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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

Xin Luo, Wenhui Du, Xiuzhen Lu, Toshikazu Yamaguchi, Gavin Jackson, Li lei Ye and Johan Liu

The composition and thickness of surface oxide of solder particles is extremely important to the quality of interconnect and reliability of packaged system. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The composition and thickness of surface oxide of solder particles is extremely important to the quality of interconnect and reliability of packaged system. The purpose of this paper is to develop an observable measurement to research the issue.

Design/methodology/approach

AES (Auger electron spectroscopy), XPS (X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy) were employed to examine the oxide layer on microscale solder powders. Conventional techniques and FIB (Focus Ion Beam) were employed for the TEM sample preparation. High angle annular dark field (HAADF) pattern was applied to distinguish the oxide layer and the solder matrix by the contrast of average atomic number. The results were confirmed by AES and XPS measurement.

Findings

The solder powders were exposed to air (70% relative humidity) at 150°C for 0, 120 and 240 h for the accelerated growth of oxide. The surface oxide thickness was 6 nm and 50 nm measured by TEM for 0 h and 120 h samples, respectively. It was found that the increase in surface oxide thickness of solder particles is proportional to the rooting of time. The elemental distribution along the oxide was quantified by line scanning using STEM and the atomic ratio of Sn to O in the oxide layer nearer to the outer, the middle, and the inner (adjacent to the solder matrix) was found to be 1:2, 2:3 and 1:1, respectively. The result was validated using XPS which gave Sn to O ratio of 1:2 at 5 nm depth of surface oxide.

Originality/value

This is the first time FIB technology has been used to prepare TEM specimens for solder particles and TEM pictures shown of their surface oxide layer. Though requiring more care in sample preparation, the measurements by TEM and STEM are believed to be more direct and precise.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 August 2019

Maria de Lourdes Miranda-Medina, Christian Tomastik, Tia Truglas, Heiko Groiss and Martin Jech

The purpose of this paper is to provide a general picture for describing the formed tribofilm, including chemical and physical aspects in the micro-scale and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a general picture for describing the formed tribofilm, including chemical and physical aspects in the micro-scale and the nano-scale. In a previous study, the durability of zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) tribofilms on cylinder liner samples has been investigated in a tribometer model system by using fresh and aged fully formulated oils and replacing them with PAO8 without additives. Analyses of the derived tribofilms by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy could give some hints about the underlying mechanisms of the tribofilm build-up and wear performance, but a final model has not been achieved.

Design/methodology/approach

Thus, characterisation of these tribofilms by means of focused ion beam-transmission electron microscopy (FIB-TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy is presented and a concluding model of the underlying mechanisms of tribofilm build-up is discussed in this paper.

Findings

For tribotests running first with fresh fully formulated engine oil, a rather homogeneous ZDDP-like tribofilm is found underneath a carbon rich tribofilm after changing to non-additivated PAO8. However, when the tests run first with aged fully formulated engine oil, no ZDDP-like tribofilm has been found after changing to non-additivated PAO8, but a wear protective carbon rich tribofilm.

Originality/value

The obtained results provide insights into the structure and durability of tribofilms. Carbon-based tribofilms are built up on the basis of non-additivated PAO8 because of the previously present ZDDP tribofilms, which suggests an alternative way to reducing the consumption of antiwear additives.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2018

Dongdong Peng, Kang Huang, Yuntao He, Zhan Zhang, Yi Wang and Junsheng Wu

This paper aims to improve the anti-corrosive properties of aluminum alloy AA2024-T3 by coating of hybrid sol-gel coating incorporated with TiO2 nanosheets and to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to improve the anti-corrosive properties of aluminum alloy AA2024-T3 by coating of hybrid sol-gel coating incorporated with TiO2 nanosheets and to investigate the effect of nanosheets’ size on the improvement of corrosion-resistant performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of hybrid sol-gel films incorporated with varying amounts of TiO2 nanosheets were developed to enhance the corrosion protection performance of the bare metal. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to investigate the structure and morphology of the coatings obtained. In addition, the corrosion-resistant properties of the coatings were evaluated using salt spray test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

Findings

The corrosion current was as low as 9.55 × 10-4 µA/cm2 and optimal positive corrosion potential reached −0.6 V when the size and loading amount of TiO2 nanosheet were optimized, resulting in a remarkable improvement in anti-corrosive properties.

Originality/value

This work first investigates the effect of incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles on hybrid sol-gel coating on the improvement of anti-corrosive performance of aluminum alloy AA2024-T3.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Mathias Linz, Franz Walzhofer, Stefan Krenn, Andreas Steiger-Thirsfeld, Johannes Bernardi, Horst Winkelmann and Ewald Badisch

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the driving mechanisms for crack propagation regarding the related microstructures. Cracks in white etching layers have been…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the driving mechanisms for crack propagation regarding the related microstructures. Cracks in white etching layers have been found at the surface of submerged steel blades subjected to frictional sliding conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

In-situ monitoring revealed a fluctuation between mixed lubrication and hydrodynamic lubrication conditions. One lamella including a crack tip was prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using focused ion beam milling. Transmission electron microscope analysis was performed with the aim to understand the characteristics of the crack propagation, especially considering the influence of the microstructural configuration (grain refinement, carbides, martensite and ferrite grains).

