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Article
Publication date: 14 April 2020

Hua (Meg) Meng, César Zamudio and Robert D. Jewell

This paper aims to examine how olfactory imagery, triggered by scent brand names prior to smelling, influences scented-product purchase intention.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how olfactory imagery, triggered by scent brand names prior to smelling, influences scented-product purchase intention.

Design/methodology/approach

Five studies were conducted. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict likelihood of olfactory imagery formation. ANOVA and t-test analyses were used for scent brand name group comparisons, and serial mediation analysis was used to test how scent brand names impact purchase intention through olfactory imagery vividness and the (dis)confirmation between imagined (i.e. expected) and experienced scents.

Findings

Scent name familiarity stimulates olfactory imagery formation. Scent brand name specificity (e.g. “Lavender Bouquet” vs. “Floral Bouquet”) influences purchase intention, with specific names leading to lower purchase intention, because they generate vivid olfactory imagery and induce a disconfirmation between imagined and experienced scents.

Practical implications

Branding scents on products should be a strategic product design decision. Surprisingly, although specific scent brand names trigger vivid olfactory imagery and precise scent expectations, they mitigate purchase intention and thus are riskier. General scent brand names are safer.

Originality/value

This research contributes by extending the literature on the effect of verbal cues on scent perception by considering the role of scent brand name specificity on purchase intent. It also adds to work on how olfactory imagery influences purchase intention by incorporating olfactory imagery vividness. Finally, it proposes and tests an underlying cognitive mechanism to explain the relationship between scent brand names and purchase intention.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 July 2022

Subhadip Roy and Priyanka Singh

Measurement scales for sensory experience in retailing exist for sight, touch and sound. In the present study, the authors aim to develop the olfactory experience (OEX…

Abstract

Purpose

Measurement scales for sensory experience in retailing exist for sight, touch and sound. In the present study, the authors aim to develop the olfactory experience (OEX) scale in the context of retailing.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on literature review and six studies that follow standard scale development protocols (combined n = 1,203), the authors develop and validate a three-dimensional OEX scale. The scale is further validated in the final study in a different market set-up than the first five.

Findings

The authors found the three dimensions of OEX as (scent) company, congeniality and congruity. The OEX scale is found to be generalizable and valid across different cultural and market set-ups. In addition, the OEX (i.e. the scale) was found to effect psychological and behavioral outcomes of the consumer in a significant manner.

Research limitations/implications

The present study contributes to the domain of sensory experience in retailing with the OEX scale and provides three new dimensions of OEX for the academicians to further explore.

Practical implications

The OEX scale provides a ready to use tool for the retailer to gauge the level of OEX in the store and to predict consumer attitudes and behavior.

Originality/value

The study is the first to develop a scale for OEX in retailing or for that matter in consumer behavior.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2022

Sunny Vijay Arora, Arti D. Kalro and Dinesh Sharma

Managers prefer semantic imbeds in brand names, but extant literature has primarily studied fictitious names for their sound-symbolic perceptions. This paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Managers prefer semantic imbeds in brand names, but extant literature has primarily studied fictitious names for their sound-symbolic perceptions. This paper aims to explore sound-symbolic perceptions of products with blended brand names (BBNs), formed with at least one semantic and one nonsemantic component. Unlike most extant literature, this study not only estimates the effect of vowels and consonants individually on product perceptions but also of their combinations. The boundary condition for this effect is examined by classifying products by their categorization and attributes by their abstractness.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a within-subject experiment, this paper tested perceptions of products with BBNs having high-/low-frequency sounds. A mixed-design experiment followed with sound frequency, product-level categorization and attributes’ abstractness as predictor variables.

Findings

For BBNs, vowel sounds convey brand meaning better than the combinations of vowel and consonant sounds – and these convey brand meaning better than consonant sounds. Differences in consumers’ perceptions of products with BBNs occur when the degree of attributes’ abstractness matches product-level categorization, such as when concrete attributes match subordinate-level categorization.

Practical implications

Brand managers/strategists can communicate product positioning (attribute-based) through BBNs created specifically for product categories and product types.

Originality/value

This research presents a comparative analysis across vowels, consonants and their combinations on consumers’ perceptions of products with BBNs. Manipulation of names’ length and position of the sound-symbolic imbed in the BBN proffered additional contributions. Another novelty is the interaction effect of product categorization levels and attributes’ abstractness on sound-symbolic perception.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Ana M. Arboleda, Carlos Arce-Lopera and Samuel González

The purpose of this paper is evaluate to what extent consumers can recognise a scent within a context that is congruent either with the product or with the user…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is evaluate to what extent consumers can recognise a scent within a context that is congruent either with the product or with the user, respectively, objects’ quality or subjects’ involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper consists of two experimental studies. The first study assesses people’s capacity to recognise three scents: leather, synthetic leather, and fabric. The second study assesses the way in which a frame of reference (quality or involvement) affects people’s capacity for scent recognition (leather and fabric).

