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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Reynold Macpherson

The aim of this paper is to report the process, findings and implications of a three‐year evaluation of integrated health centres (IHCs) established in three secondary…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to report the process, findings and implications of a three‐year evaluation of integrated health centres (IHCs) established in three secondary schools in Cornwall by the School‐Based Integrated Health Centres (SBIHC) partnership.

Design/methodology/approach

When the partners had completed the capital works, an evaluation strategy was designed for 2009‐2012 to identify the extent to which each of the IHCs was meeting the aims set for the IHCs, and each IHC and school was contributing to the aims of the SBIHC project. Formative and summative evaluation used annual case studies to apply data progressively regarding: the use, users and operations of each IHC; students’ perceptions of the user‐friendliness of the IHCs; indicators of the general health and well‐being of students and their sexual and mental health; students’ exposure to crime, substance abuse and poverty; and students’ academic achievement, attendances and exclusions. This process culminated in this paper which reports and discusses findings, suggests implications for practice, theory and research and proposes future directions for the partnership.

Findings

All three schools engaged students closely in the design and decoration of their IHCs. Student ownership was extended into the selection of Coordinators and into centre management and governance. Budehaven Community School appointed a National Health Service (NHS)‐trained Coordinator for their IHC, The Haven, a mental health worker funded for one year by the NHS. After 2009‐2010, his responsibilities were shared by the NHS‐trained Receptionist and the Manager, an Assistant Headteacher. During Year 3, Budehaven added a “co‐location” building, Kevren. About 37 professionals are now located in or visit The Haven and Kevren. Student footfall doubled to about 4,000 in the second year and increased by another 25 per cent in the third year. The wide range of general, mental and sexual health services were highly valued by the students. The Crayon, the IHC in Hayle Community School, achieved a similar footfall over three years. It started with a Receptionist and the Pupil Welfare Officer. The Manager, a Deputy Headteacher, and the Headteacher moving most student support services into the IHC at the end of Year 1. From then on the Crayon had three full‐time professionals. By the end of Year 3, the Crayon had reached the limits of its facilities. A solely positive association was found between IHC usage and measured improvements to mental health and academic progress. The IHC in Penair School, Bywva, developed a wide range of general, sexual and mental health services, attracted a similarly strong footfall, and also reached capacity in Year 3. Penair refined their IHC's line management by an Assistant Headteacher and coordination by a Lead.

Originality/value

This paper offers a new conceptual model of the SBIHC model of health care centred on the reciprocity and integrity of relationships between students and professionals.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Catriona O’Toole

The purpose of this paper is to scrutinise two ostensibly disparate approaches to school-based mental health promotion and offer a conceptual foundation for considering…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to scrutinise two ostensibly disparate approaches to school-based mental health promotion and offer a conceptual foundation for considering possible synergies between them.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines current conceptualisations of child and youth mental health and explores how these inform school-based prevention and intervention approaches. The dominance of discrete, “expert-driven” psychosocial programmes as well as the potential of critical pedagogy is explored using frameworks provided by contemporary dynamic systems theories. These theories call for a situated and holistic understanding of children’s development; and they look beyond static characteristics within individuals, to view well-being in relation to the dynamic social and historical contexts in which children develop.

Findings

Psychosocial interventions and critical pedagogies have strengths but also a number of limitations. Traditional psychosocial interventions teach important skill sets, but they take little account of children’s dynamic socio-cultural contexts, nor acknowledge the broader inequalities that are frequently a root cause of children’s distress. Critical pedagogies, in turn, are committed to social justice goals, but these goals can be elusive or seem unworkable in practice. By bringing these seemingly disparate approaches into conversation, it may be possible to harness their respective strengths, in ways that are faithful to the complex, emergent nature of children’s development, as well as committed to correcting inequalities.

Originality/value

The current paper is unique in bringing together contemporary psychological theory with critical pedagogy perspectives to explore the future of school-based mental health promotion.

Details

Health Education, vol. 117 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2012

Olga Acosta Price, B. Heidi Ellis, Pia V. Escudero, Kristen Huffman-Gottschling, Mark A. Sander and Dina Birman

Purpose – This chapter discusses the promise of and challenges to providing effective and culturally responsive trauma-focused mental health services to immigrant and…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter discusses the promise of and challenges to providing effective and culturally responsive trauma-focused mental health services to immigrant and refugee youth and their families within school settings.

Design/methodology/approach – This chapter utilizes “practice-based evidence” to outline successes and address the barriers associated with the implementation of school-based, trauma-focused, evidence-based interventions in four immigrant or refugee-dense cities: Los Angeles, Chicago, Minneapolis, and Boston.

Findings – Making cultural adaptations to identified trauma interventions that were consistent with community priorities, cultural norms, and values resulted in more accessible programs and greater engagement in treatment services.

