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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2012

Hari Darshan Shrestha, Ryuichi Yatabe, Netra Prakash Bhandary and Jishnu Subedi

As the widely held perception is that retrofitting is a complicated process and is expensive, the purpose of this paper is to analyze cost effectiveness of retrofitting…

Abstract

Purpose

As the widely held perception is that retrofitting is a complicated process and is expensive, the purpose of this paper is to analyze cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing buildings in order to make them safer against earthquake and also to add child friendly features. This case study focuses on the simple method of retrofitting on rectangular single storey existing school buildings. The school buildings are of different types, based on material, shape and size, number of storeys and their vulnerability to earthquake is different case by case. The paper also outlines the process of vulnerability assessment and approach to retrofitting.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on the data collected from a case study carried out in Aceh (Indonesia) as a part of an assessment of vulnerability of newly constructed school facilities and retrofitting them in order to increase their seismic performance.

Findings

One of the key findings of this study is that retrofitting can be achieved through the use of simple methods, tools and equipment and local human resource. This approach not only reduced the vulnerability of school children to earthquake disaster but also contributed to disseminate the message of culture of safety among the neighboring communities. Another major finding is that cost of retrofitting is less compared to the cost of demolition and rebuilding. The retrofitting option further saves the cost as it is time saving and the downtime is less. The retrofitting process and onsite training can also be an effective medium for dissemination of best construction practices in the community. The process also helps the local people to understand the context of risk and raise awareness on disaster risk reduction.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this paper are not limited to vulnerability assessment and retrofitting of school building in Aceh. They can be replicated in other parts of Indonesia and countries having similar type of buildings.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper will be useful for decision makers to replicate similar processes in other types of schools in other areas. The findings will also be useful advocate disaster safer and child friendly schools.

Originality/value

The paper is unique in its findings that retrofitting of school buildings does not only make the schools safer and reduces the risk to children but is also cost effective compared to new construction.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2020

Whitney Bevan, Shu-Ling Lu and Martin Sexton

The prevailing literature argues the need for “new” skills to deliver energy-efficient buildings. The concept of new skills, however, has not been subject to empirical…

Abstract

Purpose

The prevailing literature argues the need for “new” skills to deliver energy-efficient buildings. The concept of new skills, however, has not been subject to empirical investigation. This paper aims to provide insight on the required new skills, and their development and application, for the successful delivery of energy-efficient school retrofit buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

The research employed a case study approach of a school retrofit building project in the early stages of the adoption of energy-efficient measures. Through the application of the socio-technical network approach (STNA) as the data collection and analysis framework, data were collected through semi-structured interviews, observations and a review of relevant organisational documentation and were analysed using thematic coding.

Findings

The findings reveal key actors (i.e. the local authority, energy contractors and school end-users), their principal interests and the required communication, project management, energy management, technical and research skills during their interactions in the successful delivery of the school retrofit building project. The results further reinforce the crucial role of the local authority in driving energy performance improvement of school buildings.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates empirical evidence of the principal actors and skills required for the delivery of energy-efficient school retrofit buildings, contributes to new theoretical insights at the identification of key micro-level development of construction skills through the project network and evidences on how the STNA can be mobilised in construction skills research.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 27 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2020

Ching-Shan Chen

Taiwan experiences frequent seismic activity. Major earthquakes in recent history have seriously damaged the school buildings. School buildings in Taiwan are intended to…

Abstract

Purpose

Taiwan experiences frequent seismic activity. Major earthquakes in recent history have seriously damaged the school buildings. School buildings in Taiwan are intended to serve both as places of education and as temporary shelters in the aftermath of major earthquakes. Therefore, the seismic performance assessments of school buildings are critical issues that deserve investigation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops a methodology that uses principal component analysis to generalize the seismic factors from the basic seismic parameters of school buildings, uses data mining to cluster different school building sizes and uses grey theory to analyze the relationship between seismic factors and the seismic performance of school buildings. Additionally, this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to deduce the seismic assessment model for school buildings. Finally, it adopts support vector machine to validate the ANN’s deductive results.

