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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Rushiun Liou, Kevin Lee and Scott Miller

Emerging-market multinational companies (EMNCs) utilize cross-border merger and acquisitions (M&As) to acquire strategic assets that compensate for their resource…

Abstract

Purpose

Emerging-market multinational companies (EMNCs) utilize cross-border merger and acquisitions (M&As) to acquire strategic assets that compensate for their resource deficiencies. Therefore, developed markets have become important destinations for EMNCs. Institutional distance constitutes a major source of competitive disadvantage for foreign firms competing with indigenous firms. The purpose of this paper is to examine the ownership pattern of cross-border M&As in the USA, and determine if EMNCs respond to institutional distance differently than advanced-market multinational companies (AMNCs).

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the extant literature in institutional theory as well as internationalization strategy, a quantitative study was carried out. Hypotheses were proposed and tested using fixed effects panel regressions.

Findings

This paper finds that both AMNCs and EMNCs take smaller ownership positions when there is greater cognitive and normative distance. The negative association is stronger for AMNCs than for EMNCs. Further, the larger the regulative distance in the positive direction, meaning a higher level of development in the host market than in the home market, the more AMNCs and EMNCs are led to opt for a higher ownership position, with EMNCs being less influenced by regulative distance.

Research limitations/implications

Though findings are robust and stable, this study is limited to observations that only have US target firms.

Originality/value

By integrating the literature from institutional theory and strategy, this paper offers a clearer understanding and distinction of the acquisition decisions made by EMNCs and AMNCs.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Daniel P. Sorensen and Scott E. Miller

In the 1990s and beginning of the next decade, a series of financial accounting scandals occurred in the United States (USA or US) and in several other countries of the…

Abstract

Purpose

In the 1990s and beginning of the next decade, a series of financial accounting scandals occurred in the United States (USA or US) and in several other countries of the world. The USA and Italy (among others) responded with legislation to reform financial reporting and corporate governance in these jurisdictions. This paper aims to compare the regulatory response of Italy to that of the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper includes a review of relevant literature and evaluation of the actions of the regulatory authorities.

Findings

In the case of the financial reporting crises, the rapid response put the USA into the role of the “first mover” with the European Union (EU) reacting to US initiatives and eventually converging to a large degree with the provisions of the US legislation. Italy has adopted many of the same regulatory reforms as the USA and has added some reforms that are directed to the specific needs to Italy.

Research limitations/implications

In conjunction with legislative initiatives like Sarbanes-Oxley, private enforcement mechanisms, such as shareholder class action suits in the USA, play an important role in discouraging and punishing financial accounting fraud.

Practical implications

In the absence of significant reforms of the Italian private enforcement system, corporate governance abuses and the potential for accounting scandals may still be persistent. As a whole, cooperative efforts continue between the USA and the EU. Such efforts are needed more and more, as companies become increasingly globalized.

Originality/value

This paper provides comparison and evaluation of corporate governance reform efforts in the USA and Italy.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1997

Gillian A. Maxwell

Looks at the principal causes and consequences of the promotion to what can no longer be viewed as a complete vacuum: women in positions of general management. Focuses on…

Abstract

Looks at the principal causes and consequences of the promotion to what can no longer be viewed as a complete vacuum: women in positions of general management. Focuses on the views of four female general managers in different international hotel groups. From an analysis of their experience and views concludes that potential for women holders of these senior positions is significant, though the industry appears unwilling to make specific “concessions” to use this largely latent labour resource.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 9 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2015

Douglas Kaufman

To describe the use of digital video as a tool for preservice teachers to examine their own literacy learning (rather than teaching) practices in order to document the…

Abstract

Purpose

To describe the use of digital video as a tool for preservice teachers to examine their own literacy learning (rather than teaching) practices in order to document the potential benefits of developing observation skills and metacognitive awareness.

Methodology/approach

During a literacy methods course, preservice teachers engaged in literature discussions. They then analyzed video of discussions to identify their processes, the effectiveness of their talk, and areas needing improvement. Content analysis was then performed on discussions, responses, and reflections about video as a learning tool.

Findings

The preservice teachers engaged in varied discussions, subsequently evaluating their practices in sophisticated, contextualized, and personally relevant ways. They articulated multiple benefits of video to enhance their roles as both learners and teachers. While examining their learning practices, they frequently shifted focus to teaching.

Practical implications

Digital video allows preservice teachers to reflect independently, generate theory about practice, and compare their practices to those of others, both peers and students. By analyzing their own learning, teachers can develop empathy toward students, discover the relative benefits of assignments, and model personal learning.

Details

Video Research in Disciplinary Literacies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-678-2

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Mark Williams, Natasha Pauli and Bryan Boruff

Climate change, deforestation and hydropower dams are contributing to environmental change in the Lower Mekong River region, the combined effects of which are felt by many…

Abstract

Climate change, deforestation and hydropower dams are contributing to environmental change in the Lower Mekong River region, the combined effects of which are felt by many rural Cambodians. How people perceive and manage the effects of environmental change will influence future adaptation strategies. The objective of this research was to investigate whether the use of a low-cost, explicitly spatial method (participatory mapping) can help identify locally relevant opportunities and challenges to climate change adaptation in small, flood-prone communities. Four villages along the banks of the Mekong River in Kratie Province, Cambodia, were the subject of this research. To identify perceived environmental hazards and adaptive responses, eight workshops were conducted using focus-group interviews and participatory mapping. The communities’ responses highlight the evolving nature of environmental hazards, as droughts increase in perceived importance while the patterns of wet season flooding were also perceived to be changing. The attribution of the drivers of these hazards was strongly skewed towards local factors such as deforestation and less towards regional or global drivers affecting the hydrology of the Mekong and climate patterns. Combining participatory mapping with focus-group interviews allowed a greater depth of understanding of the vulnerabilities and opportunities available to communities than reliance on a single qualitative method. The study highlights the potential for a bottom-up transfer of information to strengthen existing climate change policies and tailor adaptation plans to local conditions.

