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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Scott Kratz and Elizabeth Merritt

The US educational system is on the cusp of transformational change. Signals that the current educational structure has been destabilized include rising dissatisfaction

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2500

Abstract

Purpose

The US educational system is on the cusp of transformational change. Signals that the current educational structure has been destabilized include rising dissatisfaction with the formal educational system and the proliferation of non‐traditional forms of primary education. In the coming era, museums will play a key role in the new educational landscape. A broad and shared understanding among policy makers, reformers and practitioners of the unique capabilities of museums will ensure that the new educational infrastructure takes full advantage of these strengths. This paper seeks to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides an overview of educational innovation in a broad cross section of US museums, citing selected examples.

Findings

There is an emerging consensus that whatever the new educational era looks like, it will focus on the development of a core set of skills. This paper reviews some ways in which museums are helping learners develop the core skills of critical thinking, synthesizing information, ability to innovate and think creatively, and collaboration. The USA needs to scale up the educational resources and skills provided by its museums via online access, better indexing of online resources, physically incorporating museums into schools and schools into museums, and making museums central points for teacher training. This will ensure museums can provide equitable access to their unique resources and fulfill their potential in the new educational landscape.

Originality/value

By applying the techniques of forecasting to the field of education, this paper provides glimpses of potential futures as seen in the vibrant innovations in education currently taking place outside traditional schools.

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2007

Edward A. Morse

This article examines the framework of the Agreement for Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) and assesses its impacts on domestic autonomy and authority in…

Abstract

This article examines the framework of the Agreement for Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) and assesses its impacts on domestic autonomy and authority in matters of food and environmental safety. The direct impact of the SPS Agreement appears quite limited, as only a few cases have arisen. The Agreement has not proven to be a pervasive tool for the purpose of overturning domestic policies on food or environmental safety, despite the fact that the WTO Panel or Appellate Body decisions have found that domestic measures violate the terms of the SPS Agreement. Limited enforcement mechanisms provide protection for domestic policies, though perhaps at the price of trade sanctions. Moreover, theoretical literature suggests that the SPS Agreement may indeed enhance democratic values by discounting the influence of special interests and retaining ultimate authority for enforcement within the discretion of domestic government. Important issues nevertheless remain, including the role of the precautionary principle in policymaking and the means to address normative values, such as developing moral consensus on animal welfare, in trade matters. Trade has proven to be a catalyst for change and cooperative development in this context.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2017

Edwins Laban Moogi Gwako

This longitudinally informed ethnographic work explores the interlocking socioeconomic and cultural roles, changes as well as effects of home-brewed alcoholic beverages in…

Abstract

Purpose

This longitudinally informed ethnographic work explores the interlocking socioeconomic and cultural roles, changes as well as effects of home-brewed alcoholic beverages in Maragoli society of western Kenya. The informants’ emic perspectives enhance existing knowledge and understanding of the commodification of home-brewing of alcohol. The participants’ experientially anchored views provide refined insights into how home-brews are influenced by the disintegration of livelihoods and women brewers’ need to earn money independently from men’s income to meet their financial needs. This work also documents alcohol-related maladaptive aspects including men’s misappropriation of funds, malnutrition, domestic violence, sexual promiscuity, rape, prostitution, and disposal of agricultural inputs and produce to obtain money to buy brews.

Methodology/approach

This study used a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods to enhance data quality, validity, reliability, and deep learning of the dynamics and ramifications of home-brewing of alcoholic products.

Findings

This study’s empirical results show Maragoli brewers’ ingenuity in their risk-aversive efforts to: (1) optimize positive benefits and (2) reduce the unintended maladaptive consequences of home-brews.

Practical implications

This work demonstrates that brewers are not passive victims of their productive resource constraints. They exercise ingenuity in producing and selling alcoholic beverages to earn a living even though this venture generates unintended harmful outcomes. This calls for interventions by governmental arms, nongovernmental organizations, and community-based support networks to empower brewers and their clientele to venture into alternative enterprises and consumption of less harmful refreshments. Safety-nets should also be in place to minimize vulnerability and social fragmentation attributable to home-brewed alcohol.

Details

Anthropological Considerations of Production, Exchange, Vending and Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-194-2

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Book part
Publication date: 5 June 2011

Catherine Closet-Crane

The professional discourse on academic library planning and design is examined. A critical realist philosophical stance and a constructionist perspective constitute the…

Abstract

The professional discourse on academic library planning and design is examined. A critical realist philosophical stance and a constructionist perspective constitute the theoretical framework that, paired with Fairclough's methodology for critical discourse analysis, is used to examine the constitution of interpretative repertoires and of a discourse constructing the academic library as a learning place. The information commons, learning commons, and library designed for learning repertoires are described and the effects of discursive activity are analyzed. Three types of effects are presented: (1) the production by the LIS community of discourse on academic libraries of a sizable body of literature on the information commons and on the learning commons, (2) the construction of new types of libraries on the commons model proposed by Beagle, and (3) the metaphorization of the library as business. The study concludes that the existing discourse takes a facilities management perspective dominated by concerns with technology, equipment, and space requirements that does not address the physical, psychological, and environmental qualities of library space design. Consequently, it is suggested that architectural programming techniques should be used in library planning and design that consider the architectural features and environmental design factors contributing to the making of a place where learning is facilitated.