Findings

An empirical study was conducted on 326 school buildings in the central area of Taichung City, Taiwan, to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Results show that thickness of wall and width of middle-row column relate significantly with school-building seismic performance.

Originality/value

This paper provides a model that structural engineers or architects may use to design school buildings that are adequately resistant to earthquakes as well as a reference for future academic research.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 37 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2018

An Thi Hoai Le, Kenneth Sungho Park, Niluka Domingo, Eziaku Rasheed and Nalanie Mithraratne

Any building refurbishment is challenging and school buildings offer no exception. They are increasingly in need of refurbishment due to their age and evolving teaching…

Abstract

Purpose

Any building refurbishment is challenging and school buildings offer no exception. They are increasingly in need of refurbishment due to their age and evolving teaching and learning. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of literature on sustainable refurbishment so as to identify key lessons from selected successful refurbishment projects. The review findings are expected to contribute to the development of refurbishment plans in an effective and innovative manner that should extend building’s service life, focus on resource efficiency, and comfort their users. It will also contribute to knowledge base of refurbishment and suggest future directions for research.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper has undertaken a literature review on the sustainability assessment of buildings and frameworks for sustainable refurbishment. Besides, the work also provides a review of recent successful refurbishment projects to collect and structure systems experiences which can be adopted in developing a sustainable refurbishment strategy for school buildings.

Findings

Findings include three groups of lessons in terms of reasons, process and barriers in the selected refurbishment projects that assist stakeholders to prepare a suitable refurbishment plan for their school buildings. The potential of 3D scanners and BIM applications in the refurbishment process will also be reviewed in order to develop a proposed framework of 3D scanner vs BIM for the refurbishment process. Recommendations highlight the role of a national strategy as a driving factor for applying the advantages of information technology to enhance optimal solution selection processes to get better and more sustainable results.

Originality/value

The conceptual framework for 3D scanner and BIM applications within sustainable refurbishment for school buildings is currently under researched, and the findings aimed to address such a gap when considering 3D scanners and BIM applications in the refurbishment process.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2013

Kemi Adeyeye, Poorang Piroozfar, Micah Rosenkind, Graham Winstanley and Ian Pegg

This paper aims to review the impact of design and specification decisions for major works during post‐occupancy processes; the routine maintenance and management of school

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the impact of design and specification decisions for major works during post‐occupancy processes; the routine maintenance and management of school premises. It also seeks to explore the relationship between the main stakeholders and how this impacts decision‐making and the post‐occupancy operation of school buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

In addition to a literature review, qualitative data were also obtained through a focus group; a steering group. The steering group consisted of stakeholders tasked with delivering and managing school premises in the Sussex County.

Findings

The findings contribute to understanding the impact of design decisions on post‐occupancy processes in schools. A basic model is also presented as a guide for requirements and decision mapping in post‐occupancy design decision processes in schools.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted with the participation of a representative sample of stakeholders. There may be the need to investigate the issues further in a localised context before detailed solutions are proposed.

Practical implications

The paper reports findings based on the needs, requirements, and preferences of the stakeholders as well as the opportunities and constraints to improving the quality of design processes which in turn will improve post occupancy processes.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the complexity of design decision‐making in schools, presents the viewpoint of stakeholders, and proposes a basic model to ensure performance for post‐occupancy processes to inform the next stage of the research.

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2019

Karin Farsäter and Stefan Olander

The purpose of this study was to evaluate how decisions are taken in the early stages of a renovation project, up to the design brief, leading up to the decisions on how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to evaluate how decisions are taken in the early stages of a renovation project, up to the design brief, leading up to the decisions on how to proceed with the renovation in the design phase. Although many technical solutions are visualised in the design phase, it is in the early evaluations of needs and demands, leading up to the design brief, that set the requirements for viable solutions in the design and production phases.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was carried out as a longitudinal case study of the planning phases of a school renovation. The studied buildings were researched by document analysis and by attending meetings over a four-year period between the building owners and the municipality.

Findings

Aspects such as technical status, energy use and indoor environment in the buildings were not discussed to any great extent. A few inventories were carried out in the buildings to establish their technical and accessibility status. The aspects mainly discussed in the studied renovation project have been: accessibility, functionality with respect to teaching and learning requirements in addition to architectural and cultural values.