Findings

The investigations have shown a grain-refined plastically deformed layer (friction martensite with grain sizes of < 100 nm) which influences the propagation direction of cracks introduced at the frictionally stressed surface. Thereby, the crack propagation is dominantly parallel to the margin of the grain-refined martensitic layer at the surface and the base material. Cracks were split into side cracks what mostly appears at present carbides. In this case, the crack propagation might strike through the carbide or separate it from the matrix due to the mechanical misfit.

Originality/value

For obtaining the results of this paper, a very special preparation of tribologically stressed samples was performed. Accordingly, specific findings of the crack propagation behavior under such conditions were achieved and are documented in the presented work. Moreover, the described crack propagation process is a combination of several mechanisms which occur in very limited region underneath the surface and are investigated by high-resolution TEM.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2008

M. Rabiee, A.R. Mirhabibi, F. Moztar Zadeh, R. Aghababazadeh, E. Mohaghegh Pour and L. Lin

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new method for biomolecular recognition based on light scattering of ZnS:Mn nano‐particle functionalised with biotin.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new method for biomolecular recognition based on light scattering of ZnS:Mn nano‐particle functionalised with biotin.

Design/methodology/approach

ZnS:Mn nano‐particles was successfully synthesised from quaternary water‐in‐oil micro‐emulsion system. The addition of biotin and the subsequent specific binding events alter the dielectric environment of the nano‐particle, resulting in a spectral shift of the particle plasmon resonance. Cyclohexane was used as oil, Triten X‐100 as surfactant, n‐hexanol as a co‐surfactant and mercaptoethanol for the best linking of biological part to nano‐particle. Measurement of the content of avidin was achieved by detecting the Department of Biomedical Engineering change in the excited emission. For qualitative and quantitative analyses of this product, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy and spectrograph techniques were used.

Findings

It was observed that with reducing particle size, emission shifted to the lower wave lengths. In addition, with conjugation between avidin and biotin by mercaptoethanol in biologic media, spectral emission decreased.

Practical implications

The method developed could be utilised for synthesis of a variety of ZnS:Mn nano‐particles for a wide range of diagnostic applications.

Originality/value

The method for biomolecular recognition based on light scattering of ZnS:Mn nano‐particle functionalised with biotin developed was novel.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

E.Y. Yan, X.Y. Hao, M.L. Cao, Y.M. Fan, D.Q. Zhang, W. Xie, J.P. Sun and S.Q. Hou

The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to investigate the process for the preparation of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) hydrogel and to characterize such a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to investigate the process for the preparation of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) hydrogel and to characterize such a hydrogel via various analytical techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

The hydrogel in the aqueous solution was prepared by using CMCS as the raw material and glutaraldehyde as the crosslinking agent. The as-prepared CMCS hydrogel was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra.

Findings

The CMCS hydrogel possessed a porous structure and the shape of the pore was irregular. Generally, the diameter of the pores ranged from 20 to 70 nm. The results from FTIR, UV-vis and XRD showed that there was no obvious difference between the structures of the CMCS hydrogel and CMCS powder.

Research limitations/implications

The strength of the hydrogel is not high enough and the degree of swelling is relatively small. So, improving the strength and swelling degree of the hydrogel is necessary.

Practical implications

The CMCS hydrogel presented obvious hollow structures and its fabrication was processed absolutely in aqueous phase. Besides, it possessed low toxicity, good biocompatibility and biodegradability. So, the hydrogel will have potential applications in drug delivery and release, tissue engineering and other biomedical fields.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to present the relationship between the structures of the CMCS hydrogel and CMCS micromolecule, and it confirms that there is no fundamental difference between them.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 18 February 2019

Fen Peng, Wensheng Liu, Yufeng Huang, Siwei Tang, Chaoping Liang and Yunzhu Ma

The purpose of this study is to develop a monolayer surface coating of stearic acid on Sn-Ag-Cu solder powder to limit oxidation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a monolayer surface coating of stearic acid on Sn-Ag-Cu solder powder to limit oxidation.

Design/methodology/approach

Stearic acid was adsorbed onto Sn-Ag-Cu solder powder through liquid-phase adsorption. The isotherm of adsorption was measured and then the microstructure of coated powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

Findings

The adsorption isotherm of stearic acid on the powder was “H” type, which revealed the layer-by-layer adsorption on non-porous surface. When the concentration of solution was in the range of 0.001-0.006 mol/L, with an adsorption amount of 0.12 ± 0.1 mg/g, monolayer stearic acid covered the solder powder completely. Uniform and integrated self-assembled monolayer coating was formed through hydrogen bonds between the oxygen ions in surface lattice of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder powder and the —O—H hydroxyl group of stearic acid. The maximum angle of stability of coated powder also reduced by 2.87° compared with that of non-coated powder. The increase rate of oxygen content of coated powder was much slower than that of non-coated powder when they were exposed to humid air.