Details

Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-014-8

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Book part
Publication date: 12 April 2012

Abstract

Details

An Organizational Learning Approach to Process Innovations: The Extent and Scope of Diffusion and Adoption in Management Accounting Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-734-5

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Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2004

Lynn M Shore, Lois E Tetrick, M.Susan Taylor, Jaqueline A.-M Coyle Shapiro, Robert C Liden, Judi McLean Parks, Elizabeth Wolfe Morrison, Lyman W Porter, Sandra L Robinson, Mark V Roehling, Denise M Rousseau, René Schalk, Anne S Tsui and Linn Van Dyne

The employee-organization relationship (EOR) has increasingly become a focal point for researchers in organizational behavior, human resource management, and industrial…

Abstract

The employee-organization relationship (EOR) has increasingly become a focal point for researchers in organizational behavior, human resource management, and industrial relations. Literature on the EOR has developed at both the individual – (e.g. psychological contracts) and the group and organizational-levels of analysis (e.g. employment relationships). Both sets of literatures are reviewed, and we argue for the need to integrate these literatures as a means for improving understanding of the EOR. Mechanisms for integrating these literatures are suggested. A subsequent discussion of contextual effects on the EOR follows in which we suggest that researchers develop models that explicitly incorporate context. We then examine a number of theoretical lenses to explain various attributes of the EOR such as the dynamism and fairness of the exchange, and new ways of understanding the exchange including positive functional relationships and integrative negotiations. The article concludes with a discussion of future research needed on the EOR.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-103-3

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Christopher Cornforth

The aim of this paper is to develop a better understanding of the pressures that can cause mission drift among social enterprises and some of the steps that social…

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3861

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to develop a better understanding of the pressures that can cause mission drift among social enterprises and some of the steps that social enterprises can take to combat these pressures.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is conceptual in nature. It draws on resource dependency theory, institutional theory and various extant empirical studies to develop an understanding of the causes of mission drift. This analysis is then used to examine the practical steps that social enterprises can take to combat mission drift.

Findings

The paper highlights how high dependence on a resource provider and the demands of “competing” institutional environments can lead to mission drift. Based on this analysis, the paper sets out various governance mechanisms and management strategies that can be used to combat mission drift.

Practical implications

The paper sets out practical steps social enterprises can take to try to prevent mission drift. While governance mechanisms provide important safeguards, there is still a danger of mission drift unless active steps are taken to manage the tensions that arise from trying to achieve both commercial and social goals. These strategies can be divided into two broad types. Those that seek to compartmentalise the different activities into separate parts of the organization and those that seek to integrate them. Integrative strategies include careful selection and socialization, compromise and “selective coupling”.

Originality/value

The paper will be of value to other researchers attempting to understand the dynamics of social enterprises and, in particular, the processes that can lead to mission drift and to managers of social enterprises keen to combat these processes.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 29 January 2018

Virginia P. Stofer, Scott McLean and Jimmy Smith

Wrist orthoses are used by occupational therapists to decrease pain, support weak muscles and protect tissues during healing. However, use of wrist orthoses has been…

Abstract

Purpose

Wrist orthoses are used by occupational therapists to decrease pain, support weak muscles and protect tissues during healing. However, use of wrist orthoses has been observed to produce compensatory movements in other upper extremity joints. This paper aims to determine whether wearing wrist orthoses produced compensatory movements of the elbow in addition to the shoulder when performing drinking and hammering tasks.

Design/methodology/approach

Two twin-axis electrogoniometers were positioned on the elbow and shoulder to track joint movement. The four conditions were drink with orthosis, hammer with orthosis, drink without orthosis and hammer without orthosis. Joint movement was defined as total angular excursion of the joint throughout the performance of the task. Separate 2 × 2 (joint × orthosis) repeated measures analyzes of variance (ANOVA) were used to evaluate differences in joint excursion of the elbow and shoulder joints between orthosis conditions for each task.

Findings

Wearing a wrist orthosis did not change the amount of joint excursion compared to not wearing an orthosis during the drinking and hammering tasks.

Originality/value

Findings suggest that wrist orthoses do not result in statistically significant changes in elbow and shoulder joint movements during simulated drinking and hammering tasks.

Details

Irish Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-8819

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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2008

Gary Pivo and UN Environment Programme Finance Initiative Property Working Group

This paper seeks to help those making investment decisions on existing commercial real estate portfolios to understand how environmental, social, and governance (ESG…

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7500

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to help those making investment decisions on existing commercial real estate portfolios to understand how environmental, social, and governance (ESG) issues impact the current value and prospective investment performance of the assets they own and manage.

Design/methodology/approach

The issues and literature related to ESG issues in property investing are reviewed and examples of what industry leaders are doing to address these issues are collected and reported.

Findings

Property investors can realize greater returns on their investments through considering and acting on a range of social and environmental issues. Lenders, owners, fund managers, asset and property managers, and developers can all incorporate RPI strategies into their own activities. RPI strategies can be categorized into ten elements covering environmental, social and community issues. There are two types of financially sound RPI strategies: no cost and value added approaches. More research needs to be carried out to understand the economic impacts of some strategies.

Originality/value

Sustainability and corporate social responsibility are major and growing issues for property investors. The study demonstrates a successful example of how fund and asset managers are responding to these issues which can be considered by other managers in their own strategic planning.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Sangkyun Kim

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the economic impact of an employee internet management (EIM) system.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the economic impact of an employee internet management (EIM) system.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews previous research on economic justification. It implements an EIM system, sniffer, and firewall to monitor real‐time sessions and to record blocked attempts.

Findings

The study finds that management may introduce an EIM system as a productivity control tool and bandwidth management tool.

Research limitations/implications

Impacts of backlash were measured by qualitative questionnaires, so there was a possibility of some aberration. Partial elements limited to monetary factors are used among the various economic factors.

Practical implications

The paper proves that the overall impact of an EIM system has a positive value because filtering mechanisms cause users to lose access to few URLs containing useful information, saves users from various risk points and enhances labor productivity.

Originality/value

The study suggests the impact factors and measurement methods to justify the economic values of an EIM system.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

Keywords

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