Originality/value

This study illustrates the comprehensive analysis needed when renovating a building and on difficulties of addressing and evaluating all the viable aspects of concern. It also shows that this planning for a renovation is not a straight line but rather a process where conditions are continuously changing.

Details

Facilities , vol. 37 no. 13/14
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2021

Norsafiah Norazman, Adi Irfan Che-Ani, Afifuddin Husairi Mat Jusoh Hussain and Wan Norisma Wan Ismail

The existing concept in the building rating scheme especially in developing countries was more focused on the environment, economic, social and culture. The new approach…

Abstract

Purpose

The existing concept in the building rating scheme especially in developing countries was more focused on the environment, economic, social and culture. The new approach of the classroom condition index (CCI) assessment scheme has its uniqueness in environmental and social aspects because of high building performance in secondary school buildings. The requirements set by the Ministry of Education Malaysia include providing a conducive learning environment, especially for students who are considered as the main users of classrooms in school buildings. Currently, the school administration needs to manually record the condition of the classroom to increase its comfort level. The lack of a structured scheme for classroom assessment makes it difficult for school administration to focus on the overall classroom condition (physical environmental aspect) in the school building. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework for classroom conditions by proposing a CCI assessment scheme for a secondary school building in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

Mixed methods were used to carry out the study. The first stage of this study concentrates on developing a system for CCI that relates to physical elements in the classroom. This is done by reviewing the literature on the classroom physical performance, as well as a comparison between several building rating systems locally and abroad. The structure of the proposed CCI scheme is grouped into four main themes, namely, space management quality (SMQ), building condition (BC), indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and teaching and learning quality (TLQ). In addition, there are 12 categories and 23 indicators listed under this theme. The second stage focuses on formulating assessment categories with their relevant performance indicators. This phase undergoes a validation process by conducting a survey (questionnaire) toward the classroom’s main users, which are students and teachers. This is to ensure the accuracy of classroom conditions in the school building. A semi-structured interview was also conducted among building experts. They are building surveyors, building engineers, building designers and building performance experts to support the main findings in the second stage. Relative importance (RI) index approach has been applied to show the indicators weighting and ranking are used as data collections method by using Statistical Package of Social Science software to examine the RI of each category and indicator, respectively.

Findings

The findings show that prominent RI and balanced weights are formed from these four main themes. They are SMQ (19.9%), BC (26.6%), IEQ (33.2%) and TLQ (20.3%). The outcome of this study will contribute to a detailed assessment scheme for CCI at the secondary school building. The contribution of the CCI Assessment Scheme is more comprehensive and holistic than the conventional assessment process for BCs. It focuses specifically on classroom space as it is the most important area to achieve a high level of comfort comparing to other spaces in the school building. This holistic approach encompasses all types of classrooms. The concept of one tool fits all is seen as no longer a relevant adaptation in this context. This proposed tool is to be used only for the classroom (as the name CCI implies) and it cannot be used for the other types of spaces, for instance, teacher room, library, meeting room, toilet, canteen and, etc. This is because different spaces represent different physical indicators to be classified. This, in turn, contributes to a conducive learning environment for students in the school.

Originality/value

This paper provides the current information, knowledge and findings related to the classroom physical indicators in developing the assessment scheme for the classroom environment. It will assist both technical and non-technical experts to clarify the current condition of classroom physical performance that ideally may affect the students’ learning environment. The novelty of CCI development is not only on the adopted method but it also includes the ideas on next generation model of rating system that ideally need specific indicators and weighting to be generated into an intelligent computerized system.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2019

Pramen P. Shrestha, Kabindra Kumar Shrestha and Haileab B. Zeleke

Change orders (COs) adversely affect the cost and schedule of projects, specifically during the construction phase. COs of 95 new public school building projects…

Abstract

Purpose

Change orders (COs) adversely affect the cost and schedule of projects, specifically during the construction phase. COs of 95 new public school building projects contracted by the Clark County School District (CCSD) of Nevada were analyzed to quantify the cost and schedule growth as well as to determine the effect of COs on cost and schedule growth. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from CCSD through questionnaire survey. Descriptive statistics and statistical tests were conducted to determine the effect of COs on cost and schedule growth.

