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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2020

Whitney Bevan, Shu-Ling Lu and Martin Sexton

The prevailing literature argues the need for “new” skills to deliver energy-efficient buildings. The concept of new skills, however, has not been subject to empirical…

Abstract

Purpose

The prevailing literature argues the need for “new” skills to deliver energy-efficient buildings. The concept of new skills, however, has not been subject to empirical investigation. This paper aims to provide insight on the required new skills, and their development and application, for the successful delivery of energy-efficient school retrofit buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

The research employed a case study approach of a school retrofit building project in the early stages of the adoption of energy-efficient measures. Through the application of the socio-technical network approach (STNA) as the data collection and analysis framework, data were collected through semi-structured interviews, observations and a review of relevant organisational documentation and were analysed using thematic coding.

Findings

The findings reveal key actors (i.e. the local authority, energy contractors and school end-users), their principal interests and the required communication, project management, energy management, technical and research skills during their interactions in the successful delivery of the school retrofit building project. The results further reinforce the crucial role of the local authority in driving energy performance improvement of school buildings.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates empirical evidence of the principal actors and skills required for the delivery of energy-efficient school retrofit buildings, contributes to new theoretical insights at the identification of key micro-level development of construction skills through the project network and evidences on how the STNA can be mobilised in construction skills research.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 27 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2013

Kemi Adeyeye, Poorang Piroozfar, Micah Rosenkind, Graham Winstanley and Ian Pegg

This paper aims to review the impact of design and specification decisions for major works during post‐occupancy processes; the routine maintenance and management of school

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the impact of design and specification decisions for major works during post‐occupancy processes; the routine maintenance and management of school premises. It also seeks to explore the relationship between the main stakeholders and how this impacts decision‐making and the post‐occupancy operation of school buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

In addition to a literature review, qualitative data were also obtained through a focus group; a steering group. The steering group consisted of stakeholders tasked with delivering and managing school premises in the Sussex County.

Findings

The findings contribute to understanding the impact of design decisions on post‐occupancy processes in schools. A basic model is also presented as a guide for requirements and decision mapping in post‐occupancy design decision processes in schools.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted with the participation of a representative sample of stakeholders. There may be the need to investigate the issues further in a localised context before detailed solutions are proposed.

Practical implications

The paper reports findings based on the needs, requirements, and preferences of the stakeholders as well as the opportunities and constraints to improving the quality of design processes which in turn will improve post occupancy processes.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the complexity of design decision‐making in schools, presents the viewpoint of stakeholders, and proposes a basic model to ensure performance for post‐occupancy processes to inform the next stage of the research.

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Article
Publication date: 25 April 2018

Andreas Økland, Agnar Johansen and Nils O.E. Olsson

Standardizing the development, planning and construction of public building projects can contribute to timely and efficient project delivery. This is especially relevant…

Abstract

Purpose

Standardizing the development, planning and construction of public building projects can contribute to timely and efficient project delivery. This is especially relevant when there are urgent needs for capacity. The purpose of this paper is to share the experiences from the development of standardized concepts for school extensions and prison building in Norway.

Design/methodology/approach

The research questions posed in this paper are on the interaction between public entities project delivery models and standardizing building types and the construction method. To investigate the research questions, the paper presents the findings from two case studies: school and prison development and construction projects. It is based on a literature review, semi-structured interviews, document studies and quantitative data on time and cost for the planning and construction phases.

Findings

Standardization and use of modularized building systems can contribute to shortened delivery time by reducing the duration of both the planning and construction phase. The most significant time reduction resulted from less time spent on quality assurance of cost estimates prior to the funding of the projects. Project costs increased in the school case, but were reduced in the prison case. An important challenge faced in both cases is a shallow pool of capable suppliers; the actors have approached the challenge with different strategies, yet neither actor has been successful in their attempts.

