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Article

Leonora Fuxman

With the increasing technological innovation in the automotive industry, the need for complementary innovations in worker organization has arisen. In response to this…

Abstract

With the increasing technological innovation in the automotive industry, the need for complementary innovations in worker organization has arisen. In response to this need, two distinct approaches for teamwork in automotive production have been developed. This paper discusses both the Japanese and the Scandinavian teamwork models and their various implementations found among auto manufacturers worldwide. Work teams must be supported by changes in production philosophy, intensive training programs, and enhanced labor‐management relations. These complementary systems require significant investments, making team building a risky but potentially valuable venture. New insights on team building and its implications for production processes are provided.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 9 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Book part

Laurence Romani, Lotte Holck, Charlotte Holgersson and Sara Louise Muhr

This chapter presents the principal interpretations that took place in Denmark and Sweden regarding the discourse on ‘Diversity Management’. We organise our presentation…

Abstract

This chapter presents the principal interpretations that took place in Denmark and Sweden regarding the discourse on ‘Diversity Management’. We organise our presentation around three major themes that are central to the local Scandinavian context: gender equality, migration and moral grounds. This chapter shows the important role of gender equality work practices and how these practices now tend to be progressively incorporated in a broad Diversity Management construct, possibly leading to a less radical stance. Moreover, the comparison between Denmark and Sweden reveals the political associations with Diversity Management and migration in Denmark, but not in Sweden. Our third contribution unveils the tensions between the value of equality, which remains strong in the Scandinavian welfare state model, and the actual practices of Diversity Management.

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Management and Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-550-8

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Article

Marie Valentova

The aim of the paper is to analyse the position of the Czech women in the labour market in a comparison to the EU‐15 countries. The paper critically reviews three domains…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the paper is to analyse the position of the Czech women in the labour market in a comparison to the EU‐15 countries. The paper critically reviews three domains of female labour market participation: general characteristics of the female employment, work‐life balance indicators, and disadvantages of the female labour force related to motherhood.

Design/methodology/approach

The data draw on harmonized data from international/supranational institutions (EUROSTAT, OECD, ILO) in order to compile comparative statistics on gender and labour market characteristics. A cluster analysis is performed in order to group countries with similar gender and labour market characteristics together.

Findings

The results identify three clusters with respect to the position of women in the labour market: southern model, Scandinavian model, and mixed model. The southern model includes Spain, Italy and Greece. These countries are characterised by women's low participation in the labour market, shorter working careers and a low incidence of part‐time working. The Scandinavian model (Denmark, Sweden, Finland) represents countries, which have high levels of female labour market participation, and a work culture that fosters high numbers of part‐time and flexible work systems. The mixed model (UK, France, Germany) falls in between these two extremes and includes the Czechoslovakia. The mixed model has relatively high female employment rates both full‐ and part‐time but tends to have less support structures for combining work‐life balance.

Originality/value

The data provide an insight into the gendered labour market systems in the Czech Republic and highlight how state and private employer organisations can develop gender sensitive policies to assist women's career and professional development. It is suggested that the Czech Republic needs to develop policies that will foster part‐time and flexible working arrangements.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article

Thomas P. Boje and Anders Ejrnæs

The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of different family policy systems in Europe and evaluate their impact on the employment strategy of mothers with care…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of different family policy systems in Europe and evaluate their impact on the employment strategy of mothers with care responsibilities for dependent children.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper outlines a typology of family policy regimes in Europe – covering the 26 countries. A typology based on a cluster analysis of macro indicators of family policy – coverage of childcare, effective parental leave and spending on family policies. The cluster analysis is based on data from OECD family data base. Then follows an analysis of the impact of the different family policy regimes on mothers' employment strategies when they return into gainful employment, based on data from the European Social Survey, 2008.

Findings

The authors have identified four different family policy models: extensive family policy, long parental leave, family care, and cash for care. For each of the models, different strategies are found for take up of employment for mothers with dependent children.

