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More than five years have passed since A Nation at Risk was published in 1983 by then‐Secretary of Education Terrance Bell's National Commission on Excellence in…
More than five years have passed since A Nation at Risk was published in 1983 by then‐Secretary of Education Terrance Bell's National Commission on Excellence in Education. Those years have seen the publication of an enormous body of both primary material, composed of research reports, essays, and federal and state reform proposals and reports; and secondary material, composed of summaries and reviews of the original reform reports and reports about effective programs that are based on reform recommendations. This annotated bibliography seeks to identify, briefly describe, and organize in a useful manner those publications dealing with K‐12 education reform and improvement. The overall purposes of this article are to bring organization to that list, and also to trace relationships and influences from the federal initiatives to the states and professional associations, and from there to the school districts and individual schools.
The Public Schools Commission's first report has already become a rather bad educational joke. Some are still laughing at it; others, within just three months, have half‐forgotten it. It is, perhaps, a little unfair. When you set out to achieve the impossible critics can afford to be a little more charitable about your subsequent failure.
As interest in the “politics of education” continue to mount in the United States it becomes important to try to explicate the fundamental political ideology which…
As interest in the “politics of education” continue to mount in the United States it becomes important to try to explicate the fundamental political ideology which continues to shape current developments in school finance in that country. In this article it is argued that there is an identifiable “democratic theory of school finance” and that the roots of this political theory can be found in the works of such “classical” authors as Aristotle, Thucydides, Thomas Jefferson, Alex de Tocqueville, Caleb Mills, and others. A body of current professional educational literature and some court opinions are then summarized and illustrations are provided to show that the basic political values of the “classical” authors are still very much present in the newer professional literature and in the court opinions. Finally a postscript is provided to bring the reader even closer to additional school finance literature in the United States. Students of the politics of education might be interested to learn that this was a bipartisan effort. Professors Hickrod and Hubbard are normally associated with the Democratic Party in the United States, while Professor Laymon customarily finds himself on the Republican side of the aisle. The article thus provides some evidence that there can be agreement on principles of democracy and constitutional government that transcends political party affiliation.
This article considers the use of charging differential fees for the same tuition services as a means to widen the financial accessibility of non‐government schools to…
This article considers the use of charging differential fees for the same tuition services as a means to widen the financial accessibility of non‐government schools to children of less affluent parents in Australia. After discussing theoretical aspects, the author considers how the theoretical concepts could be operationalized, then how a sliding scale fee schedule could be implemented without, and with, external financial assistance.
This article suggests an explanation for the complex history of the relationship between the government high school and the Australian middle class. The main elements in…
This article suggests an explanation for the complex history of the relationship between the government high school and the Australian middle class. The main elements in the constructing of a framework necessarily include the following inter‐related effects: the historic alienation of the Roman Catholic population from the Australian public school system, federal government interventions into school policy and funding, demographic pressures, the rise of neoliberalism, and the development of distinctive and multiple ethnic populations in the cities. The final section of the article takes as its case study, the history of middle class schooling in the city of Sydney, especially from the mid 1970s to the end of the century. Sydney is an atypical Australian city in many respects, and the study of its middle class and schooling does not stand as representative of the Australian experience. Nevertheless, its great population and significance in the national economy makes its story a crucial story in the national context. Because much of the evidence for this last section derives from the Australian census, it is introduced by a brief discussion of census‐making. Preceding that section of the article is a summary discussion of the significance of social classes in the history of Australian schooling.
This paper aims to introduce a research project investigating school library impact across the four home nations of the UK. The research aims to identify whether there are…
This paper aims to introduce a research project investigating school library impact across the four home nations of the UK. The research aims to identify whether there are key contributions afforded by a school library or learning resource centre and by a school librarian, and if so, to offer case models and approaches which may be used to inform strategy and practice. The paper also aims to discuss the pilot phase of the research and explore the nature of impact assessment for school libraries adopted in American studies and UK literacy research, weighing their advantages and drawbacks. Consequent on this, it seeks to define a mixed‐method approach for this study, combining multiple surveys and more detailed interviewing and focus group research within a selected and balanced sample of schools across the four home nations, and a correlation with school performance ranking.
An online survey has been developed for circulation to secondary school students in all four of the UK home nations, mapping their perceptions and expectations of the place of the LRC and of the librarian within their school experience. Secondary schools in all four home nations were ranked according to Ofsted evaluation and league table performance. A sample of schools was selected from each nation and interviews are currently being conducted with management, teaching staff, librarians and with focus groups of school pupils. This is complemented by a survey of a sample of higher education students in different disciplines to identify their view of the contribution of the school library to preparedness for university study.
Findings from the pilot phase of the research tend to support the hypothesis that a correlation may be traced between good library provision and positive pupil engagement with reading and information skills. Should the full research project discover positive stories in schools without an active library or librarian, this will complement the identification of critical success factors, towards informing possible library advocacy action and policy approaches. A key issue identified from the pilot phase for impact research in schools is that pupils and teachers both have considerable difficulty in articulating how they experience the differences that libraries and librarians contribute. A case bank of good practice material collected is being developed at University College London.
For maximum validity, the in‐depth sample schools should include examples with and without a LRC and/or a school librarian, and both high and low performing schools. It is anticipated that the final profile may under‐represent schools without a LRC and/or school librarian, where it has been found harder to engage cooperation from head teachers in participation in this study. Ideally, evidence of impact would require close mapping, at the individual pupil level, of performance and engagement with the library; this research does not include such mapping at a systematic level across all the sample schools.
This research contributes to a key recommendation emerging from the work of the School Library Commission, by filling a gap in impact research on British secondary school libraries.
The purpose of this paper is to report a qualitative study exploring how parents have been included in school governance in Hong Kong and in what ways their roles have…
The purpose of this paper is to report a qualitative study exploring how parents have been included in school governance in Hong Kong and in what ways their roles have been evolving in state education.
The qualitative method was adopted in this exploratory study, the findings of which help provide insights for conceptualization of phases of progression of the development of how parents have been included in state education in Hong Kong. The method of exploration is two‐fold. First, evidence was obtained through examining Hong Kong's educational policy documents with regard to parent‐school relations in the last two decades and taking reference to the literature and research studies on parent involvement in Hong Kong. Second, two focus group interviews were conducted with parents and teachers respectively, in order to obtain data of development of the relationship between home and school in times of reforms.
Derived from the findings, four phases of development of how parents are included in school governance are conceptualized. They are: parents as unwelcome guests – separate responsibilities; parents as volunteers – encouraging participation; parents as clients: accountability approach; and parents as school governors – shared responsibilities. The issue of whether including parents in school governance is reality or rhetoric emerging from the data was discussed.
The findings of this study contribute to the international studies on parent involvement in school governance, so as to formulate an effective policy that helps facilitate parents as “real” but not “rhetorical” school governors.