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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2013

Louise Cooke and Hazel Hall

This paper aims to review the value of social network analysis (SNA) as a method appropriate to LIS research. SNA is used to investigate the effectiveness of a framework…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the value of social network analysis (SNA) as a method appropriate to LIS research. SNA is used to investigate the effectiveness of a framework of methods adopted by the DREaM project to develop researcher-practitioner networks.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a review of the literature on SNA, the paper reports longitudinal research from a whole population sample of the DREaM cadre of LIS researchers. Data were collected using a questionnaire at the start of the first DREaM project workshop, and at the final workshop. Data were analysed using Ucinet 6 software, and network diagrams were visualised using the Netdraw package.

Findings

Findings demonstrate that the combination of linked workshops and use of social media throughout the DREaM project was successful in increasing the density of the researcher networks, forging new connections among participants. SNA was found to be a useful technique in investigating network development.

Research limitations/implications

There is scope for further longitudinal research to investigate the sustainability and strength of the new network links forged.

Originality/value

The use of SNA in the context of the development of researcher networks is novel in LIS research. The findings from this project indicate the potential of the DREaM methodology as a replicable framework for developing further research networks in other contexts. This paper represents a unique contribution in demonstrating through the use of SNA the extent of the extension of research networks afforded by the DREaM methodology.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 69 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Jeff Muldoon, Eric W. Liguori, Josh Bendickson and Antonina Bauman

This paper aims to correct some misconceptions about George Homans. Specifically, it clarifies the relationship between Homans and Malinowski, explains why Homans is…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to correct some misconceptions about George Homans. Specifically, it clarifies the relationship between Homans and Malinowski, explains why Homans is rightfully considered the father of social exchange, shows Homans’ perspective on altruism and self-interest and analyses Homans’ place in management’s complex history.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper which synthesizes both primary and secondary sources on Homans, social exchange theory (SET), Malinowski and other Homans’ contemporaries and theories, which, in aggregate, help dispel some common misconceptions in the literature today.

Findings

This paper disperses several common misconceptions about Homans and his work. First, the findings show that beliefs that Homans was unaware of Malinowski are not justified, as Homans was not only aware of Malinowski but also significantly influenced by Malinowski’s work. Second, this manuscript clarifies that while Homans, for specific reasons, focussed on self-interest, his work accounted for altruism. Lastly, this paper also further cements Homans’ place in history as the father of social exchange.

Originality/value

Recent misconceptions have emerged in the literature calling to question not only Homans’ legitimacy as the father of social exchange but also some of his views on the theory itself. By clarifying these misconceptions, this paper enables scholars from a variety of management fields to better understand historical foundations of SET and its impact on current research.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2013

Jeffrey Muldoon, Eric W. Liguori and Joshua Bendickson

How do social factors motivate and influence scholars when they theorize? By exploring the life of George Homans, this paper aims to illustrate that theories are the…

Abstract

Purpose

How do social factors motivate and influence scholars when they theorize? By exploring the life of George Homans, this paper aims to illustrate that theories are the products of the theorist, and as such are influenced by individual life experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on a plethora of archival sources including many personal and autobiographical accounts, this manuscript synthesizes these sources thus providing clear insight into how personal factors and experiences impacted Homans's social exchange theory.

Findings

This research concludes that Homans's journey into theorizing was an act of providence; that his early career, personal background, and social capital interacted with several factors beyond his control thus leading to his interest in social exchange processes.

Originality/value

This is the first research endeavor exploring the context, sentiments and motivations of George Homans as he began to lay out social exchange theory.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Jeffrey Muldoon

The purpose of this paper was to analyse the academic context of the Hawthorne studies from 1936. More specifically, great attention was paid towards those articles that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to analyse the academic context of the Hawthorne studies from 1936. More specifically, great attention was paid towards those articles that were critical of the Hawthorne studies. This study aimed to analyse why the Hawthorne studies were so criticized during the time period.