Practical implications – The strategies tested in these real-world settings contribute to the development of culturally competent trauma-informed services for immigrant and refugee youth and their families. Mental health providers and program developers will better understand the need for multilevel engagement strategies and for culturally driven modifications when employing evidence-based programs with immigrant and refugee youth.

Originality/value – This chapter adds to the scarce evidence about useful methods to engage immigrant and refugee youth and families in treatment and to increase the likelihood of positive outcomes.

Details

Health Disparities Among Under-served Populations: Implications for Research, Policy and Praxis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-103-8

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2006

Melissa Pearrow and Peter Whelley

Public schools possess a unique constellation of opportunities and challenges for mental health service provision. Schools, as settings within a larger ecological context…

Abstract

Public schools possess a unique constellation of opportunities and challenges for mental health service provision. Schools, as settings within a larger ecological context, can be a community institution that supports a child as s/he develops assets for resilient development while providing opportunities for a range of life choices. School is the setting where children can learn and practice peer relations and social norms, and it can be a refuge where children who have many environmental risks can find structure and effective methods of success (Doll, 1999). When Willie Horton, the infamous bank robber, was asked why he robbed banks, he responded, “Because that's where the money is.” At a most basic level, schools are where the children are. Every day more than 52 million students attend over 1,14,000 schools in the United States, and including the 6 million adult staff, this amounts to almost one-fifth of the population passing through the Nation's schools on any given weekday (New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, 2003).

Details

Research on Community-Based Mental Health Services for Children and Adolescents
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-416-4

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2015

Lauryn Young, Maura Mulloy, Sloan Huckabee, Ryan Landoll, Elaine Miller, Marissa Miller and Mark D. Weist

Recently, a national priority has been set to improve mental health services for children and families. It has been identified in epidemiological literature that in the…

Abstract

Recently, a national priority has been set to improve mental health services for children and families. It has been identified in epidemiological literature that in the United States, an approximate 15% of youth meet diagnostic criteria for emotional or behavioral problems. Furthermore, less than one in every five children that present with such needs receive mental health services. Individual, family, and system barriers such as transportation, competing demands, and long waiting lists have negatively impacted access to mental health services. Therefore, the school system has become the “de facto” mental health system for children and adolescents, in part because of the significant time students spend at school. However, meeting the needs of students with behavioral or emotional problems within the school system poses its own challenges. Schools have reported being limited in their ability to deliver basic mental wellness to students due to the lack of available resources. Specifically, there is a shortage of school-employed mental health personnel and the ratio of student to mental health professional is two to three times larger than recommended. Expanded school mental health programs are partnered systems that utilize existing services and collaborate with community mental health (CMH) professionals at each level of the three-tiered system. This partnership enables CMH staff gain access to youth with emotional and behavioral problems, resulting in increased prevention and intervention services for students. Additionally, a coordinated effort such as student-transition services has an integral role of facilitating the process from the school system to postsecondary employment, training, and or additional education.

Details

Transition of Youth and Young Adults
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-933-2

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2011

Anna Chiumento, Julia Nelki, Carl Dutton and Georgina Hughes

Following a description of the Haven Project: a school based Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) for refugee children in Liverpool, this paper aims to raise…

Abstract

Purpose

Following a description of the Haven Project: a school based Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) for refugee children in Liverpool, this paper aims to raise awareness of a multiagency model for replication across community mental health services.

Design/methodology/approach

Using semi‐structured interviews with school head teachers and outcome measures of group therapeutic sessions, a short service review has been conducted, set against background literature, identifying refugee statistics and highlighting mental health policy imperatives that advocate multi‐agency working.

Findings

The findings illustrate that refugee children are more likely and prefer to access a school based mental health service than a CAMH clinic. Links between schools and CAMHS facilitate mutual understanding of different agencies working in the interests of all children and, using outcome measures and quotes, the evidence indicates that the service achieves its aim: improvement in refugee children's mental health.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations to the findings are recognised in the small numbers presented, methodological restrictions, and the lack of routinely collated statistics on refugee populations.

Originality/value

Combining description and evaluation, this paper appraises service design and delivery methods to present an overview with policy and practice implications; addressing key mental health and public health policy priorities; and exemplifying multiagency collaboration between the health and education sector to meet the needs of an often invisible and neglected group: refugee children. It is anticipated this information will inform future service design, meeting policy priorities and the needs of service users as an accessible and responsive way to deliver CAMHS to vulnerable populations.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Article
Publication date: 24 January 2019

Tuuli Kuosmanen, Aleisha M. Clarke and Margaret M. Barry

Evidence on implementing effective adolescent mental health promotion and prevention interventions in the European context is underdeveloped. The purpose of this paper is…

Abstract

Purpose

Evidence on implementing effective adolescent mental health promotion and prevention interventions in the European context is underdeveloped. The purpose of this paper is to identify evidence-based mental health promotion and prevention interventions for adolescents that have been developed and/or implemented across the school, community and digital settings in Europe. This review also sought to identify the relevant implementation processes in relation to what works, for whom and under what circumstances.

