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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

Tex Smiley

Explains the concept of schemata modification. People think withmental representations – schemata – which are in constantchange. Stresses that people cannot be taught …

Abstract

Explains the concept of schemata modification. People think with mental representations – schemata – which are in constant change. Stresses that people cannot be taught – they learn by thinking and reasoning after facing disturbances to existing thought; everyone has a learning schemata which is modified with each learning schemata. The concept can be a useful addition to management knowledge and converted into an important management skill. The more a manager understands and appreciates the process, the greater the possibility for making positive improvements in long‐term subordinate behaviour.

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Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2003

Naomi Murphy and Denis McVey

Psychiatric nurses were given training in schema‐focused therapeutic approaches. They were then applied in a forensic setting with a focus on the needs of those patients…

Abstract

Psychiatric nurses were given training in schema‐focused therapeutic approaches. They were then applied in a forensic setting with a focus on the needs of those patients diagnosed with a ‘personality disorder’. The paper discusses and reflects on the results of the approach and its relevance to the training of psychiatric nurses.

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The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Naomi Murphy and Denis McVey

Research suggests that the majority of forensic clients have significant personality difficulties. Providing quality nursing care to this client group is identified as…

Abstract

Research suggests that the majority of forensic clients have significant personality difficulties. Providing quality nursing care to this client group is identified as particularly difficult. This paper outlines how schema‐focused therapy has been introduced to nursing staff working with personality disordered clients in an in‐patient setting in order to enhance their practice with this client group. A brief overview is given of Young's (1994) schema‐focused therapy model and a detailed description of how this model has been incorporated into in‐house training and used to guide nursing treatment plans and individual nursing interventions. Although this strategy has not been formally evaluated, feedback suggests that both staff and patients believe that the quality of care provided since its introduction has improved significantly.

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The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Joseph Eastwood, Mark D. Snow and Stuart Freedman

The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of innocent suspects to produce accurate alibis, as well as to identify procedures police interviewers can use to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of innocent suspects to produce accurate alibis, as well as to identify procedures police interviewers can use to increase the probability of generating accurate alibis.

Design/methodology/approach

In Study 1, 54 university students had a lecture (target event) end at either the normal time (schema group) or 25 min early (non-schema group) and then attempted to generate an alibi for the target event after either a short, moderate or long delay. In Study 2, 20 students had a lecture end 25 min early and underwent an interview regarding their whereabouts using a reverse-order interview technique designed to disrupt schema usage.

Findings

Results from Study 1 suggested that participants relied on schemas to generate their alibis, which led to false alibis for the non-schema group, and this reliance was more pronounced as the delay between event and recall increased. In Study 2, all but one participant produced a false alibi, suggesting reverse order is ineffective in increasing accurate recall in alibi situations.

Practical implications

Results from the two studies revealed that people can produce false alibis easily in mock police interviews – a finding that appears to result from the reliance on schemas. These findings highlight the relative ease with which innocent individuals can produce false alibis. Further research, specific to the alibi generation process, is needed to give police interviewers the tools to produce more accurate and detailed alibis.

Originality/value

This research provides additional evidence regarding the role of schemas in alibi generation. Contrary to findings from the eyewitness area, reverse-order instructions failed to disrupt schema reliance and do not appear to be an effective alibi-elicitation technique.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Somendra Narayan, Jatinder S. Sidhu, Charles Baden-Fuller and Henk W. Volberda

At the level of a cognitive schema, a business model is a mental map of a firm’s value-creating, value-delivering, and value-capturing activities and the linkages between…

Abstract

At the level of a cognitive schema, a business model is a mental map of a firm’s value-creating, value-delivering, and value-capturing activities and the linkages between them. An important question in the study of business models as cognitive schemas is whether and how schemas differ across industry actors and whether the differences are connected to the variation observed in actual business models in the industry. This chapter examines, in particular, the ways in which business model schemas of industry insiders differ from those of industry outsiders. Using data from interviews with chief executive officers (CEOs) of 30 legal-tech firms, we graphically construct and analyze the CEOs’ schemas of important causal interdependencies between their firms’ activities. The analysis shows systematic differences between insiders and outsider CEOs’ schemas. We theorize that these differences underlie insider and outsider CEOs’ distinct approaches to opportunity recognition, expertise perception, and value framing, and have consequences for actual business model evolution in the industry.

