Search results

1 – 10 of over 32000
Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Preben Hansen and Jussi Karlgren

This paper aims to investigate how readers assess relevance of retrieved documents in a foreign language they know well compared with their native language, and whether…

Downloads
1023

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how readers assess relevance of retrieved documents in a foreign language they know well compared with their native language, and whether work‐task scenario descriptions have effect on the assessment process.

Design/methodology/approach

Queries, test collections, and relevance assessments were used from the 2002 Interactive CLEF. Swedish first‐language speakers, fluent in English, were given simulated information‐seeking scenarios and presented with retrieval results in both languages. Twenty‐eight subjects in four groups were asked to rate the retrieved text documents by relevance. A two‐level work‐task scenario description framework was developed and applied to facilitate the study of context effects on the assessment process.

Findings

Relevance assessment takes longer in a foreign language than in the user first language. The quality of assessments by comparison with pre‐assessed results is inferior to those made in the users' first language. Work‐task scenario descriptions had an effect on the assessment process, both by measured access time and by self‐report by subjects. However, effects on results by traditional relevance ranking were detectable. This may be an argument for extending the traditional IR experimental topical relevance measures to cater for context effects.

Originality/value

An extended two‐level work‐task scenario description framework was developed and applied. Contextual aspects had an effect on the relevance assessment process. English texts took longer to assess than Swedish and were assessed less well, especially for the most difficult queries. The IR research field needs to close this gap and to design information access systems with users' language competence in mind.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 61 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Ellen van Oost, Stefan Kuhlmann, Gonzalo Ordóñez-Matamoros and Peter Stegmaier

How to derive policy implications from five future scenarios of transformed research and innovation (R&I) systems? This paper analyzes methodological and content issues of…

Downloads
2820

Abstract

Purpose

How to derive policy implications from five future scenarios of transformed research and innovation (R&I) systems? This paper analyzes methodological and content issues of five future scenarios of transformed R&I systems. The aim of this paper is to provide an outlook on strategic policies capable of facilitating or moderating these transformative changes in R&I practices is discussed in light of overarching intentions to foster “responsible” ambitions (in Europe and beyond, discussed as responsible research and innovation, RRI).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper elaborates a four-step methodology to assess the scenario’s policy implications: first, by articulating the scenario implications for six core dimensions of R&I systems; second, an RRI assessment framework is developed to assess in each scenario opportunities and limitations for transforming R&I systems towards responsibility goals; the third involves a cross-scenario analysis of similarities and differences between the scenarios, allowing the identification of robust policy options that make sense in more than one scenario. The last analytical step includes again the richness of the individual scenario assessments aiming to provide a broader outlook on transformative policy orientations.

Findings

The paper concludes with outlining the contours of a future-responsible R&I system together with some suggestions for transformative policy orientations that aim to govern the R&I system towards such a future, as a source of inspiration and reflection.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis is based on five future scenarios that do not systematically cover future developments external to the R&I system.

Practical Implications

An outlook of strategic policies capable of facilitating or moderating these transformative changes in R&I practices is discussed in light of the overarching European Union goal of encouraging the performance of RRI.

Originality/value

This paper provides inspirational anticipatory strategic intelligence for fostering the responsible ambitions of research with and for society.

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2021

Ginger G. Collins and Amy M. Glaspey

Dynamic assessment in the educational setting has been shown to offer many benefits for students with speech and language disorders. This chapter highlights the benefits…

Abstract

Dynamic assessment in the educational setting has been shown to offer many benefits for students with speech and language disorders. This chapter highlights the benefits of dynamic assessment and describes the limitations of static assessments. Because dynamic assessment can be implemented in many ways, three scenarios have been designed to provide an overview of some of these variations. Scenario 1 includes a graduated prompt approach for assessing abilities in the production of speech sounds using a standardized dynamic assessment. Scenario 2 includes a graduated prompt approach for assessing the linguistic skills underlying spelling errors. Scenario 3 includes a test-teach-retest approach for determining the presence of language impairment in students who speak a nonmainstream dialect of English. Suggestions for goal setting and increasing dynamic assessment applications for students with speech and language disorders are presented.

Details

Traditional and Innovative Assessment Techniques for Students with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-890-1

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Jens Schippl

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and discuss how stakeholder assessment of scenarios can be used to trigger a structured and, therefore, more efficient debate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and discuss how stakeholder assessment of scenarios can be used to trigger a structured and, therefore, more efficient debate amongst stakeholders about future options for achieving a more eco-efficient transport system in Europe. Particularly, it wants to explore the extent to which a distinction between the desirability and the feasibility of a potential future development can render such debates more rational and transparent.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a project on eco-efficient transport for the Science and Technology Option Assessment panel of the European Parliament (STOA). Key elements of the methods used in the STOA project were easily understandable scenarios and a survey of the main assumptions underlying the scenarios. Both the scenarios and the survey were used in a stakeholder workshop to assess the desirability and the feasibility of approaches towards establishing a more eco-efficient transport system.

