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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

John F. Riggs, Scott Widmier and Richard E. Plank

The purpose of this research is to develop a taxonomy of the impact of sales process regulations, guidance statements and laws (henceforth, referred to as “regulations”…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to develop a taxonomy of the impact of sales process regulations, guidance statements and laws (henceforth, referred to as “regulations”) on sales behaviours within the pharmaceutical industry, particularly as it relates to those within the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Given the large number of regulations, guidance statements and laws and sales behaviours that comprise the domain of this study, this research uses a “multicenter, parallel-arm clinical trial data gathering method”. This approach aggregated or “stacked” the responses from three individual questionnaires; 7,493 total observations generated by 381 respondents were analyzed.

Findings

The analysis produced a six-cluster solution of regulations, guidance statements and laws indicating distinct taxonomic structures of items that affect selling activities.

Research limitations/implications

The research was conducted with a single firm in the USA. Therefore, results may not be applicable to other geographical areas, firms and industries.

Practical Implications

The knowledge of which behaviours are perceived by the salespeople to be impacted by what regulations, guidance statements and laws provides managers with a useful tool to sort their own companies’ regulations on the basis of the classification scheme.

Originality/value

This paper provides a novel taxonomic approach to organize sales activities affected by regulations, guidance statements and laws which provides a look at the unintended consequences of the item not compliance. Additionally, it uses a research methodology relatively unknown to social science inquiry.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Charles B. Ragland, Lance Eliot Brouthers and Scott M. Widmier

– The purpose of this paper is to use a theoretical framework (institutional theory) to predict international market selection (IMS) for the direct selling industry.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use a theoretical framework (institutional theory) to predict international market selection (IMS) for the direct selling industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use independent variables taken from institutional theory to predict IMS for the direct selling industry, allowing the authors to show the relationship between institutional theory – defined independent variables and the relative attractiveness of international markets. The model is applied to a broad sample of 51 developed and emerging nations that comprise 91 percent of worldwide GDP.

Findings

The authors found that the hypotheses were confirmed. Institutional theory – defined independent variables did a good job of predicting the relative attractiveness of international markets.

Research limitations/implications

The authors used cross sectional country level data to validate their model. One major implication: institutional theory appears to do an excellent job of predicting IMS in contrast to geographic proximity or cultural similarity for the direct selling industry.

Practical implications

Managers should consider formal and informal aspects of the institutional environment, when selecting new international markets.

Originality/Value

In contrast to most IMS papers, the authors apply a theory to predict IMS outcomes, helping to provide greater potential generalizability. The authors show that selected dimensions of institutional theory do a good job of predicting IMS for the direct selling industry. Future efforts may wish to apply institutional theory to new IMS contexts. The authors conclude with managerial implications.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2007

Timothy J. Wilkinson, Anna McAlister and Scott Widmier

The purpose of this paper is to offer an assessment of the international direct marketing environment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer an assessment of the international direct marketing environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses political, economic, social, and technological (PEST) analysis to investigate the business environment of international direct marketing. This framework is commonly used as a way of assessing the context of international marketing.

Findings

Globalization, technological innovation, and the spread of free‐market governance have created new and interesting opportunities for managers who decide to use direct marketing to sell their products overseas.

Practical implications

For managers considering international direct marketing, a careful assessment of market prospects and a thoughtful evaluation of the PEST environment should maximize potential opportunities while minimizing the risks associated with foreign markets.

Originality/value

This paper provides an overview of the international direct marketing environment and can, therefore, be used by practioners in their efforts to shapes direct marketing strategy.

Details

Direct Marketing: An International Journal, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-5933

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Naoki Ando

The purpose of this paper is to fill the following research gaps. First, few studies have examined isomorphic behavior of multinational corporations (MNCs) with respect to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to fill the following research gaps. First, few studies have examined isomorphic behavior of multinational corporations (MNCs) with respect to foreign subsidiary staffing. Second, the adoption by an MNC of its internally preferable practices, which is referred to as internal mimetic behavior, has been less extensively investigated when compared with the imitation of practices adopted by a large number of peer firms. Lastly, factors that facilitate internal mimetic behavior have not been extensively explored.

Design/methodology/approach

This study hypothesizes that internal mimetic behavior is affected by both formal and informal institutional distance. The hypotheses are tested using the panel data set that consists of 3,981 foreign subsidiaries of Japanese MNCs.