Originality/value

The paper provides empirical data to add to the collective knowledge on the project management aspects of using standardized project delivery models and standardized (modular) building. However, by emphasizing the interaction between project delivery models and standardization of the planning and execution of the projects, additional insight into the benefits and challenges are highlighted.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2019

Karin Farsäter and Stefan Olander

The purpose of this study was to evaluate how decisions are taken in the early stages of a renovation project, up to the design brief, leading up to the decisions on how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to evaluate how decisions are taken in the early stages of a renovation project, up to the design brief, leading up to the decisions on how to proceed with the renovation in the design phase. Although many technical solutions are visualised in the design phase, it is in the early evaluations of needs and demands, leading up to the design brief, that set the requirements for viable solutions in the design and production phases.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was carried out as a longitudinal case study of the planning phases of a school renovation. The studied buildings were researched by document analysis and by attending meetings over a four-year period between the building owners and the municipality.

Findings

Aspects such as technical status, energy use and indoor environment in the buildings were not discussed to any great extent. A few inventories were carried out in the buildings to establish their technical and accessibility status. The aspects mainly discussed in the studied renovation project have been: accessibility, functionality with respect to teaching and learning requirements in addition to architectural and cultural values.

Originality/value

This study illustrates the comprehensive analysis needed when renovating a building and on difficulties of addressing and evaluating all the viable aspects of concern. It also shows that this planning for a renovation is not a straight line but rather a process where conditions are continuously changing.

Details

Facilities , vol. 37 no. 13/14
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2021

Norsafiah Norazman, Adi Irfan Che-Ani, Afifuddin Husairi Mat Jusoh Hussain and Wan Norisma Wan Ismail

The existing concept in the building rating scheme especially in developing countries was more focused on the environment, economic, social and culture. The new approach…

Abstract

Purpose

The existing concept in the building rating scheme especially in developing countries was more focused on the environment, economic, social and culture. The new approach of the classroom condition index (CCI) assessment scheme has its uniqueness in environmental and social aspects because of high building performance in secondary school buildings. The requirements set by the Ministry of Education Malaysia include providing a conducive learning environment, especially for students who are considered as the main users of classrooms in school buildings. Currently, the school administration needs to manually record the condition of the classroom to increase its comfort level. The lack of a structured scheme for classroom assessment makes it difficult for school administration to focus on the overall classroom condition (physical environmental aspect) in the school building. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework for classroom conditions by proposing a CCI assessment scheme for a secondary school building in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

Mixed methods were used to carry out the study. The first stage of this study concentrates on developing a system for CCI that relates to physical elements in the classroom. This is done by reviewing the literature on the classroom physical performance, as well as a comparison between several building rating systems locally and abroad. The structure of the proposed CCI scheme is grouped into four main themes, namely, space management quality (SMQ), building condition (BC), indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and teaching and learning quality (TLQ). In addition, there are 12 categories and 23 indicators listed under this theme. The second stage focuses on formulating assessment categories with their relevant performance indicators. This phase undergoes a validation process by conducting a survey (questionnaire) toward the classroom’s main users, which are students and teachers. This is to ensure the accuracy of classroom conditions in the school building. A semi-structured interview was also conducted among building experts. They are building surveyors, building engineers, building designers and building performance experts to support the main findings in the second stage. Relative importance (RI) index approach has been applied to show the indicators weighting and ranking are used as data collections method by using Statistical Package of Social Science software to examine the RI of each category and indicator, respectively.

Findings

The findings show that prominent RI and balanced weights are formed from these four main themes. They are SMQ (19.9%), BC (26.6%), IEQ (33.2%) and TLQ (20.3%). The outcome of this study will contribute to a detailed assessment scheme for CCI at the secondary school building. The contribution of the CCI Assessment Scheme is more comprehensive and holistic than the conventional assessment process for BCs. It focuses specifically on classroom space as it is the most important area to achieve a high level of comfort comparing to other spaces in the school building. This holistic approach encompasses all types of classrooms. The concept of one tool fits all is seen as no longer a relevant adaptation in this context. This proposed tool is to be used only for the classroom (as the name CCI implies) and it cannot be used for the other types of spaces, for instance, teacher room, library, meeting room, toilet, canteen and, etc. This is because different spaces represent different physical indicators to be classified. This, in turn, contributes to a conducive learning environment for students in the school.