Details

Climate-Induced Disasters in the Asia-Pacific Region: Response, Recovery, Adaptation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-987-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Mia Consalvo

Aims to determine how multiple play styles and use of “outside” materials can be successfully taken into account when designing user experiences in educational digital games.

Abstract

Purpose

Aims to determine how multiple play styles and use of “outside” materials can be successfully taken into account when designing user experiences in educational digital games.

Design/methodology/approach

This research draws on over two dozen qualitative interviews and an open‐ended survey of an additional 50 game players with a wide range of gameplay experience.

Findings

Findings suggest that players have different skill sets, and different beliefs about what constitutes acceptable and unacceptable help in a variety of games. These findings are analyzed to argue for different ways to enhance the educational gaming experience for players.

Research limitations/implications

As with all qualitative research, the relatively small sample size makes it difficult to draw broad generalizations from the data. However, the research does suggest that there are many ways to play games, that players use many items and information “outside” the game to help them play or enhance their experience, and such things can be fruitfully used to improve educational games.

Practical implications

Designers of educational games should take into account the materials surrounding games, such as walkthroughs and codes, as ways to enhance the game and educational experience, rather than detract from them.

Originality/value

Very little research has been done examining how players perceive items and information related to game play, as well as how they use such things. This research investigates that area and relates the knowledge to ways to improve educational games, and education.

Details

On the Horizon, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1074-8121

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Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2003

Russell Cropanzano, Howard M Weiss and Steven M Elias

Display rules are formal and informal norms that regulate the expression of workplace emotion. Organizations impose display rules to meet at least three objectives: please…

Abstract

Display rules are formal and informal norms that regulate the expression of workplace emotion. Organizations impose display rules to meet at least three objectives: please customers, maintain internal harmony, and promote employee well-being. Despite these valid intentions, display rules can engender emotional labor, a potentially deleterious phenomenon. We review three mechanisms by which emotional labor can create worker alienation, burnout, stress, and low performance. Though not as widely discussed, emotional labor sometimes has propitious consequences. We discuss the potential benefits of emotional labor as well.

Details

Emotional and Physiological Processes and Positive Intervention Strategies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-238-2

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2007

Brian C. Renauer

The present study aims to examine the relationship between public and informal social control by investigating whether perceptions of neighborhood policing exhibit a…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to examine the relationship between public and informal social control by investigating whether perceptions of neighborhood policing exhibit a positive or negative relationship to informal control. The influence of police‐resident coproduction (police attendance at community meetings, police accessibility, police‐resident problem solving) on informal control is contrasted with general perceptions of police effectiveness and legitimacy.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data from 81 neighborhood leaders representing 81 Portland, OR neighborhoods (i.e. unit of analysis), along with crime and census data is used. Analysis involves multivariate OLS regression and correlations.

Findings

A frequency of police attendance at community meetings was negatively related to informal social control, controlling for neighborhood demographics, crime, and social cohesion. Results indicate a community style of policing may not be enough to overcome deeply entrenched attitudes toward the police in the most disadvantaged communities and at worst may discourage informal social control. Perceptions of neighborhood social cohesion and government responsiveness are the best predictors of increased informal social control.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is needed to understand the development of attitudes toward the police, especially in the most disadvantaged communities. The conclusions of the study are limited by the cross sectional design and use of a single neighborhood leader informant.

Practical implications

This paper attempts to identify how clear, tactical methods of collaborating with residents are related to informal social control.

Originality/value

This is one of the few studies to empirically assess whether public social control through neighborhood policing, in particular police‐resident coproduction and police legitimacy, is related to informal social control.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Donald L. Lester, John A. Parnell and Shawn Carraher

Adapting a concept from the biological sciences, organizational researchers have proposed a life cycle of organizational development from birth to death. Several distinct…

Abstract

Adapting a concept from the biological sciences, organizational researchers have proposed a life cycle of organizational development from birth to death. Several distinct models have been postulated, ranging from three to ten stages. This paper proposes a five‐stage model and tests it empirically to assess the specific stage of the life cycle of any organization. Results of a twenty‐item scale that captures managers' perceptions of their firms' position in the life cycle are discussed. Knowledge of an organization's present position or stage of development can aid top managers in understanding the relationships between organizational life cycle, competitive strategy, and performance.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Brian W. Bridgeforth

This article presents a General Theory of Social Systems. This general theory proposes a model and method for the design, behaviour, and development of social systems. The…

Abstract

This article presents a General Theory of Social Systems. This general theory proposes a model and method for the design, behaviour, and development of social systems. The model advanced is an exposition of the universal composition of social systems in three‐dimensions. The accompanying prescribed method offers dissection and analysis of past, present, and planned systems from Micro to Meta scales in isolation and relation to external systems.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 25 no. 10/11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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