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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Mehmet Yusuf Yahyagil and Ayşe Begüm Ötken

The purpose of this study is to portray societal/cultural values of Turkish people as perceived by managers and academicians. The study also aims to provide an…

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1344

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to portray societal/cultural values of Turkish people as perceived by managers and academicians. The study also aims to provide an understanding of the cultural context of the Turkish society in terms of socio‐cultural dimensions such as high and low context, monochronic vs polychronic, self‐determined, and temporal orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

Instead of using Schwartz's 56‐item questionnaire, the authors used seven cultural and ten individual dimensions as individual items. Cultural values were captured from managers' and academicians' perspectives by changing the frame of reference from self to others. The questionnaire was designed for two different age groups to find the magnitude of change in connection with cultural values.

Findings

Results indicate that Turkey can be defined as a conservative country. Hierarchy is ranked as the second most important polar dimension, and the order of cultural values indicates a reverse direction compared to the findings of similar studies with reference to European countries. It also deserves to emphasize the fact that the younger group of respondents is much more conservative and seeks more power over people and resources than the older group of respondents.

Originality/value

This paper, to some extent, may serve as a guide in reflecting today's cultural values in Turkey. It also makes a modest contribution to the relevant literature due to both the portraying cultural values of Turkish people, and the usage of methodological considerations for data collection purposes.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 34 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Mehmet Yusuf Yahyagil

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships between universal individual value priorities, feelings and global job satisfaction as well as satisfaction with…

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1707

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships between universal individual value priorities, feelings and global job satisfaction as well as satisfaction with life in Turkish context. The sub-research question is to learn the moderation effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between values, experienced feelings and life satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Analytical type of research design was used, and the data were obtained from 390 respondents who are the employees of different organizations in three cities in Turkey. Four measurement devices (Schwartz’s ten-item Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), Brayfield-Rothe’s overall job satisfaction (OJS), and Diener’s Scale of positive and negative experience (SPANE) and satisfaction with life scale (SWLS)) were employed.

Findings

It was understood that the participants are slightly to moderately satisfied both with their job tasks and with the evaluation of global satisfaction of their own lives. The values of self-direction, achievement, hedonism and conformity are positively and strongly linked to job satisfaction and overall satisfaction of life. The moderating effect of job satisfaction is partially confirmed. It was also understood that the priorities of Turkish citizens imply self-centered satisfaction and independency, but not risk taking. Positive affect does influence the magnitude of the association between job satisfaction and life satisfaction.

Originality/value

This paper is able to demonstrate the nature of associations between value orientations, experienced feelings, job satisfaction and global life satisfaction in a collectivist culture. The contradictions between value priorities of Turkish citizens and the people of Western countries would be likely interesting for academicians and researchers.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 53 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

Abstract

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Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Arch G. Woodside, Carol M. Megehee, Lars Isaksson and Graham Ferguson

This paper aims to apply complexity theory tenets to deepen understanding, explanation and prediction of how configurations of national cultures and need motivations…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to apply complexity theory tenets to deepen understanding, explanation and prediction of how configurations of national cultures and need motivations influence national entrepreneurial and innovation behavior and nations’ quality-of-life (QOL). Also, the study examines whether or not high national ethical behavior is sufficient for indicating nations high in quality-of-life.

Design/methodology/approach

Applying core tenets of complexity theory, the study constructs asymmetric, case-based (nations), explanations and predictive models of cultures’ consequences (via Schwartz’s seven value dimensions) and implicit need motivations (via McClelland’s three need motivations) indicating national entrepreneur and innovation activities and subsequent national quality-of-life and ethical behavior. The study includes testing configurational models empirically for predictive accuracy. The empirical examination is for a set of data for 24 nations in Asia, Europe, North and South America and the South Pacific.

Findings

The findings confirm the usefulness of applying complexity theory to learn how culture and motivation configurations support versus have negative consequences on nations’ entrepreneurship, innovation and human well-being. Nurturing of entrepreneur activities supports the nurturing of enterprise innovation activity and their joint occurrence indicates nations achieving high quality-of-life. The findings advance the perspective that different sets of cultural value configurations indicate nations high versus low in entrepreneur and innovation activities.