Design/methodology/approach

The author analysed various critical articles/books from the time period. The author developed the sample through the use of Landsberger’s Hawthorne Revisited. The author used one of the first critical articles, Daniel Bell’s, as a means to analyse the critics. In addition, secondary literature was used to place the articles in context.

Findings

The author found that the majority of the critics were sociologists; these criticisms reflected larger debates in sociology in terms of theory, method and ethics of research. They reflected the great changes that occurred in sociology during the time period, as opposed to industrial/organizational psychology, for example, where there was little criticism at the time.

Originality/value

The purpose of this study was to continue the work of Muldoon (2012) and Hassard (2012) and place the work of the Hawthorne studies in a larger academic context.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2019

Jeff Muldoon, Joshua Bendickson, Antonina Bauman and Eric W. Liguori

Elton Mayo was a professor at a prestigious university, but not a researcher; a scholar, but more concerned with executives; a capitalist, but someone who downplayed…

Abstract

Purpose

Elton Mayo was a professor at a prestigious university, but not a researcher; a scholar, but more concerned with executives; a capitalist, but someone who downplayed monetary incentives; an insider, but someone whose own background was more of an outsider. These contradictions have resulted in scholars questioning Mayo’s impact on the field of management. Thus, this paper aims to critically review Mayo and his contributions to management through a lens calibrated to the context of his time, providing a more contextually accurate view of Mayo and his work and offering a clearer view of his meaningful impact on the field.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a combination of primary and secondary sources, the authors connect otherwise disparate information to critically review Mayo’s work within the context of its era.

Findings

The authors’ critical review of Mayo identified nine topical areas where Mayo and/or his work have been misunderstood or misinterpreted. For each area, the authors offer a more contextualized and appropriate interpretation of Mayo and his viewpoints, and thus more accurately informing the management literature.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to thoroughly revisit Mayo and his work through a contextualized lens, offering a more informed view of why Mayo’s seemingly controversial behaviors were actually quite standard behaviors given his context.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article
Publication date: 6 January 2012

Jeffrey Muldoon

This paper seeks to analyze the contribution that the Hawthorne studies made to the discipline of management. The recent scholarly trend has been to attack the Hawthorne…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to analyze the contribution that the Hawthorne studies made to the discipline of management. The recent scholarly trend has been to attack the Hawthorne studies on the grounds of methodology and originality. However, the only way to accurately view the Hawthorne studies is to recreate the intellectual environment in which the studies were conducted. Why did this version of human relations rather than Dennison's or Williams's emerge as the scholarly contribution?

Design/methodology/approach

Both primary and secondary sources were utilized in the research. The focus was from the time period of 1930 to 1958. More contemporary work was considered as well.

Findings

Contemporary scholars viewed Hawthorne as being more thorough and complete than previous work. They also viewed the study as a contribution in light of some methodological issues and political biases.

Practical implications

Performing temporal analysis allows the perceived strengths and weaknesses of scholarly works to become more apparent.

Originality/value

Previous accounts of the Hawthorne studies have mostly studied their impact on practitioners. This study examines the impact on scholars.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2012

Cameron Anderson and Jessica A. Kennedy

Purpose – In this chapter, we review the research on status hierarchies in groups and teams to assess the relative validity of two major models – the dominance and…

Abstract

Purpose – In this chapter, we review the research on status hierarchies in groups and teams to assess the relative validity of two major models – the dominance and functionalist theories of status hierarchies. We find that these models cannot fully account for empirical evidence in the literature, and thus propose a new model of status hierarchies, Micropolitics.

Methodology/approach – We examine the relative validity of current major theories by reviewing the literature on status hierarchies in groups.

Findings – We find that, although most of the literature supports the functionalist theory of status hierarchies, this theory cannot explain some of the existing empirical evidence. Drawing on both functionalist and dominance perspectives, we propose a new theory of status, the Micropolitics model, to account for this evidence. Specifically, we propose that in the “micro” context of groups and teams, individuals attain status by convincing their group that they possess the skills and abilities needed to take charge – just as political candidates must convince voters they are the right people for the job.