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Book part
Publication date: 16 April 2014

Gary R. Weaver and Jason M. Stansbury

Religious institutions can affect organizational practices when employees bring their religious commitments and practices into the workplace. But those religious…

Abstract

Religious institutions can affect organizational practices when employees bring their religious commitments and practices into the workplace. But those religious commitments function in the midst of other organizational factors that influence the working out of employees’ religious commitments. This process can generate varying outcomes in organizational contexts, ranging from a heightened effect of religious commitment on employee behavior to a negligible or nonexistent influence of religion on employee behavior. Relying on social identity theory and schematic social cognition as unifying frameworks for the study of religious behavior, we develop a theoretically informed approach to understanding how and why the religious beliefs, commitments and practices employees bring to work have varying behavioral impacts.

Details

Religion and Organization Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-693-4

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Book part
Publication date: 6 February 2013

Paul Dean, Kris Marsh and Bart Landry

Purpose – While existing literature on work–family schemas has focused on white middle-class mothers, we examine how race, class, and gender shape black middle-class…

Abstract

Purpose – While existing literature on work–family schemas has focused on white middle-class mothers, we examine how race, class, and gender shape black middle-class mothers’ work and family life.Design/methodology/approach – Drawing upon 31 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with mothers (and their husbands), this chapter utilizes an intersectional approach to explore distinct cultural schemas for work and family.Findings – We document two schemas that define conceivable and desirable roles for black motherhood, work, and family. Some black middle-class mothers interpreted work and family roles as contradictory following the schema of family devotion (Blair-Loy, 2003). However, most mothers interpreted work and family as complementary role-identities, following a schema we call work–family integration. They enacted dual roles of mother and worker, integrating them into a meaningful, multi-dimensional view of black womanhood.Research limitations/implications – The findings emphasize the need for a more intersectional approach to research on work and family. Given existing literature documenting racial variation in work–family conflict, it also suggests that this may be explained by racial variation in cultural schemas. However, because our sample was limited to black middle-class, heterosexual couples with children, we were unable to make comparisons or generalizations to other groups. We recommend future research that draws comparisons across race, class, sexuality, gender, and/or family structure.Originality/value – This chapter introduces a new cultural schema, work–family integration; provides empirical research on an underexplored group, black middle-class families; and adds further nuance to cultural theories of work and family.

Details

Notions of Family: Intersectional Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-535-7

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Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2006

Wendi L. Adair, Catherine H. Tinsley and Masako Taylor

We offer a conceptualization of third culture in intercultural interactions and describe its different forms as well as its antecedents and consequences. Third culture is…

Abstract

We offer a conceptualization of third culture in intercultural interactions and describe its different forms as well as its antecedents and consequences. Third culture is a multicultural team's shared schema that contains not only team and task knowledge, but also a shared set of beliefs, values, and norms grounded in the national cultures of the team members. We develop a typology to distinguish third culture schema form on two dimensions: third culture strength and third culture content. We then propose both team process and team composition variables that influence the emergence of these different forms. Furthermore, we use social identity formation and sensemaking mechanisms to propose the effects of these third culture forms on team performance.

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National Culture and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-362-4

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Book part
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Paul J. Hanges, Peter W. Dorfman, Gary Shteynberg and Archie L. Bates

In this paper, we discuss a new information processing model of culture and leadership (Hanges, Lord, & Dickson, 2000). First, we review the older cognitive categorization…

Abstract

In this paper, we discuss a new information processing model of culture and leadership (Hanges, Lord, & Dickson, 2000). First, we review the older cognitive categorization approach that has been used to explain the relationships between culture, preferred leadership attributes and follower behavior. Then we present a new model based on the connectionist theory of information processing. This model focuses on the connections between concepts in a cognitive network, rather than discrete schemas. Finally, we use the new model to suggest strategies that managers might use to manage a diverse workforce.

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Advances in Global Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-160-6

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Abstract

Details

Reflections and Extensions on Key Papers of the First Twenty-Five Years of Advances
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-435-0

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