Practical implications

High entrepreneur activities without high innovation activity are insufficient for achieving high national quality-of-life. Achieving high ethical behavior supports high quality-of-life.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to apply complexity theory tenets in the field of entrepreneurship research. The study here advances the perspective that case-based asymmetric modeling of recipes is necessary to explain and predict entrepreneur activities and outcomes rather than examining whether variable relationships are statistically significant from zero.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2010

Aaron Cohen and Orit Shamai

There has been a growing trend recently to examine individual‐level values in order to better understand the attitudes and behaviors of employees in the workplace. This…

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2176

Abstract

Purpose

There has been a growing trend recently to examine individual‐level values in order to better understand the attitudes and behaviors of employees in the workplace. This paper aims to continue this trend by examining the relationship between individual values, using Schwartz's basic human values theory, and psychological well‐being (PWB) and affective organizational commitment. It also seeks to examine whether demographic variables control the relationship between individual values and the two dependent variables.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample is comprised of 271 police officers enrolled in an undergraduate program in an Israeli university.

Findings

As expected, the regression analysis showed a positive relationship between PWB and the values of benevolence, self‐direction, and achievement, and a negative relationship between PWB and the values of power and tradition. Surprisingly, organizational commitment was negatively related to achievement and positively related to power – the reverse of their relationship with PWB. The results also revealed a negative correlation between PWB and commitment.

Originality/value

The findings encourage future research on the relationship between individual values, PWB, and organizational commitment among police officers.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Kavitha Ranganathan

The role of personal value systems as antecedents to risk has been largely ignored. Following Gigerenzer's view of ecological rationality, the authors argue an…

Abstract

Purpose

The role of personal value systems as antecedents to risk has been largely ignored. Following Gigerenzer's view of ecological rationality, the authors argue an individual's personal value system serves as concrete motivations that guide risky choices and facilitate adaptation to one's environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors elicit risk attitudes using a satisficing-based risk elicitation method that exploits the idea of worst-case aspiration or minimum portfolio returns given a portfolio comprising a safe and risky prospect. The elicited worst-case aspiration allows for more descriptive and natural ways of characterizing attitudes to risk (i.e. satisficing measures of risk). Using the Schwartz Value Survey, the authors assess the relative importance individuals place on value systems, such as personal focus versus social focus. The authors argue that preference to value systems has linkages with the worst-case aspiration setting emphasized in the satisficing task.

Findings

This study’s findings suggest that individuals who are willing to give up higher potential returns to protect their downside risk (by setting higher worst-case aspiration) are positively associated with personal focus—concern about own outcomes than social focus—concern about the outcomes for others or established institutions.

Research limitations/implications

Currently, the study’s setting is in the domain of financial decision-making. Going forward, milestones could be set for studying risky real-world choices by simply changing the risk measure in different contexts, such as job choices, education, health and social interactions.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the discussion on the psychometric structure of risk. Prescriptive benefits of satisficing as a positive heuristic, which is interpreted as setting achievable goals or aspiration levels, are extensive and recognized in various industries ranging from agriculture, airlines, insurance to financial advising. More recently, cognitive processes, such as emotions and personal value systems, are recognized as a type of social cognition that subserve heuristic functions that can guide behavior quickly and accurately.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 59 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Nava Maslovaty

This study relates to a setting which approaches organizational learning. The professional ideal student trait system and the personal value system, as perceived by…

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1347

Abstract

This study relates to a setting which approaches organizational learning. The professional ideal student trait system and the personal value system, as perceived by prospective and practicing teachers, are presented as constructs of the belief system. Conclusions are drawn from a comparative analysis of seven samples. Although the constructs of the personal value system and the ideal high school student trait system were similar, their content priorities were different, focusing professionally on academic traits and personally on interpersonal values. The structure of the ideal high school student multivariate system confirmed Schwartz’s bipolar continue value model: conservation versus openness to change and self‐transcendence versus self‐enhancement. Two techniques for organizational learning are presented for promoting, theorizing, and evaluating teachers’ perceptions of the ideal student trait system.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 23 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Kuo-Pin Yang, Hsin-Hua Hsiung and Yu-Jen Chiu