Originality/value

As a result, oxidation of fine solder powder was effectively limited. Essentially, this method can also be applied to the coating of other types of solder powder and has reference significance to other coating by liquid-phase method.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

I. Artaki, U. Ray, H.M. Gordon and R.L. Opila

The emergence of new interconnection technologies involving double‐sided surface mounted components has put stronger restrictions on the method of preserving the…

Abstract

The emergence of new interconnection technologies involving double‐sided surface mounted components has put stronger restrictions on the method of preserving the solderable finish on printed circuit (PC) boards. The popular Sn/Pb coatings have come under strong scrutiny due to environmental hazards of lead and also because they do not provide flat, planar surfaces for SM assembly. Organic solderability preservative coatings (OSP) are emerging as strong contenders for replacing Sn/Pb surface finishes. Benzotriazole based organic coatings have been successfully used in the past by several electronics manufacturers. However, assembly technologies involving multiple thermal operations have necessitated a fundamental understanding of the thermal stabilities and the mechanism of corrosion protection provided by the OSPs. This paper reports the results of an investigation of the thermal stabilities of two organic corrosion protection coatings. Although both are organic azole based, they operate in two distinct regimes: one forming thin films (∼100 Å) and the other forming thick films (∼5000 Å). The mechanism of surface protection has been studied using direct surface analytical techniques such as X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), scanning transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT‐IR). The solderability of the copper was measured by wetting balance techniques and correlated to the amount of copper oxidation. The results indicate that, although the thin films provide excellent protection for storage and handling operations, they decompose under heat, thereby causing oxidation of the copper. The thick films appear to withstand multiple thermal cycling. However, the underlying copper substrate can still be oxidised by oxygen diffusion through pores or cracks, or the film may undergo chemical changes that render the copper unsolderable.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2020

Ernest Mbamalu Ezeh and O.D. Onukwuli

The purpose of this paper is to observe the effect of cheap cow horn ash particles (CHAp) filler as a possible replacement for expensive fillers on the mechanical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to observe the effect of cheap cow horn ash particles (CHAp) filler as a possible replacement for expensive fillers on the mechanical properties of polyester-banana peduncle fibre (BPF) composites were evaluated using standard procedures.

Design/methodology/approach

Composite was developed using CHAp as a filler component, polyester resin and BPF, with the filler of varying percentage weights (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%), at particle sizes of 125 µm, using hand lay-up technique. The physicochemical properties of CHAp were examined through x-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersion spectrometric analysis (EDS) and density. Mechanical properties of the developed composites were also examined.

Findings

The results showed that the tensile properties and impact strength of the composites reduced marginally with the incorporation of the cow horn ash particle as a filler. However, the flexural strength of the composites increased progressively with the incorporation of BPF as the fibre loading increased. The major constituents of CHAp were CaO from XRF study, calcite (CaCO3) from XRD study and Ca in EDS study in accordance with the analytical parameter, which showed a major component of calcium. The high value of CaCO3 in CHAp improved flexural and impact strengths of the composites. CHAp presented around solid and irregular shape particle characteristic of most fillers with an average particle size of 98.13 nm. The tensile and flexural strengths of the polyester matrix composites obtained at 7.5% BPF: 7.5% CHAp was 117.87 MPa depicting satisfactory mechanical characteristics.

Originality/value

Generally, cow horn ash particle exhibited adequate filler component potential in composite production in keeping with its property effects on the mechanical properties of polyester-BPF composites.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

H.Y. Zhang, H.J. Niu, Y.M. Wang, C. Wang, X.D. Bai, , S. Wang and Wen Wang

The purpose of this paper was to provide a simple method for the preparation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by pyrolysing sunflower seed hulls and sago and to evaluate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to provide a simple method for the preparation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by pyrolysing sunflower seed hulls and sago and to evaluate the application of such CNTs in supercapacitors.

Design/methodology/approach

The CNTs were obtained by pyrolysing sunflower seed hulls and sago at 800°C. The prepared CNTs were studied by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge and discharge and electrochemical impedance spectra methods.

Findings

The CNTs had large surface areas as determined by the methylene blue method and the Brunauer – Emmett – Teller method. And the CNTs that were prepared by pyrolysing the natural sunflower seed hulls (denoted as CNTs-1) and sago (denoted as CNTs-2) had capacitances of 86.9 F/g and 26.7 F/g, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

The capacitances of CNTs can be further improved.

Practical implications

The exceptional electronic and mechanical properties of CNTs prepared lend the CNTs to diverse applications including electrocatalysts, hydrogen storage, photovoltaic devices actuators, energy storage, field-emitting flat panel displays and composites.

Originality/value

Currently, CNTs have not yet been used in the industry at a mass production scale due to high costs associated. The outcomes of the study reported in this article could provide a convenient method in aid of industrialisation of the production of CNTs.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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