at different levels of upper PE.

Design/methodology/approach

A large-scale empirical study introducing GBCL to teach programming concepts into 16 classes between levels 4 and 7 in PE utilising 384 children. A detailed implementation framework for GBCL using Scratch in PE was utilised to address all incorporation issues and the games constructed by the children scored utilising a game codification scheme specifically designed to address programming and design as a quantification rubric. The experiment utilised eight 1- h lessons on GBCL using Scratch.

Findings

The resulted in 178 games of varying levels of complexity developed. The results indicated that GBCL was an effective mechanism to teach programming concepts using Scratch at all levels of upper PE. Primary seven students scored higher in relation to the design metric of the quantification codification rubric.

Research limitations/implications

Under the Curriculum for Excellence (CfE) in Scotland non-traditional teaching approaches are encouraged and development of digital literacy skill is highly advocated. This has resulted in a new approach, novel approach called GBCL where children create their own games utilising an engine such as Scratch is gaining significant attention in terms of being a novel approach. Despite a plethora of similar studies associated with GBCL, it is still not as developed as games-based learning and requires further empirical studies to support the validity of the approach and resolve identified issues.

Practical implications

Computer programming itself can lead to a highly rewarding career in a number of sectors from games development to banking, such as cybersecurity and systems development. In the last decade, in particular due to the ubiquitous nature of technology there is an increasing international and national trend associated with teaching rudimentary programming concepts at a far younger age including secondary education and the upper PE level. Introducing programming at an earlier level is now being considered essential as the path to transfer from novice to expert programmer level in time is considered nearly a decade approximately. The introduction of GBCL interventions may yield positive results in a supplementary learning capacity in accordance with the CfE and increase the educational effectiveness of programming education in later levels of education.

Originality/value

This study presents a large-scale empirical evaluation of GBCL in upper PE utilising a compiled implementation framework for incorporation and a detailed game codification scheme to quantify the games produced highlighting coding constructs and design.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2017

Arzu Deveci Topal, Esra Çoban Budak and Aynur Kolburan Geçer

The purpose of this paper is to identify the effects of algorithm teaching on the problem-solving skills of deaf-hard hearing students.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the effects of algorithm teaching on the problem-solving skills of deaf-hard hearing students.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, a pre-test and post-test problem-solving scale was applied to the single group (16 deaf-hard hearing students at a secondary school level) that had received algorithm education. Pre-test and post-test results were compared in order to see whether there was a significant difference among students in terms of their problem-solving attitudes. Students’ levels of performing the applications were examined through observation forms and their opinions about algorithm teaching were received.

Findings

As a result of the research, it was determined that implemented algorithm teaching had a significant effect on improving the problem-solving skills of the students.

Originality/value

Scratch training can be administered as either a compulsory or an optional course for hearing students as the Scratch programme offers the opportunity of teaching algorithmic reasoning with games, making the courses entertaining and giving students the chance to create their own designs which helps to improve their creative problem-solving skills and their motivation accordingly. Scratch teaching can be beneficial in developing students’ problem-solving behaviours and creativity.

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Haiyong Wu, Hui Huang and Xipeng Xu

The wear of an abrasive single-crystal diamond (SCD) grit affects the machining quality of the sapphire wafer. This paper aims to investigate the influence of…

Abstract

Purpose

The wear of an abrasive single-crystal diamond (SCD) grit affects the machining quality of the sapphire wafer. This paper aims to investigate the influence of crystallographic orientation on the wear characteristics of SCD grit scratching on sapphire.

Design/methodology/approach

The wear characteristics of two SCD grits (SCD100 and SCD111) with different crystallographic orientations were systematically investigated. The wear mechanism involved in the scratching process was explored. The wear morphology, scratching forces and friction coefficient during the scratching process were measured and analyzed.

Findings

The experiment results show that the wear progress of the two SCD grits is obviously different. The wear resistance of SCD111 grit is greater than that of SCD100 grit in normal wear stage. However, the SCD100 grit could remove more sapphire material than SCD111 grit. The SCD grits mainly sustain extrusion stress and shear stress during scratching on sapphire. The crystallographic orientation of SCD grits plays a significant role in the wear progress during scratching on sapphire.

Originality/value

The results of the experimental studies could provide a theoretical foundation for improving the fabrication of abrasive diamond tools.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Bingjing Lin, A. Kiet Tieu, Hongtao Zhu, Buyung Kosasih and Oyong Novareza

This paper aims to assess the adsorption behaviour and the adhesion strength of lubricant films formed by polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the adsorption behaviour and the adhesion strength of lubricant films formed by polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide (PPO-PEO-PPO) with phosphate ester additive on Ti-coated surface and to identify the influence of molecular architecture and phosphate ester additive.

Design/methodology/approach

The thickness of the adsorbed PPO-PEO-PPO with phosphate ester lubricant films on Ti surfaces was measured by ellipsometry. The adhesion strength of the copolymer and the copolymer with phosphate ester lubricants was studied by the micro-scratch tests; the scratch tracks on the surfaces were observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy.

Findings

The copolymer with a higher weight percentage of PPO not only formed a thicker film but also showed stronger adhesion and better lubrication performance. The added phosphate ester increased the film thickness and improved the tribological behaviour. The finding reveals that the adsorbed film thickness which depends on the PPO chain length and the presence of phosphate ester has a considerable effect on the scratch behaviour.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils the studies about adsorption behaviour and lubrication mechanism of this new lubricant which has not been adequately investigated on the metal surface.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1993

Wernfried Heilen

Paint‐films are very susceptible towards contact with hard object, i.e. they are subject to marring and scratching.

Abstract

Paint‐films are very susceptible towards contact with hard object, i.e. they are subject to marring and scratching.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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