The purpose of this paper is to extend the attitudinal approach to entrepreneurial intentions by using a structural analysis to explore overlooked personal values as the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend the attitudinal approach to entrepreneurial intentions by using a structural analysis to explore overlooked personal values as the antecedents of entrepreneurial attitude. Based on the widely adopted value system proposed by Schwartz, this study argues that while one cluster of personal values is positively correlated with entrepreneurial attitude that leads to entrepreneurial intention, another cluster of personal values is negatively correlated with entrepreneurial attitude.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaire responses obtained from a sample of 276 MBA were analyzed using structural equation models to examine the influences of values on entrepreneurial intentions via entrepreneurial attitude.

Findings

The results of this study demonstrate that personal values of self-direction, stimulation, achievement, and universalism are all positively correlated with entrepreneurial attitude, which together constitute a comfort zone for entrepreneurship, whereas values in the opposite end of the circumplex including benevolence, tradition, conformity, security, and power are negatively correlated with entrepreneurial attitude. The values that discourage the formation of an entrepreneurial attitude also counter the positive effect of entrepreneurial attitude on intention, making the relationship between entrepreneurial attitude and intention contingent upon value conflicts.

Originality/value

This study regards entrepreneurship as a career development and contributes to the entrepreneurship study by differentiating the influences of a vital construct, i.e., personal values, which should not be regarded as a universalism. The value circumplex with a comfort and discomfort zone developed by this study can serve as a platform to help build the view on entrepreneurial intentions in terms of personal values.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Book part
Publication date: 6 May 2004

Shreya Sarkar-Barney

The focus of global training has primarily been on preparing employees to work effectively in other cultures, such as in expatriate training, acculturation training, and…

Abstract

The focus of global training has primarily been on preparing employees to work effectively in other cultures, such as in expatriate training, acculturation training, and training for technology transfer. One issue that has been ignored is the implication of using training systems that are developed in a specific cultural context and then deployed globally. This chapter proposes a framework to show the influence of culture on one aspect of training effectiveness, the transfer of newly learned skills to the job. Specific relationships are proposed, using Baldwin and Ford’s (1988) transfer of training framework as a guide, and also by synthesizing findings from areas such as cross-cultural psychology, human resource management, education, and technology management.

Details

Cultural Ergonomics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-049-4

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Jesse E. Olsen

Prior research suggests that cultural values affect individuals’ preferences in whether work rewards (i.e. pay and benefits) are allocated according to rules based on…

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1832

Abstract

Purpose

Prior research suggests that cultural values affect individuals’ preferences in whether work rewards (i.e. pay and benefits) are allocated according to rules based on equity, equality, or need. However, this research has focussed primarily on societal-level values or individual-level operationalizations of values originally conceptualized at the societal level. Drawing on equity and social exchange theories, the purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical model and nine propositions that incorporate both individual and societal values as determinants of these reward allocation rule preferences.

Design/methodology/approach

The author briefly reviews of the relevant literature on values and reward allocation preferences and present arguments supported by prior research, leading to a model and nine propositions.

Findings

The author proposes that societal values and individual values have main and interactive effects on reward allocation preferences and that the effects of societal values are partially mediated by individual values.

Research limitations/implications

The model and propositions present relationships that could be tested in future multi-level studies. Future conceptual/theoretical work may also build on the model presented in this paper.

Practical implications

The proposed relationships, if supported, would have important implications for organizational reward systems and staffing.

Originality/value

Prior research on reward allocation preferences focusses mostly on the effects of societal or individual values. This theoretical paper attempts to clarify and distinguish values at these two levels and to better understand their main and interactive effects on individual reward allocation rule preferences.

Details

Cross Cultural Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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