Findings

The methodological approach proved helpful for collecting a large amount of valuable information in a relative short time. In particular, the distinction between desirability and feasibility was useful in mapping out the patterns of opinion amongst stakeholders and for understanding where there is common ground, where there are differences and what the reasons behind these differences are. It helped in identifying promising pathways towards more eco-efficient transport futures and in getting a better understanding of barriers and of the ways to overcome them.

Practical implications

The approach served as the basis for having a well-structured, rational and, thus, efficient debate. In practice, this factor is relevant because stakeholder involvement is crucial when it comes to transitions of socio-technical systems, such as the transport system. Keeping stakeholders motivated to take part in such participatory processes is only possible, however, if they perceive that these processes are well-structured and, therefore, efficient.

Originality/value

In contrast to many other scenario-based approaches, the scenarios in this project were understood as an input to the discussion and not as the result of a process. Furthermore, not only the results but also the underlying assumptions of the scenarios were explicitly made a topic for assessment. The differentiation between desirability and feasibility was used as a guiding dimension for the assessment.

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Veikko Ikonen, Eija Kaasinen, Päivi Heikkilä and Marketta Niemelä

This paper aims to present an overview of the various ethical, societal and critical issues that micro- and nanotechnology-based small, energy self-sufficient sensor…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an overview of the various ethical, societal and critical issues that micro- and nanotechnology-based small, energy self-sufficient sensor systems raise in different selected application fields. An ethical approach on the development of these technologies was taken in a very large international, multitechnological European project. The authors approach and methodology are presented in the paper and, based on this review, the authors propose general principles for this kind of work.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors’ approach is based on a great amount of experience working together in multi-disciplinary teams. Ethical issues have usually been handled in the authors’ work to some degree. In this project, the authors had the opportunity to emphasise the human view in technological development, utilise the authors’ experience from previous work and customise the authors’ approach to this particular case. In short, the authors created a wide set of application scenarios with technical and application field experts in the authors’ research project. The scenarios were evaluated with external application field experts, potential consumer users and ethics experts.

Findings

Based on the authors’ experiences in this project and in previous work, the authors suggest a preliminary model for construction activity within technology development projects. The authors call this model the Human-Driven Design approach, and Ethics by Design as a more focussed sub-set of this approach. As all enabling technologies have both positive and negative usage possibilities, and so-called ethical assessment tends to focus on negative consequences, there are doubts from some stakeholders about including ethical perspectives in a technology development project.

Research limitations/implications

The authors argue that the ethical perspective would be more influential if it were to provide a more positive and constructive contribution to the development of technology. The main findings related to the ethical challenges based on the actual work done in this project were the following: the main user concerns were in relation to access to information, digital division and the necessity of all the proposed measurements; the ethics experts highlighted the main ethical issues as privacy, autonomy, user control, freedom, medicalisation and human existence.

Practical implications

Various technology assessment models and ethical approaches for technological development have been developed and performed for a long time, and recently, a new approach called Responsible Research and Innovation has been introduced. The authors’ intention is to give a concrete example for further development as a part of the development of this approach.

Social implications

The authors’ study in this particular case covers various consumer application possibilities for small sensor systems. The application fields studied include health, well-being, safety, sustainability and empathic user interfaces. The authors believe that the ethical challenges identified are valuable to other researchers and practitioners who are studying and developing sensor-based solutions in similar fields.

Originality/value

The authors’ study covers various consumer application possibilities of small sensor systems. The studied application fields include health, well-being, safety, sustainability and empathic user interfaces. The findings are valuable to other researchers and practitioners who are studying and developing sensor-based solutions to similar fields.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2018

Indranarain Ramlall

Abstract

Details

Tools and Techniques for Financial Stability Analysis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-846-4

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 10 July 2009

Malek Abu Rumman, Mohammad Hiyassat, Bashar Alsmadi, Ahmad Jamrah and Maha Alqam

The purpose of this paper is to assess the long‐term ability of the Integrated Southern Ghor Project (ISGP) to meet the required water demands, assess the resulting energy…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the long‐term ability of the Integrated Southern Ghor Project (ISGP) to meet the required water demands, assess the resulting energy requirements, pumping costs, water transfers, benefits of the current system with respect to predevelopment conditions and effect of projected water demands increase on the resulting water deficits.

Design/methodology/approach

A surface water resources management model is developed using dynamic programming. The model inputs are the hydrological inflows from the different wadis in the project area, reservoirs characteristics and evaporation rates, system water demands. The model outputs are water deficits at the different demand areas, reservoirs storage and release sequences, water transfers and energy requirements and the associated costs. The average annual values of different performance criteria with the annual frequency curves are used to evaluate the implications of different water scenarios on the ISGP.