Findings

This study finds that as the formal institutional distance between the host country and the home country increases, MNCs are more likely to adopt internal mimetic behavior. Furthermore, it demonstrates that as the informal institutional distance increases, the likelihood that MNCs adopt internal mimetic behavior decreases.

Practical implications

This study suggests that MNCs need to consider the consequences of internal mimetic behavior when they adopt it without having economic rationale. It also suggests that when uncertainty can be mitigated, MNCs should avoid internal mimetic behavior.

Originality/value

This study fills the aforementioned research gaps by examining what factors facilitate internal mimetic behavior. It suggests that both economic rationale and isomorphic behavior need to be considered to advance an understanding of foreign subsidiary staffing.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2011

Naoki Ando

The purpose of this paper is to explore determinants that affect foreign subsidiary staffing policies by employing institutional theory as a theoretical foundation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore determinants that affect foreign subsidiary staffing policies by employing institutional theory as a theoretical foundation.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses are developed regarding determinants of the ratio of parent country nationals (PCNs) to foreign subsidiary employees. To examine the hypotheses, Tobit regressions are run using a sample of 1,998 foreign subsidiaries of Japanese manufacturers in 40 countries.

Findings

The PCN ratio of foreign subsidiaries is positively associated with the parent firm's taken‐for‐granted PCN ratio and the PCN ratio adopted by other Japanese firms in the same cognitive category. In addition, the positive relationship between the PCN ratio adopted by other Japanese firms in the same cognitive category and the PCN ratio of foreign subsidiaries is moderated by the international experience of the parent firm, such that the positive relationship is weaker as the parent firm accumulates international experience.

Originality/value

The study described in this paper incorporates a sociological perspective into a framework that explains foreign subsidiary staffing decisions. In addition, it shows that under conditions of uncertainty, foreign firms adopt a normatively rational staffing policy, although this does not necessarily guarantee economic rationality.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Yam B. Limbu, C. Jayachandran, Barry J. Babin and Robin T. Peterson

Previous studies that examined the role of empathy and nonverbal immediacy on business-to-business (B2B) salesperson performance is limited in scope and yielded…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies that examined the role of empathy and nonverbal immediacy on business-to-business (B2B) salesperson performance is limited in scope and yielded inconclusive evidence. Grounded in Plank and Greene’s (1996) framework of salesperson effectiveness, this paper aims to empirically investigate the mediating role of adaptive selling behavior through which empathy and nonverbal immediacy influence sales force performance and the form of empathy (cognitive or affective) that has the most beneficial role in improving relationship (versus outcome) salesperson performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Using cross-sectional data that were collected from 422 pharmaceutical sales representatives, this study used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

Adaptive selling behavior mediates the effect of perspective taking empathy and empathic concern on relationship performance. However, the impact of empathy on outcome performance is not significant through adaptive selling behavior, but perspective taking empathy has a direct influence on outcome performance. Contrary to expectations, nonverbal immediacy is not mediated by adaptive selling behavior but has a direct and positive impact on relationship performance.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study have several implications for recruitment, training and assessment of salespeople in a B2B context. Based on the empirical evidence, it is highlighted that firms may use different forms of empathy and nonverbal cues to promote adaptive selling behavior that impact sales force performance (i.e. outcome or relationship).

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study which simultaneously examines the mediating role of adaptive selling behavior in the relationship between three antecedent variables that relate to sales force empathy and nonverbal communication (i.e. perspective taking empathy, empathic concern and nonverbal immediacy) and two aspects of B2B sales performance (relationship and outcome).

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Sven Dahms and Suthikorn Kingkaew

The purpose of this paper is to investigate what role national top management team diversity (TMTD) plays in foreign-owned subsidiary performance. The authors develop a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate what role national top management team diversity (TMTD) plays in foreign-owned subsidiary performance. The authors develop a conceptual framework based on the asset bundling model and the neo-configurational perspective to argue that the impact of TMTD on subsidiary performance depends on its conjunction with other assets.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors test our framework on a sample of subsidiaries located in the emerging economies of Thailand and Taiwan. The authors utilise structural equation modelling and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis techniques.

Findings

The results indicate that TMTD can contribute and hurt subsidiary performance depending on its bundling with other assets such as organisational network strength, competencies, as well as regional and cultural differences between the home and host country.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to empirically test the asset bundling model in the context of national TMTD in foreign-owned subsidiaries using a configurational approach.