Findings

It was found that the average amount of COs as well as cost and schedule overruns were 5.9, 3.0 and 7.4 percent, respectively. Statistical tests showed that the amount of COs had an adverse effect on schedule growth; schedule overruns in projects with less than 4 percent COs were significantly lower than projects with more than 4 percent COs. Cost overruns did not significantly differ in those two types of projects. The primary contribution of this study is that it provides the tools and the framework for school district engineers to determine the probability of the occurrence of COs as well as the optimum percentage of COs for a minimum effect on cost and schedule growth of new public school buildings. Probability curves were also developed to determine the likelihood of the occurrence of COs, cost growth and schedule growth in these projects. These findings could be used by school districts to avoid or reduce COs in future projects, minimizing the effect on cost and schedule growth during the construction phase.

Research limitations/implications

The findings and the probabilities curves developed in this study should be used carefully in other cases. These data were specific to the owner, location and types of buildings and generalizing these findings may have negative consequences.

Practical implications

The practical implications are that this study could provide a tool to school building administrators to determine the probability of having COs as well as cost and schedule overruns and the effects of COs on cost and schedule overruns. To the authors’ best knowledge, no other studies of this type have been conducted previously.

Social implications

The social implication of this study is it will help to efficiently use the tax payers’ money while building new school buildings.

Originality/value

This study has collected the hard data of COs, cost and schedule data of CCSD new school building projects. Therefore, the data are from the projects completed by CCSD. So, the paper is written from the original data received from CCSD.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2010

Yufan Zhang and Peter Barrett

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of an evidence base for what constitutes an optimal learning space, including a useful toolkit of good practice…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of an evidence base for what constitutes an optimal learning space, including a useful toolkit of good practice examples for use by local authority clients.

Design/methodology/approach

The research method centred on a structured case study of each school, informed by: site observation, questionnaire distribution, headteacher's interview and workshop discussions. A total of five primary schools were involved.

Findings

It was found that there is a gap between design expectations and the performance achieved, primarily because the occupants are usually simply coping with the given environment rather than actively managing it. Also, from the headteacher's perspective there are not enough driving forces to carry out post‐occupancy evaluations that would reveal this gap.

Practical implications

Different attitudes and behaviours are needed, and, for this, education programmes for users should be implemented on occupation to ensure that the potential of the design strategies is fully realized. On the other hand, the nature of POE is strongly related to building performance‐in‐use. Therefore, stronger and more regular POEs can play an important role in improving the practical use of existing buildings and the design of new buildings or improvements.

Originality/value

The significant contribution of this research is that it makes a valuable contribution to the body of knowledge of POE results and processes.

Details

Facilities, vol. 28 no. 13/14
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2013

A.S. Ali, K.C. Keong, N. Zakaria, U. Zolkafli and F. Akashah

The purpose of this study is to focus on identifying building elements with design defects and established the relationship between design defects and difficulties in…

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2045

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to focus on identifying building elements with design defects and established the relationship between design defects and difficulties in carrying out maintenance works.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of four cases have been selected covering primary‐ and secondary‐level for both National and National‐type schools (commonly known as vernacular schools). Interviews with school management were carried out throughout the study to assess the common design defects in the buildings.

Findings

A list of the design defects that have caused high maintenance cost was tabulated. It could be concluded that the most common design defects are building façade and missing slot underneath the floor slab which led to more defects.

Research limitations/implications

Only four schools in Penang, Malaysia were involved in this study. Data were gathered from the school management and maintenance personnel. No data have been obtained from the designers because difficulties in tracing the designers record since the school age are more than 20 years.

Practical implications

The study recommended that expert maintenance personnel shall be employed in the design stage to minimize design defects in school projects which in turn minimize the cost of building maintenance.

Social Implications

Safety and health of the students could be affected if there is no accurate measures being adopted to overcome the issue.

Originality/value

A very limited study has been carried out with regards to design maintenance for school buildings in Malaysia.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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