Originality/value

This paper provides the current information, knowledge and findings related to the classroom physical indicators in developing the assessment scheme for the classroom environment. It will assist both technical and non-technical experts to clarify the current condition of classroom physical performance that ideally may affect the students’ learning environment. The novelty of CCI development is not only on the adopted method but it also includes the ideas on next generation model of rating system that ideally need specific indicators and weighting to be generated into an intelligent computerized system.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2013

Christina Wai Mui Yu

The Teen Entrepreneurship Competition (TEC) was an annual inter‐school competition that aimed to promote entrepreneurship education (EE) in Hong Kong (HK) secondary schools

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895

Abstract

Purpose

The Teen Entrepreneurship Competition (TEC) was an annual inter‐school competition that aimed to promote entrepreneurship education (EE) in Hong Kong (HK) secondary schools. This paper aims to: review and evaluate the implementation of the TEC over the years from 2003‐2010, and use the TEC as a case to demonstrate how EE can be advanced through capacity building in various ways and levels.

Design/methodology/approach

There were two key milestone phases for the TEC. This paper will describe and discuss the achievements made in Phase I and the capacity building for advancing the TEC in Phase II in details. Then, a critical analysis of capacity building for advancing TEC in Phase II will be made with a careful consideration of the TEC's design rationales, the research findings in Phase I and the three inter‐related levels of capacity building. Finally, suggestions will be recommended for further strengthening EE in schools.

Findings

The sustainability and advancement of the TEC are closely related to: advancing “Character Building” at the individual level, advancing “Partnership Building” at the institutional level, and advancing “Social Responsibility” at the societal level. However, the TEC might still overlook an alignment with the existing curriculum development. A further capacity building of course development and policy making should be sought.

Originality/values

This is a precious illustrative case study for the purpose of sharing useful information and genuine experience with those who are interested in promoting teen EE in schools.

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2018

An Thi Hoai Le, Kenneth Sungho Park, Niluka Domingo, Eziaku Rasheed and Nalanie Mithraratne

Any building refurbishment is challenging and school buildings offer no exception. They are increasingly in need of refurbishment due to their age and evolving teaching…

Abstract

Purpose

Any building refurbishment is challenging and school buildings offer no exception. They are increasingly in need of refurbishment due to their age and evolving teaching and learning. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of literature on sustainable refurbishment so as to identify key lessons from selected successful refurbishment projects. The review findings are expected to contribute to the development of refurbishment plans in an effective and innovative manner that should extend building’s service life, focus on resource efficiency, and comfort their users. It will also contribute to knowledge base of refurbishment and suggest future directions for research.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper has undertaken a literature review on the sustainability assessment of buildings and frameworks for sustainable refurbishment. Besides, the work also provides a review of recent successful refurbishment projects to collect and structure systems experiences which can be adopted in developing a sustainable refurbishment strategy for school buildings.

Findings

Findings include three groups of lessons in terms of reasons, process and barriers in the selected refurbishment projects that assist stakeholders to prepare a suitable refurbishment plan for their school buildings. The potential of 3D scanners and BIM applications in the refurbishment process will also be reviewed in order to develop a proposed framework of 3D scanner vs BIM for the refurbishment process. Recommendations highlight the role of a national strategy as a driving factor for applying the advantages of information technology to enhance optimal solution selection processes to get better and more sustainable results.

Originality/value

The conceptual framework for 3D scanner and BIM applications within sustainable refurbishment for school buildings is currently under researched, and the findings aimed to address such a gap when considering 3D scanners and BIM applications in the refurbishment process.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Peter de Jong and Monique Arkesteijn

This article aims at providing case-based evidence to support the idea that an integral approach using life cycle costs (LCC) would lead to more in-depth argued…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims at providing case-based evidence to support the idea that an integral approach using life cycle costs (LCC) would lead to more in-depth argued adjustments towards sustainable and feasible school buildings. There is a gap between the investment in and the operating costs of public school buildings, caused by the splitting up of responsibility for the financing of the accommodation. Municipalities finance the initial costs of construction, and school boards are responsible for the operating costs. According to architecture-based research on this subject, this split results in higher costs during the lifetime of the buildings. This problem is often referred to as the split-incentive problem.

Design/methodology/approach

The research conducted nine case studies of newly built secondary school buildings. The schools were examined with reference to building characteristics, building costs and operational costs. The sustainable performance of these cases is described with the aid of a Dutch sustainability measurement tool. The core of the research is the LCC analysis and the overall perspective on the ratio between initial costs and operations costs.