Findings

The results show the efficiency of the ISGP model in reducing the water deficits in the demand areas as compared to predevelopment conditions. Increased demand scenario showed the importance of finding new water projects to supplement the Southern Ghor Area in the future in order to meet the increasing water demands. The proposed water transfer will reduce the resulting deficits at the agricultural areas without the expenses of increasing the water deficits at other demand areas. The application of this model is expected to enhance decision making regarding water policies in Jordan.

Originality/value

This paper provides critical quantitative information to decision makers in Jordan about the potential of the different storage facilities and proposed transfers in meeting the required water demands in the Southern Ghor Project and assesses the required energy for that. This can help decision makers to have a holistic view about the expected water deficits in the area and therefore assist them in determining the areas impacted most and what alternative solution to use. The paper also shows the importance of using optimal control/management models to support water resources decision making in Jordan.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Sissel Haugdal Jore, Inger-Lise Førland Utland and Victoria Hell Vatnamo

Despite the common focus on studying future events, the study of risk management and foresight have developed as two segmented scientific fields. This study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the common focus on studying future events, the study of risk management and foresight have developed as two segmented scientific fields. This study aims to investigate whether current risk management methodology is sufficient for long-term planning against threats from terrorism and other black swan events, and whether perspectives from foresight studies can contribute to more effective long-term security planning.

Design/methodology/approach

This study investigates the planning process of the rebuilding of the Norwegian Government Complex destroyed during a terrorist attack in 2011. The study examines whether security risk managers find current security risk management methodology sufficient for dealing with long-term security threats to the Norwegian Government Complex.

Findings

Current security risk management methodology for long-term security planning is insufficient to capture black swan events. Foresight perspectives could contribute by engaging tools to mitigate the risk of these events. This could lead to more robust security planning.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this paper is to investigate whether perspectives and methodology from foresight studies can improve current security risk management methodology for long-term planning and look for cross-fertilization between foresight and risk studies. A framework for scenario development based on security risk management methodology and foresight methodology is proposed that can help bridge the gap.

Details

foresight, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 4 January 2011

Martina Flörke, Ellen Teichert and Ilona Bärlund

The aim of this study is to analyze future changes of freshwater needs in the electricity production sector and to identify hotspots where future cooling water needs may…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to analyze future changes of freshwater needs in the electricity production sector and to identify hotspots where future cooling water needs may not be fulfilled.

Design/methodology/approach

To address the goals of this study, a scenario and simulation approach was selected to estimate water availability and water uses in Europe up to 2050. Two SCENES scenarios were selected to cover a wide range of water‐related driving forces including future developments in population, GDP, electricity production, technological and structural changes, as well as climate change.

Findings

Depending on the scenario, water withdrawals in the electricity production would increase by 68 percent or decrease by 33 percent between 2000 and 2050. At the same time, water availability at low flow (Q90) would decrease because of climate change in southern and south‐eastern parts of Europe as well as in Ireland and the UK. Especially in these regions hotspots were identified where water is scarce and where growing water demand promotes water stress that may cause economic losses.

Originality/value

This paper presents hotspots of the thermal electricity production sector in Europe. In these regions water shortages were expected to lead to water stress due to climate change accompanied by increasing water demand for cooling purposes and by competing water use sectors.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 20 June 2019

Knut R. Fossum, Wenche Aarseth and Bjorn Andersen

The purpose of this paper is to explore scenario development (SD) as a method for engaging known challenges in collaborative research projects, i.e. SD is the construct…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore scenario development (SD) as a method for engaging known challenges in collaborative research projects, i.e. SD is the construct under investigation.

Design/methodology/approach

Criticism of the dominant, rational approach to project management (PM) and its underlying hypotheses highlights a considerable PM research gap for research projects (research problem). The authors undertake a six-step constructive research approach to investigate if SD (the construct) constitutes a fruitful method to support the management of collaborative research projects. A two-part literature review summarizes known challenges in collaborative research projects and introduces the history and application of SD methodology. The work includes participatory action research (PAR) in two case studies, constituting a qualitative research method.

Findings

The authors found the SD method to be useful for structuring and analyzing intuitive project processes. However, using SD in the management of single projects presents some fundamental challenges. SD, like PM, struggles with issues related to myopic decisions, a “predict and provide” attitude with clear aspects of path dependency in the project front-end as well as inconsistent and/or missing identification of success criteria among different stakeholders.

Research limitations/implications

This paper does not provide any comprehensive, normative account of scenario techniques or compare SD with other foresight and future studies methods. Although PAR is in itself a research method that demands systematic description and execution, the focus of this paper is the overall constructive research approach.

Practical implications

The paper offers a broadened repertoire of methods to describe and analyse project stakeholder situations (collaborative aspects) and to structure and balance the need for both rational and intuitive project processes (research aspects). The SD method also supports development of graphical storylines and facilitates the use of influence diagrams, event trees and cost/benefit analysis.

Originality/value

Although PM literature contains several references to SD, the practical application of SD at single-project level has, to the authors’ knowledge, never been described in the PM literature.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 32000