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1 – 10 of over 20000
Article
Publication date: 6 August 2010

Joel T. Nadler, Nicole L. Cundiff, Meghan R. Lowery and Stacy Jackson

Past research on flextime programs often treat work schedule flexibility as a homogeneous construct. The purpose of this paper is to empirically demonstrate the…

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Abstract

Purpose

Past research on flextime programs often treat work schedule flexibility as a homogeneous construct. The purpose of this paper is to empirically demonstrate the relationship between different flexible work schedules and employee perceptions of organizational attractiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants (n = 655) reviewed a scenario with work schedule flexibility manipulated into one of eight consecutively more flexible schedules. Participants then rated the job offer within the scenario on organizational attractiveness.

Findings

The study found significant differences in organizational attractiveness based on the eight types of work schedule flexibility. The study's results supported categorizing flextime programs as heterogeneous constructs.

Research limitations/implications

The study utilized scenarios reducing generalization to work situations. Participants were college students with a limited work experience and may have viewed organizational attractiveness based on expectations, not on experiences. Future studies should examine workforce populations and also examine different work schedule flexibility programs' effects on absenteeism and productivity.

Practical implications

The study suggested that work schedule flexibility affects future employees' perceptions of organizational attractiveness. Attracting high‐quality employees is in the best interests of organizations and the effects of a flexible work schedule may begin before employees are hired.

Originality/value

The paper illustrates that different work schedule flexibility schedules, often labeled “flextime,” are perceived differently regarding organizational attractiveness. The paper further supports the notion that work schedule flexibility is a complex construct that cannot be examined using one broad term.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 33 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 May 2010

Dawn S. Carlson, Joseph G. Grzywacz and K. Michele Kacmar

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of schedule flexibility with performance and satisfaction in the work and family domains, and whether these…

6900

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of schedule flexibility with performance and satisfaction in the work and family domains, and whether these associations are mediated by the work‐family interface. Possible gender differences in the putative benefits of schedule flexibility are also to be explored.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 607 full‐time employees in either schedule flexibility or traditional working arrangements the authors tested a moderated‐mediation model. Regression was used to test the mediation of work‐family and the moderation of gender to the schedule flexibility to work‐family path.

Findings

Both work‐to‐family conflict and work‐to‐family enrichment are mediating mechanisms in the relationship of schedule flexibility with outcomes. More specifically, full mediation was found for job satisfaction and family performance for both enrichment and conflict while partial mediation was found for family satisfaction with enrichment only and mediation was not supported for job performance. Finally, gender moderated the schedule flexibility to work‐family conflict relationship such that women benefited more from flexible working arrangements than men.

Originality/value

The paper adds value by examining a mediation mechanism in the schedule flexibility with the outcome relationship of the work‐family interface. It also adds value by including work‐family enrichment which is a key variable but has little research. Finally, it adds value by demonstrating that schedule flexibility plays a stronger role for women than men regarding the work‐family interface.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

LONNIE GOLDEN

This paper aims to discuss the importance of flexible working time arrangements in the United States (U.S.). Section I creates a framework to analyse the various…

Abstract

This paper aims to discuss the importance of flexible working time arrangements in the United States (U.S.). Section I creates a framework to analyse the various dimensions of working time and their impacts. It examines the availability of flexitime and its potential costs and benefits to workers and employers. Section II describes the current distribution and differential access to flexitime by workers' demographic characteristics and by industry and occupational sector. Section III analyses these data to estimate the probability that workers with a given demographic or work characteristic have access to flexitime daily schedules. The fourth and final section discusses the implications of the findings. The empirical findings reveal that many workers are gaining flexibility in the timing of their daily work schedules, but access to flexible schedules remains uneven by characteristics of workers such as gender or race and by their jobs such as skill‐level, job status and hours status. Having flexible scheduling comes at the expense of working long average hours per week, or re‐locating to part‐time or self‐employment status or “unsocial” evening shifts. One implication of this is that a public policy aimed at flexible work hours for workers benefit must seek first to spread such flexibility to those who are currently not sharing it because of their occupation, industry or other personal or labour market characteristics.