Findings

It is often held in the construction sector that investments in sustainability lead to increased expense. However, studies indicate this is not unequivocally true. The authors study, at least, found no clear evidence that schools with investments in specific sustainable solutions have such undesirable higher investment costs. The authors study found some positive effects of sustainable measurements on the LCC of secondary schools.

Originality/value

This study confirms the ratio of Hughes and Ive as defined in office typologies to be true in the school building typology. It is worthwhile for owners and users to keep focus on LCC, as well as for the government as financiers/or funders of school buildings.

Details

Journal of Corporate Real Estate, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-001X

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2009

Sheila Walbe Ornstein, Nanci Saraiva Moreira, Rosaria Ono, Ana J.G. Limongi França and Roselene A.M.F. Nogueira

The paper describes the purpose of and strategies for conducting post‐occupancy evaluations (POEs) as a method for assessing school building performance. Set within the…

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2372

Abstract

Purpose

The paper describes the purpose of and strategies for conducting post‐occupancy evaluations (POEs) as a method for assessing school building performance. Set within the larger context of global efforts to develop and apply common indicators of school building quality, the authors describe research conducted within the newest generation of São Paulo's schools.

Design/methodology/approach

The various methods of POE, including expert walkthroughs, physical measurements, observations, behavioral mapping, user interviews, focus groups, and survey questionnaires were applied within a purposefully selected case study school.

Findings

The POE carried out at Fernando Gasparian High School revealed limitations in the building's design, particularly in light of the neighborhood context, thus raising significant concerns about safety and security. Users gave the construction quality of the building, a generally positive evaluation, however, there were some important aspects of the building design judged as deficient. In particular, researchers observed a significant mismatch between the building design and the realities of the surrounding community. This sort of incongruity introduced important challenges to principals, teachers, and staff, as they worked to ensure the safety of students who attend the school.

Originality/value

The research explores the effectiveness of POE methods in capturing user and expert assessments of overall building quality, as well as the degree to which building designs assist educators and community members in realizing Brazil's larger educational reform goals.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2009

Cynthia L. Uline, Megan Tschannen‐Moran and Thomas DeVere Wolsey

Accompanying the recent concern for the quality of our nation's educational infrastructure, a growing body of research connects the quality of school facilities to both…

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1774

Abstract

Purpose

Accompanying the recent concern for the quality of our nation's educational infrastructure, a growing body of research connects the quality of school facilities to both student outcomes including achievement, behavior, and attitude as well as to teacher attitude and behavior. Less is known about the mechanisms of these relationships. This paper aims to examine the link between school building quality and student outcomes through the mediating influence of school climate. Results build upon those of a recent study that confirmed a link between the quality of school facilities and student achievement in both English and Mathematics, as well as the mediating role of school climate. This qualitative follow‐up study explores the complicated intricacies of how a school building's physical properties influence teaching and learning.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is structured according to a collective, instrumental case study design. Individual, focus group, walk‐through and photo‐interviews, as well as observations inform the inquiry. Two high‐poverty schools are identified from the earlier quantitative study because the ratings of the quality school facilities by their faculties fall within the upper quartile. These two schools, one urban and one rural, are selected purposefully for this study, maximizing learning from cases rich in information.

Findings

Results of the research indicate that ongoing interactions between the original design, the day‐to‐day reality of the built environment, and the occupants of that environment help to define the learning climate of these schools. Reciprocally, the climate helps to shape the interactions that take place, fostering environmental understanding, competence and control and supporting academic learning. From the data, several broad themes related to building quality emerge as central to this interaction between the built environment and building occupants, including movement, aesthetics, play of light, flexible and responsive classrooms, elbow room, and security.

Originality/value

Through the stories told by occupants of these two schools, we gain further understanding of the interactions between certain building conditions and design features and how these reinforce and enhance the social environment of school, helping to foster a sense of belonging within a place, a sense of control and competence, and a sense of collective commitment to the place and its purposes. As school designers balance considerations of durability with flexibility, the voices of these occupants may serve to argue for the inclusion of design features that allow occupants some measure of control over comfort and use factors. The broad themes related to building quality that emerge from the data include movement, aesthetics, the play of light, flexible and responsive classrooms, elbow room, as well as safety and security.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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