Findings

Results confirm the difficulty of scent recognition revealing, in the first study, a low level of consistency in subjects’ responses. The second study shows an interaction between the type of scent and consumers’ framework: subjects who are primed to think about product quality present more accurate scent recognition when they smell leather, whereas subjects who are primed to think about themselves present more accurate scent recognition when they smell fabric.

Practical implications

These results can be used in brand communication. A scent, such as that of leather, should highlight quality attributes in its communication. If the product is unscented, communication should highlight the subject who uses the product.

Originality/value

Previous studies show the importance of the consistency between scent and product marketing strategies. This study complements these findings by differentiating the context where a scent is presented considering either the product (the object’s quality attributes) or the individual who uses that product (subject’s involvement).

Propósito

Este estudio evalúa en qué medida los consumidores pueden reconocer un aroma en un contexto congruente con el producto o con el usuario, respectivamente, calidad del objeto o involucramiento del sujeto.

Diseño/metodología/aproximación

Este artículo consiste en dos estudios experimentales. El primero evalúa la capacidad de los individuos para reconocer tres aromas: cuero, cuero sintético y tela. El segundo estudio evalúa de qué forma un contexto de referencia (calidad o involucramiento) influye en la capacidad para reconocer un aroma (cuero y tela).

Hallazgos

Los resultados confirman la dificultad para el reconocimiento del aroma mostrando, en el primer estudio, un bajo nivel de consistencia en las respuestas de los sujetos. El segundo estudio muestra una interacción entre el tipo de aroma y el contexto de los consumidores: Sujetos que se les induce a pensar en la calidad del producto tienen un reconocimiento del aroma más acertado cuando huelen cuero; mientras que sujetos que se inducen a pensar en sí mismos tienen un reconocimiento del aroma más acertado cuando huelen tela.

Implicaciones prácticas

Los resultados pueden ser utilizados en la comunicación de la marca. Un aroma, como el del cuero, deberá destacar en la comunicación atributos de calidad. Si el producto no tiene aroma, la comunicación debe destacar el sujeto que usa el producto.

Originalidad/valor

Estudios previos señalan la importancia de la consistencia entre el aroma y las estrategias de mercadeo de un producto. Este estudio complementa estos hallazgos diferenciando el contexto en el que se presenta un aroma considerando el producto (atributos de calidad del objeto) o el individuo quien lo usa (involucramiento del sujeto).

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

Scott Markham and Joe Cangelosi

Examines the perceptions and preferences of fragrances by females. The sample was taken from nine cities across three continents. Of the two major fragrance concepts…

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Abstract

Examines the perceptions and preferences of fragrances by females. The sample was taken from nine cities across three continents. Of the two major fragrance concepts examined, unisex fragrances have been introduced, with only about half the respondents in the nine cities (six countries) surveyed in this study being familiar with the concept. Respondents assessed the effects of ten factors on the fragrance decisions. The joint effects of ten surveyed factors show major differences between samples as stratified by area, with some consistency among the top factors, as supported by ANOVA and MANOVA analysis. Chi‐Square analysis of unisex and “same‐name” fragrances indicated significant differences in four of six variables. The ten surveyed factors were “scent, European fragrance, price, brand (purchased for self), brand (purchased as gift), mood, season, free items with purchase, container, and color.” “Scent, price, brand and mood” were the dominant variables. Significant differences existed between the respondents in the three major geographic areas, USA, Europe and Asia for seven of the ten factors, i.e. European fragrance, price, brand purchased as a gift, mood, season, container, and color.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2009

Ann M. Torres

Cloon Keen Atelier develops candle and skin care products. The challenge for this small operator is to develop a strategy, which reinforces its chosen position as it…

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Abstract

Purpose

Cloon Keen Atelier develops candle and skin care products. The challenge for this small operator is to develop a strategy, which reinforces its chosen position as it develops new products and expands into other markets. Cloon Keen is known for its premium scented candles, but it is seeking to expand into the personal care market by creating their own line of skin care products and complementary accessories. Cloon Keen believes their handcrafted candles could provide a platform for developing a lifestyle brand. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In‐depth interviews and secondary sources are used to collate the information from which the case study is developed.

Findings

Achieving the status of a lifestyle brand means the products embody the values and aspirations of particular group(s) or culture; it speaks powerfully to the core identity of its consumers. Typically, lifestyle brands are accompanied by a powerful promotional campaign to communicate the lifestyle brand values to audiences. To date, Cloon Keen's promotional efforts have been limited. The question is whether it can develop sufficient market presence to one day make the claim of being a lifestyle brand. The challenge for Cloon Keen is to find the optimum market position that provides a strategic advantage in a climate of robust competition.