Details

Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1401-338X

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2008

Adil Baykasoğlu and Lale Özbakır

In today's very competitive, dynamic and unpredictable manufacturing environments it is critical to improve manufacturing performance in order to be able to compete…

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Abstract

Purpose

In today's very competitive, dynamic and unpredictable manufacturing environments it is critical to improve manufacturing performance in order to be able to compete. Responsiveness and agility become important characteristics of manufacturing systems and organizations. Manufacturing systems must be designed optimally by taking into account responsiveness and agility related measures in order to improve effectiveness and performance. One of the important enablers of performance improvement is flexibility. It is a known fact that flexibility has a positive effect on the manufacturing system performance if it is properly utilized by the control system (usually scheduling). However, the relationship between flexibility and manufacturing system performance through scheduling is not entirely explored in the previous literature. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of process plan and machine flexibilities on the scheduling performance of manufacturing job‐shops.

Design/methodology/approach

Effects of process plan and machine flexibilities on the scheduling performance of manufacturing job‐shops are analyzed at different flexibility levels by using the grammar‐based flexible job shop scheduling system that is developed by Baykasoğlu et al.. Three different flexibility levels are defined for process plans and machines. Four different problem sizes are evaluated according to “makespan” “machine load balance” and “mean waiting times of jobs”. Performance differences among “process plan” and “machine flexibility” levels are determined and statistically analyzed through Taguchi experimental design methodology.

Findings

It is found out after detailed analysis that the effect of machine flexibility on job shop performance is higher than the process plan flexibility. It is also figured out that after a certain level of machine flexibility, the speed of scheduling performance improvement decreases considerably.

Originality/value

The paper presents the interaction between flexibility and scheduling performance of manufacturing job‐shops. The findings should be taken into account while designing scheduling systems for job shops that have flexible processing capabilities.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2013

Patricia Martinez and Carolina B. Gómez

This study aims to examine how the amount and type of flexibility in work schedule (flextime) and work location (telecommuting) may be related to receiving fewer training…

1077

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how the amount and type of flexibility in work schedule (flextime) and work location (telecommuting) may be related to receiving fewer training and development opportunities. Given that under flextime, employees remain at the work location, while under telecommuting employees are removed from the regular work site and social system, the paper expects that as employees have more telecommuting flexibility, they will receive fewer training opportunities, which in turn will be associated with more negative job attitudes and behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants (n=298) were recruited from a healthcare and a software development firm. Employees provided self-report ratings of their intentions to quit and supervisor supportiveness. Supervisors rated employees' citizenship behaviors and the flextime, telecommuting and training and development practices for the job positions.

Findings

As employees possess greater flexibility to telecommute, they received fewer training and development opportunities, while employees with greater work schedule flexibility (flextime) actually received more training opportunities. Additionally, the paper finds that training and development mediates the negative relationship between telecommuting flexibility and organizational citizenship behaviors. Thus, as employees had greater telecommuting flexibility, they exhibited lower levels of organization citizenship behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides evidence of how greater telecommuting flexibility that leads to decreased training and development opportunities may negatively influence employees' citizenship behaviors. The study also supports that flexibility to work away from the regular work location and not schedule flexibility, is the key antecedent. The findings suggest that supervisors should monitor the amount of training opportunities provided to employees with telecommuting flexibility.

Originality/value

This is one of the few studies to examine telecommuting flexibility: the extent to which employees can work at home and modify their schedule in order to do so. It is also one of the few studies to compare how work schedule and work location flexibility may be differentially related to training and development. The paper examines the potential trade-offs between this flexibility and receiving fewer training and development opportunities.

