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Book part
Publication date: 27 September 2019

Nikolay Popov

The aim of this chapter is to present a brief review of the main trends in the reforms of school structures in Europe that have happened over the past 25 years. The review…

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to present a brief review of the main trends in the reforms of school structures in Europe that have happened over the past 25 years. The review comprises school systems in 38 European countries: the European Union member states, the European Free Trade Association countries, and some countries in South-Eastern Europe. The chapter starts with an introduction to the reasons for focusing on the school structures, and then outlines the following six main reform trends: (1) decreasing the school entrance age; (2) expanding compulsory preschool education; (3) increasing the duration of compulsory school education; (4) increasing the duration of primary education; (5) eliminating primary education as a separate level by providing single basic education; and (6) continuing the diversity of school structures. The chapter concludes with short prognoses on the six trends.

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2018
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-416-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Wayne K. Hoy

This inquiry is a theoretical analysis that attempts to identify the features of school structure that efficiently promote positive outcomes of organization, while…

Abstract

This inquiry is a theoretical analysis that attempts to identify the features of school structure that efficiently promote positive outcomes of organization, while limiting negative consequences that are often associated with bureaucratic structures. To that end, the concepts of enabling structures and mindful organizations are developed, contrasted, and synthesized. Then, the research and practical implications of enabling and mindful school structures are proposed and discussed.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Yusuf Cerit

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating effect of leader-member exchange on school bureaucratic structure and teachers’ proactive behavior.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating effect of leader-member exchange on school bureaucratic structure and teachers’ proactive behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was carried out in elementary schools in Turkey. Classroom teachers proactive behavior was measured using the taking charge scale developed by Morrison and Phelps (1999), school bureaucratic structure was measured using enabling school structure scale developed by Hoy and Sweetland (2000), and LMX quality was measured using the seven-item LMX scale developed by Graen ve Uhl-bien (1995).

Findings

It was found that school bureaucratic structure had both directly and indirectly effect on teachers proactive behavior via leader-member exchange.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to complete proactive behavior literature by investigating how such behavior is related to the quality of LMX relationships and school bureaucratic structure. The investigation of these relationships is likely to advance understanding of the consequences of teachers’ proactive behavior.

Originality/value

This research combines prior research streams by jointly exploring bureaucratic school structure and the quality of LMX relationships as predictors of teachers’ proactive behaviors.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2019

Remigio Chingara and Jan Heystek

The purpose of this paper is to examine how principals, deputy principals, heads of departments (HoDs) and teachers as leaders exercise their agency within and through the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how principals, deputy principals, heads of departments (HoDs) and teachers as leaders exercise their agency within and through the organisational structure of their schools to improve academic quality.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study was conducted in the wider context of school-based leadership. Principals, deputy principals, HoDs and teachers selected by means of purposive sampling from six primary and secondary schools in Harare Province of Zimbabwe participated in the study.

Findings

Leaders in schools in Harare Province were found to have the capacity to use their agency within and through the organisational structure to improve pass rates. They were able to use their agency to work within the supposed rigid bureaucratic organisational structures to enable bureaucratic organisational structures, or, in participants’ views, democratic structures.

Research limitations/implications

Some limitations of the research ought to be considered. The research scope and site had its limitations. The research site was limited to a few primary and secondary schools in Harare Province (one out of ten provinces) of Zimbabwe. Although the sampling procedures were implemented to ensure good representation of participants’ views, the sampling was limited to a few schools. Owing to time and financial constraints, a larger sample could not be selected to conduct the interviews. These limitations are acknowledged, but they do not undervalue the significance of the study, as they can provide potential avenues for further research. For example, the study may be replicated in rural provinces of Zimbabwe. Such further research could help improve school leadership in Zimbabwe.

Practical implications

Principals, deputy principals, HoDs and teachers as leaders can exercise their agency in the structure of their schools to improve academic quality, expressed as and measured by pass rates. School leaders who have a positive attitude and requisite experience are able to change the rigid bureaucratic structures of their schools to enable bureaucratic structures, which are similar to democratic structures.

Originality/value

This paper provides a critical perspective on how leaders exercise their agency in the context of the organisational structure of their schools to improve academic quality.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

James E. Sinden, Wayne K. Hoy and Scott R. Sweetland

The construct of enabling school structure is empirically analyzed in this qualitative study of high schools. First, the theoretical underpinning of enabling school

Abstract

The construct of enabling school structure is empirically analyzed in this qualitative study of high schools. First, the theoretical underpinning of enabling school structure is developed. Then, six high schools, which were determined to have enabling structures in a large quantitative study of Ohio schools, were analyzed in depth using semi‐structured interviewing techniques. The inquiry fleshes out the specifics of the performance of principals and teachers in such organizations and describes the dynamics of enabling school structures in terms of their formalization, centralization, and functioning. Finally, the research demonstrates a natural and symbiotic relation between quantitative and qualitative approaches to the study of schools.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

ROSS TELFER and TREVOR SWANN

The Content Theories of Motivation — those of Maslow, Herzberg and Alderfer — yielded four criteria by which alternate promotion structures in N.S.W. High Schools could be…

Abstract

The Content Theories of Motivation — those of Maslow, Herzberg and Alderfer — yielded four criteria by which alternate promotion structures in N.S.W. High Schools could be evaluated. The four criteria are the extent to which the promotion structure: 1. Acts as a source of intrinsic motivation; 2. Is a source of job enrichment; 3. Allows for and encourages participative management; and 4. Offers non‐administrative career paths. The four criteria were used to evaluate the existing promotion structure in N.S.W. High Schools, the structure proposed in A Discussion Paper, the proposal of the N.S.W. Institute of Inspectors, and the promotion structure policies of the N.S.W. Teachers Federation. It was concluded that the existing promotion structure failed to satisfy any of the criteria. The proposal contained in A Discussion Paper advocated measures to meet all of the criteria except non‐administrative career paths, yet did not incorporate practical means of achieving such objectives. The policies of the N.S.W. Teachers Federation cannot be fully appraised until they are formulated into a concrete proposal. The proposal of the Institute of Inspectors went closest towards satisfying all criteria except that of participative management.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Dong Thanh Nguyen, David Ng and Pui San Yap

The purpose of this paper is to explore the instructional leadership practices and structure in Singapore primary schools.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the instructional leadership practices and structure in Singapore primary schools.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs a qualitative approach. Data were collected from interviews of 30 Singapore primary school principals and 25 working-day observations of five principals. A grounded theory method was utilized to analyze the qualitative data.