Originality/value of paper – This paper proposes a new theory of status hierarchies in groups that may provide additional explanatory power for status researchers. It suggests that groups strive to attain meritocracy, but may put the wrong people in charge.

Details

Looking Back, Moving Forward: A Review of Group and Team-Based Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-030-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Andrew Christopher Hurt and Scott Robert Homan

To show the focus of leadership development training practices in recent times.

Abstract

Purpose

To show the focus of leadership development training practices in recent times.

Design/methodology/approach

A range of published (1992‐2004) works, which aim to provide a practical look rather than theoretical advice on leadership development training practices, is reviewed. Sources are used to provide real‐life examples of how leadership development training is currently being conducted.

Findings

The article identifies from the literature six primary areas key to leadership development. For each section, a review of the current literature and justification of why organizations need to start training based on these new methods are presented. Additionally, real‐world examples are provided which show the “how to” or applied benefit of the new training method. The six primary areas are: connecting leadership to business goals, providing realistic training, gaining top management support, making trainees accountable for their training, training based on specific organizational goals, and leaders developing other leaders.

Originality/value

This article fulfils the need of many training practitioners who seek to identify new ways of conducting leadership development training by offering practical advice and real‐world examples of successful techniques.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2008

Abram Walton, Scott Homan, Linda Naimi and Cynthia Tomovic

The purpose of this paper is to identify and measure the perceptions and attitudes of students regarding the classroom performance system (CPS).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and measure the perceptions and attitudes of students regarding the classroom performance system (CPS).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews a range of recently published (1993‐2006) works on pedagogy and educational technology. A survey methodology was utilized to measure students’ perceptions and attitudes across 16 variables.

Findings

The paper provides aggregate results on each of the 16 variables and statistically significant differences between sub‐categories.

Research limitations/implications

Research was limited to a major US university campus that services a large cross‐section of students. Demographic implications and trends are discussed.

Practical implications

This study focused on identifying and measuring the perceptions and attitudes of students regarding a radio frequency, wireless audience response system called: CPS. Sixteen research questions and variables were measured in this study regarding students’ perceptions and attitudes towards CPS, learning and student–instructor interactions. Overall, the study found that students perceive CPS as having a positive effect on their increase in pre‐class preparation and attendance, and on their increase of overall attention and participation during class. A slight majority of students enjoy using CPS and perceive CPS to have a moderately positive effect on their ability to learn and self diagnose how they are performing in class. The implications of this study and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Originality/value

This paper is valuable to instructors who wish to reemploy active learning or Socratic Method type activities in the large lecture format classes.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Jeffrey Muldoon, Eric W. Liguori, Steve Lovett and Christopher Stone

This paper aims to analyze the political background of the Hawthorne criticisms, positing that the political atmosphere of the 1940s, influenced by the decline of the new…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the political background of the Hawthorne criticisms, positing that the political atmosphere of the 1940s, influenced by the decline of the new deal liberalism and the rise of the conservative coalition, stimulated scholars to challenge the Hawthorne studies.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary sources used in the guise of archival commentaries, journal articles and other published works (books and book chapters). Secondary sources are offered to provide additional insight and context.

Findings

The findings show that politics unnecessarily discredited Mayo. As a result, contemporary scholars failed to recognize Mayo’s work as an important part of the basis for modern management theory.

Research limitations/implications

The purpose of the research is to look into the political context of the Hawthorne studies to understand how management practice and research is impacted by ongoing political issues.

Originality/value

To date, no work has fully accounted for or understood the political climate of the time in considering the criticisms of the Hawthorne studies. By more fully understanding the political context, scholars can reevaluate the weight they place on the then criticisms of the Hawthorne studies.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 44 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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