Originality/value

The case study provides the opportunity to examine how an small‐ to medium‐sized enterprises may build its brand presence within a highly competitive market.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2014

V. Kumar, Nita Umashankar and Insu Park

Retail marketing is in the midst of an evolution. The paradigm is shifting from a product-centric to a consumer-centric focus, with a particular emphasis on understanding…

Abstract

Retail marketing is in the midst of an evolution. The paradigm is shifting from a product-centric to a consumer-centric focus, with a particular emphasis on understanding how consumers transition from harboring an interest in a product to actually purchasing that product. In response, shopper marketing, and in-store marketing (ISM) in particular, have emerged as important mechanisms to influence shopper behavior in brick & mortar and online retail environments. The academic literature is replete with work on what factors of ISM influence shopper behavior. In this chapter, we categorize prominent streams of findings on ISM into firm, customer, competitor and product characteristics of ISM and examine how the notion of a “store” is evolving from bricks to clicks – namely from physical formats to online shopping experiences. Insights from this chapter will help retailers and store managers identify what their customers respond to within a physical store, how technology is changing the way they can capture information on customers, and how shopper behavior is evolving in response to brick & mortar and online retail environments.

Details

Shopper Marketing and the Role of In-Store Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-001-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 July 2021

Andreas Aldogan Eklund and Miralem Helmefalk

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualise and provide a future research agenda for (in)congruence regarding cues between products, brands and atmospheres.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualise and provide a future research agenda for (in)congruence regarding cues between products, brands and atmospheres.

Design/methodology/approach

A semi-systematic literature review was conducted. The aim was to assess, critique and synthesise (in)congruence, which was found in the literature to be dispersed and interdisciplinary, and to propose a theoretical framework in the marketing domain.

Findings

Firstly, the review reveals that sensory and semantic cues are interrelated in products, brands and atmospheres. It illustrates that these cues are the foundation for (in)congruence. Secondly, the findings show various theoretical foundations for (in)congruence. These explain where and how congruence occurs. Lastly, a theoretical framework for (in)congruence and a future research agenda were developed to stimulate further research.

Research limitations/implications

A theoretical framework was developed to enrich the theoretical knowledge and understanding of (in)congruence in the marketing domain.

Practical implications

The review reveals that products, brands and atmospheres have spillover effects. Managers are advised to understand the semantic meaning carried by cues to foster various outcomes, to estimate the trade-offs when modifying (in)congruent cues for products, brands and atmospheres.

Originality/value

The developed theoretical framework advances and deepens the knowledge of (in)congruence in the marketing domain by moving beyond the match and fit between two entities and by revealing the underlying mechanism and its outcomes.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 March 2020

Ibrahim Taylan Dortyol

This research aims to uncover consumers' deeply hidden thoughts and feelings about store scent and its effects on shopping experiences.

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to uncover consumers' deeply hidden thoughts and feelings about store scent and its effects on shopping experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a qualitative approach, this research uses Zaltman metaphor elicitation technique (ZMET). All the steps of the ZMET have been performed, and important constructs and contents have been explored.

Findings

Ultimately, a hierarchical value map was presented. Accordingly, the naturalness and intensity of the scent played a prominent part in its effectiveness. The pleasantness and complexity of the scent, the malodor, congruity and incongruity of the scent, as well as nostalgia, were seen as the predominant originator constructs that resulted in approach or avoidance reactions.

Research limitations/implications

These findings have practical implications for managers seeking to design a store atmospherics making way for consumers to engage with the store and the brand. The cultural milieu in which the study was performed could be seen as a possible limitation of the study. This cultural angle should also be taken into consideration while the findings were considered.

Originality/value

Using ZMET as an innovative research method makes the study significant. By doing so, the metaphors of consumption are extended to the sensory marketing field to provide a more comprehensive understanding on the effects of store scent. Moreover, the study contributes to the existing literature of smell marketing.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

Derek D. Rucker and Mauricio O'Connell

In 2009–2010 Procter & Gamble’s Old Spice brand had to respond to two important challenges. First, after a successful rebranding of the Glacial Falls scent into Swagger…

Abstract

In 2009–2010 Procter & Gamble’s Old Spice brand had to respond to two important challenges. First, after a successful rebranding of the Glacial Falls scent into Swagger (see Kellogg Case #5-411-752), Old Spice’s core brand team had to determine its next step in advertising. The options being considered included continuing to advertise Swagger, switching to advertising a different scent, advertising the umbrella brand, or placing an emphasis on body wash instead of on deodorant. This decision also involved proposing both the messaging and the media buy for the option selected. Second, in conjunction with this issue, the brand team had to decide whether the messaging of its advertising should respond to competitor Unilever’s new advertising for Dove for Men, which would be kicked off in an upcoming Super Bowl spot. Students will step into the shoes of Mauricio O’Connell—one of the assistant brand managers of Old Spice—as he and his team brainstorm how to position the brand for another big success.

After reading, analyzing, and discussing the case, students should be able to:

  • Ask critical questions to help decide among multiple advertising strategies

  • Describe issues for a brand that relate to managing advertising across its portfolio

  • Understand how competitive behavior can affect a brand's decision

Ask critical questions to help decide among multiple advertising strategies

Describe issues for a brand that relate to managing advertising across its portfolio

Understand how competitive behavior can affect a brand's decision

Details

Kellogg School of Management Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-6568
Published by: Kellogg School of Management

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