Design/methodology/approach

A narrative synthesis of the evidence was conducted which included two stages: a systematic search of studies assessing adolescent mental health promotion and prevention interventions; and a selection of interventions with the most robust evidence base, using pre-defined criteria, that have been either developed and/or implemented in Europe.

Findings

A total of 16 interventions met the inclusion criteria. The majority of interventions were school-based programmes. The review findings support the delivery of interventions aimed at enhancing young people’s social and emotional learning (SEL) and preventing behavioural problems. Results indicate that the effective delivery of SEL interventions on a school-wide basis could provide an important platform on which other universal interventions such as anxiety and bullying prevention, and targeted depression prevention could be developed in a multi-tiered fashion. There were a limited number of studies providing robust evidence on the effectiveness of suicide prevention, digital and community-based interventions.

Originality/value

This review identifies a number of robust evidence-based promotion and prevention interventions for promoting adolescent mental health. While the interventions have been implemented in Europe, the majority has not been evaluated rigorously and few included detailed information on the quality of programme implementation. Evidence of the effective cross-cultural transferability of these interventions needs to be strengthened, including more systematic research on their implementation across diverse country contexts.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Line Nielsen, Charlotte Meilstrup, Malene Kubstrup Nelausen, Vibeke Koushede and Bjørn Evald Holstein

Within the framework of Health Promoting Schools Up is an intervention using a whole school approach aimed at promoting mental health by strengthening social and emotional…

Abstract

Purpose

Within the framework of Health Promoting Schools Up is an intervention using a whole school approach aimed at promoting mental health by strengthening social and emotional competence among schoolchildren. Social and emotional competence is an integral part of many school-based mental health interventions but only a minority of interventions measure changes in competences. The purpose of this paper is to present the intervention Up and document changes in social and emotional competence among schoolchildren before and after the intervention.

Design/methodology/approach

Up consists of four components: education and activities for schoolchildren; development of staff skills; involvement of parents; and initiatives in everyday life at school. Up was implemented in two Danish schools in 2010-2011. Social and emotional competence was measured among 11-15-year old schoolchildren before (response rate 96.2 per cent, n=589) and after (response rate 83.9 per cent, n=532) the intervention.

Findings

Changes in level of social competence were assessed by the prevalence of a high level of social and emotional competence before (33.3 per cent) and after (40.8 per cent) the intervention (p-value=0.01).

Research limitations/implications

Up provides valuable experiences for adapting evidence-based mental health promotion to the Danish school system which is characterized by democracy, autonomy and inclusion. Future research should study the implementation and effect of Up in larger scale studies.

Practical implications

The comprehensive description of Up serves as important information for policymakers and practitioners working with mental health promotion.

Originality/value

The whole school approach intervention Up has the potential to promote social and emotional competence and reduce socioeconomic differences in social and emotional competence among schoolchildren.

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2003

Jane Wells, Jane Barlow and Sarah Stewart‐Brown

Reviews previous studies of the universal approach to mental health promotion, and disease prevention programmes or interventions in schools. Over 8,000 publications were…

Abstract

Reviews previous studies of the universal approach to mental health promotion, and disease prevention programmes or interventions in schools. Over 8,000 publications were identified initially and 425 studies obtained for further review. The inclusion criteria were met by 17 (mostly US) studies investigating 16 interventions. Positive evidence of effectiveness was obtained for programmes that adopted a whole‐school approach, were implemented continuously for more than a year, and were aimed at the promotion of mental health as opposed to the prevention of mental illness. Provides evidence that universal school mental health promotion programmes can be effective and suggests that long‐term interventions promoting the positive mental health of all pupils and involving changes to the school climate are likely to be more successful than brief class‐based mental illness prevention programmes.

Details

Health Education, vol. 103 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Felicity Thomas and Peter Aggleton

– The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the evidence base to support whole school approaches.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the evidence base to support whole school approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conduct a review of published evaluations and evidence syntheses across six areas in the international health-promoting schools literature.

Findings

Although whole school approaches are often advocated in literature and policy on health-promoting schools, the evidence base for their effectiveness is partial and is often health topic specific. This paper reviews the evidence base across six different health-related areas, namely: sexual health; bullying; alcohol and drug use; mental health; school connectedness; and access to services. It identifies commonalities in learning, enabling a confluence of evidence on the factors central to the provision of effective health education and support within schools. Whilst findings endorse a whole school approach, they also suggest that some of the more subtle evidence-based principles on which such approaches are underpinned are not generally explicitly reflected in practice.

Originality/value

The paper offers the first cross-topic synthesis of findings on health education effects and effectiveness in six health-related areas, to identify commonalities in learning. Findings contribute to the evidence base for the use of a whole school approach when undertaking health education in schools.

Details

Health Education, vol. 116 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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