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Charles M. Vance, Yvonne McNulty, Yongsun Paik and Jason D'Mello

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the emerging international career phenomenon of the “expat-preneur,” an individual temporarily living abroad who initiates an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the emerging international career phenomenon of the “expat-preneur,” an individual temporarily living abroad who initiates an international new venture (self-employment) opportunity in a host country.

Design/methodology/approach

This analysis is based on the authors’ observance of developing trends that also are showcased in the international management and IHRM literatures.

Findings

Two general types of expat-preneurs are proposed: first, pre-departure expat-preneurs who move abroad with a preconceived entrepreneurial purpose; and second, transitioned expat-preneurs who, only while abroad, recognize and pursue a new venture opportunity, either from the status of self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) looking for local employment or while serving as organization-assigned expatriates and leaving the organization at the end of the assignment or midstream.

Research limitations/implications

Distinctions between expat-preneurs and typical business SIEs are explored, and important contributions that expat-preneurs may provide in strengthening local host country economies are considered. Directions for further systematic and empirical research on the expat-preneur international career phenomenon are discussed.

Practical implications

Important mutually beneficial implications are noted for multinationals in supporting expat-preneurs’ long-term success in host country environments.

Originality/value

This conceptual study provides a valuable recognition and analysis of an important and growing international career category that has received scant attention in the literature. This research has important implications for the understanding of new international career dynamics associated with the growing trend of international entrepreneurship, especially valuable for emerging markets and of interest to multinational firms interested in the movement of their human capital.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2021

Wan-Hsien Hu and Chen-Ju Lin

Based on the broaden-and-build theory, this study aims to clarify that the relationship between extraversion and service outcomes will be mediated by work vigor, and that…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the broaden-and-build theory, this study aims to clarify that the relationship between extraversion and service outcomes will be mediated by work vigor, and that, in turn, this mediating effect will be moderated by coworker support. Specifically, the authors examine vigor as an attitudinal resource to drive organizational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This research collected 181 valid questionnaires from service industries through a two-wave survey. The authors used hierarchical regression analysis to conduct each hypothesis test. Owing to the conditional mediating effect, the authors differentiated each variable centering and used the fractional number and the product as the predictor variable, moderator, and interaction effects after centering.

Findings

The relationships between extraversion and customer orientation and service performance mediated by work vigor in that the indirect relationships are stronger when perceived coworker support is higher than is lower.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies are suggested to probe into different forms of social support (e.g. family support), mechanisms of coworker support (e.g. task-related vs. non-task-related assistance), and different workplace contexts.

Practical implications

Extraversion, as a personality trait, is a significant reference index to examine an applicant's qualifications during recruitment, particularly in service organizations. Appropriate job assistance and emotional conciliation from coworkers can effectively facilitate employees' work vigor and service outputs.

Originality/value

Previous studies suggested the influence of different personality traits on different dimensions of work engagement. Accordingly, investigation indicates that extraversion can effectively predict work vigor which is an important attitude of willingness to put personal efforts at work to facilitate frontline service outcomes.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Beth Rogers and Padmali Rodrigo

– This paper aims to explore how sales managers make resourcing decisions with particular focus on their perceptions of outsourcing.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how sales managers make resourcing decisions with particular focus on their perceptions of outsourcing.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on in-depth interviews with 29 senior sales managers from a variety of industry sectors based in the UK. All had more than five years’ experience of making resourcing decisions.

Findings

The findings are that resourcing decisions are prompted by cost pressure, the need to access skills or to improve flexibility. Outsourcing preferences are strongly moderated by perceived reputational risk. Availability of suitable suppliers and the ability to manage outsourcing are also practical moderators.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was purposeful in identifying and accessing senior respondents in substantial companies with extensive experience, but it was not random.

Practical implications

Respondents reported a lack of information available when making resourcing decisions; the model proposed provides a framework by which sales managers can identify the factors which should be taken into account and the information they need to make objective evaluations of resourcing options.

Originality/value

It has been acknowledged in prior literature that there is relatively little outsourcing of sales activities. This is the first exploratory study of the perceptions of sales managers about resourcing options and the first conceptualisation of how sales resourcing decisions are made.

Details

Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8297

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