Details

Management Research: The Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

Stephen E. Bechtold and Larry W. Jacobs

Using labour efficiently in service organisations is an importantmanagement objective since labour frequently accounts for more than 70per cent of total operating costs…

Abstract

Using labour efficiently in service organisations is an important management objective since labour frequently accounts for more than 70 per cent of total operating costs. While most service organisations can use flexible scheduling rules to improve the utilisation of labour, selecting a good or “best” set of work schedules from a large set of alternatives has proved to be a formidable task. A new modelling procedure is described which allows optimal decisions to be made when the desired level of scheduling flexibility results in a very large population of possible schedules. Flexibility in shift scheduling is increased primarily through increasing the number of different shift lengths and allowing flexible placement of breaks. The power of the new modelling approach was used in an experiment described here to assess the relative impact of shift‐length and break‐placement flexibility on labour utilisation. The results indicated that, while either type of flexibility can improve labour utilisation, there was a rather strong synergistic impact from using both simultaneously.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1993

Michael J. Brusco and Larry W. Jacobs

Examines an alternative approach to labour utilisation, based onthe concept of simulated annealing, implemented on a microcomputer.Demonstrates the use of the new approach…

Abstract

Examines an alternative approach to labour utilisation, based on the concept of simulated annealing, implemented on a microcomputer. Demonstrates the use of the new approach in a study of the potential labour utilisation effect of two types of scheduling flexibility: shift length flexibility and meal‐break placement flexibility. Finally, offers implications of the new approach for management.

Details

Work Study, vol. 42 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1996

Gary M. Thompson

Observes that managers of service operations frequently resort to using employees who are available for work only at limited times when labour supplies are tight or when…

1222

Abstract

Observes that managers of service operations frequently resort to using employees who are available for work only at limited times when labour supplies are tight or when they desire (or require) the scheduling flexibility offered by employees willing to work part‐time. Presents a triply‐implicit integer programming model for the optimal scheduling of shifts and breaks using employees who are each available for work only during an individually specified portion of the operating day. Compares the ease of solving the model, and four others, over two sets of test problems representing a range of conditions existing in service organizations. Concludes that the new model more compactly represents problems, particularly those with high flexibility, facilitating its solution to optimality.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 July 2018

Sameh El-Sayegh

The purpose of this paper is to propose a Non-Linear Integer Programming (NLIP) model that solves the resource leveling problem while reducing the negative effect of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a Non-Linear Integer Programming (NLIP) model that solves the resource leveling problem while reducing the negative effect of the total float loss on risk.

Design/methodology/approach

An NLIP model is formulated to solve the resource leveling optimization problem incorporating float loss cost (FLC). The proposed model is implemented using “What’s Best solver” for Excel. The FLC is calculated using the float commodity approach. An example is solved using the proposed model in order to illustrate its applicability. Sensitivity analysis is also performed.

Findings

The results confirmed that resource leveling reduces the available float of non-critical activities; decreases schedule flexibility and reduces the probability of project completion. The probability of timely completion dropped from 50 percent (for the normal schedule with 32 resource fluctuations) to 13.5 percent for leveled resources with zero fluctuations. Using the proposed method, the number of resource fluctuations is 8 but the probability of completing the project on time improved to 20 percent.

Practical implications

The proposed model allows project managers to exercise new trade-offs between resource leveling and schedule flexibility which will ultimately improve the chances of successful project delivery.

Originality/value

Resource leveling techniques result in reducing the available total float for the non-critical activities. Existing methods focus on moving noncritical activities within their available float and ignore the impact of the resulting float loss. This reduces the schedule flexibility and increase the risk of project delays. The proposed model incorporates the FLC into the resource leveling optimization problem resulting in more efficient schedules with improved resource utilization while keeping some schedule flexibility.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1996

Homayoun Khamooshi

Discusses the twofold purpose of this study, first to introduce a number of measures devised to be used in comparing and evaluating two schedules for the same project…

3603

Abstract

Discusses the twofold purpose of this study, first to introduce a number of measures devised to be used in comparing and evaluating two schedules for the same project, second to present and evaluate a heuristic procedure developed in this research for solving the resource constrained project scheduling problem. Posits that the new procedure is based on the notion that a project can be partitioned into a number of sections and there is no obligation to use a single policy all the way through all the sections of project. Shows that this research is also an attempt to bridge the gap between the theory and practice by eliminating the question of which priority rule to use for which project. Develops a new model showing that selecting from a number of priority rules is not required and, using the measures of performance introduced, decides on a suitable schedule from the schedules produced under varied assumptions is shown to be much easier. Concludes with suggestions for further research.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 96 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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