Findings

The instructional leadership roles of principals can be categorized into four key themes: vision development and implementation, physical and organizational structure, professional development, and leading and managing instruction. Importantly, the study illuminates a hybrid structure of instructional leadership in which both hierarchical and heterarchical elements exist.

Originality/value

The current study expands the global knowledge base on instructional leadership by providing indigenous knowledge of how instructional leadership is enacted in Singapore schools. Simultaneously, this study suggests an agenda for future research on instructional leadership.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 55 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Jason H. Wu, Wayne K. Hoy and C. John Tarter

The purpose of this research is twofold: to test a theory of academic optimism in Taiwan elementary schools and to expand the theory by adding new variables, collective…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is twofold: to test a theory of academic optimism in Taiwan elementary schools and to expand the theory by adding new variables, collective responsibility and enabling school structure, to the model.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural equation modeling was used to test, refine, and expand an organizational path model of student achievement first developed in the USA.

Findings

The proposed organizational model was supported in Taiwan and was consistent with the initial studies done in the USA. Further, two concepts were added to the model, enabling structure and collective responsibility, both of which had significant indirect effects on student achievement through academic optimism. Moreover, the theoretical foundations (efficacy, trust, and academic emphasis) of the latent construct of academic optimism were confirmed again in this sample of schools in Taiwan.

Originality/value

The findings support an organizational model of student achievement, which has application in both the USA and Taiwan. The original model was supported, refined, and extended. Academic optimism is at the center of the model and explains student achievement for all students. Collective responsibility and enabling school structure both predict academic optimism directly and student achievement indirectly.

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

Nicholas J. Markette

Despite the widespread use of teams and extensive research regarding school‐based teams, there is a paucity of research regarding team‐theory applied to high school

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the widespread use of teams and extensive research regarding school‐based teams, there is a paucity of research regarding team‐theory applied to high school administrations. This paper aims to explore the team structures and conditions of a public high school administration that has demonstrated success with a heterogeneous student population.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a case study employing multiple approaches within a qualitative particularistic case study methodology. The participants were the members of a public high school administration, plus the employees of the school. The study used surveys, semi‐structured interviews, and coded observations to examine the structures and conditions of the administration as a team.

Findings

The findings suggest practical strategies of value to school leaders seeking to increase the likelihood for administrative team success. A qualitative case study of a public high school administration revealed the presence of five enabling conditions and structures of high performance teams (HPT): real team, compelling direction, proper work structure, supportive context, and expert coaching.

Research limitations/implications

This case study is limited to one participant school and the size limits the findings and may not be representative of the population of all public high schools. In addition, the findings warrant additional research that includes a broader, more extensive, and diverse population.

Practical implications

The findings in this research are of practical value to school leaders seeking to increase the likelihood for administrative team success.

Originality/value

This paper extends a model examined in other industries to education, and has both practical and theoretical value. The exploration of critical structures within a high school administrative team is new and its practical applicability increases its value.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Book part
Publication date: 26 September 2017

Monica Lee

Philosophical reflection is a reflection of a school’s organizational structure. This study employs formal and computational methods to examine closely the culture…

Abstract

Philosophical reflection is a reflection of a school’s organizational structure. This study employs formal and computational methods to examine closely the culture/structure duality in the Frankfurt School’s formation and fragmentation over several decades by examining the homology between its social and conceptual networks.

On the one side, I produce social structural data from archival research on the Frankfurt School’s set of social relations. On the other side, I use computer-assisted textual analysis to produce concept maps of key texts by the same thinkers. Analyzing these networks jointly, I then investigate the dyadic social and cultural processes that contributed to the school’s fragmentation and show that:

  1. The Frankfurt School’s social structure and idea structure were positively correlated over three decades as the school moved from an era of social and intellectual coherence to an era of fragmentation.

  2. While we normally imagine the duality of structure and culture as a positive correlation between social and cultural relations, it can also appear as a strong negative correlation. Leo Löwenthal’s expulsion from the school is such a case. As a peripheral member, Löwenthal’s attempt to engage more strongly with the school’s core ideas was interpreted as presumptuous and low quality by core members who strictly policed the social and intellectual structure of the school. As a result of his ambition, Löwenthal was expelled.

The Frankfurt School’s social structure and idea structure were positively correlated over three decades as the school moved from an era of social and intellectual coherence to an era of fragmentation.

While we normally imagine the duality of structure and culture as a positive correlation between social and cultural relations, it can also appear as a strong negative correlation. Leo Löwenthal’s expulsion from the school is such a case. As a peripheral member, Löwenthal’s attempt to engage more strongly with the school’s core ideas was interpreted as presumptuous and low quality by core members who strictly policed the social and intellectual structure of the school. As a result of his ambition, Löwenthal was expelled.

This paper develops a semantic network approach to analyzing the relation between structural and cultural ties while illustrating the complex ways in which cultural and structural facets of a philosophical school develop in a duality.

Details

Structure, Content and Meaning of Organizational Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-433-0

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