Originality/value

The paper includes 26 European countries, thereby covering the East and Central Europe, which is not the case in most welfare typologies. Furthermore, the authors distinguish clearly in the analyses between the institutional dimension and the outcome – mothers' employment strategies.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 32 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article

Birte Siim

The aim of the article is to discuss the challenges from immigration to Nordic (gender) politics, theories and research. The research question is to what extent Nordic…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the article is to discuss the challenges from immigration to Nordic (gender) politics, theories and research. The research question is to what extent Nordic welfare and gender equality politics is based on exclusive solidarity biased towards the native majorities. A key issue is how Nordic gender theory and research has addressed multiple inequalities. The article briefly revisits the academic debates about gender equality, diversity and multiculturalism, which arguably represent two different paradigms: multicultural approaches have addressed the accommodation of minorities with diversity as the key concept, while feminist approaches have focused on gender (in)equality with gender as the key concept.

Design/methodology/approach

The intersectional approach suggests that increased migration and mobility present similar challenges for the two bodies of thought to address complex and multiple inequalities within and beyond the nation state. The main part explores “the multicultural dilemma” in greater detail focusing on the intersections between gender and etho‐national minorities in Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

Findings

Perceptions of diversity and gender equality/women's rights are contextual and dynamic as intersecting diversities and inequalities are embedded in national histories, institutions and policies. Scholars have demonstrated that the discourse about women's rights and gender equality has become an intrinsic part of Nordic identities and belongings. The article suggests that the new forms of inequalities among women can be interpreted as a Nordic gender equality paradox between the relative inclusion of the native majority women and the relative marginalization of women from diverse ethnic minorities in society.

Originality/value

The intersectionality approach to gender and ethnicity in Scandinavia is in this article combined with a transnational approach to gender, diversity and migration.

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Article

Christina Lundsgaard Ottsen

As organizations aim to become increasingly diverse, it is important to understand how perspectives of potential future leaders vary across culture and gender. This study…

Abstract

Purpose

As organizations aim to become increasingly diverse, it is important to understand how perspectives of potential future leaders vary across culture and gender. This study aims to advance the understanding of the persistent gender gap in management.

Design/methodology/approach

Samples from the gender-segregated Qatar and the co-ed Denmark present a unique opportunity to investigate the potential effects of gender. Here, 115 Middle Easterners and 121 Scandinavians rated perceived importance of job-related skills, networking upward and serendipity in leadership acquisition.

Findings

Effects of gender showed that compared to men, women across cultures expected that serendipity has less to do with leadership acquisition. Middle Eastern women also showed low expectations regarding networking with people in powerful positions. Nevertheless, both genders showed conviction of meritocracy by rating job-related skills as the most important factor in leadership acquisition. Cross-culturally, Scandinavians presumed job-related skills to be more important than Middle Easterners.

Research limitations/implications

Despite meritocracy beliefs, it appears that gender differences in perceived possibility of leadership acquisition contribute to the gender gap in management. Scandinavian women relied more on networking than Middle Eastern women, but still lacked faith in serendipitous opportunities compared to male peers. Perceived luck enhances achievement motivation. If men rely more on luck than women, then they are more confident in succeeding and more ambitious about pursuit of leadership. Women’s lack of faith in serendipity might affect their career ambitions negatively even in societies emphasizing equality.

Originality/value

This is the first study that directly focuses on gender differences in perception of opportunities for leadership acquisition through serendipity.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Abstract

Details

Economic Modeling in the Nordic Countries
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-859-9

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Book part

Peter Boxall, Meng-Long Huo, Keith Macky and Jonathan Winterton

High-involvement work processes (HIWPs) are associated with high levels of employee influence over the work process, such as high levels of control over how to handle…

Abstract

High-involvement work processes (HIWPs) are associated with high levels of employee influence over the work process, such as high levels of control over how to handle individual job tasks or a high level of involvement at team or workplace level in designing work procedures. When implementations of HIWPs are accompanied by companion investments in human capital – for example, in better information and training, higher pay and stronger employee voice – it is appropriate to talk not only of HIWPs but of “high-involvement work systems” (HIWSs). This chapter reviews the theory and practice of HIWPs and HIWSs. Across a range of academic perspectives and societies, it has regularly been argued that steps to enhance employee involvement in decision-making create better opportunities to perform, better utilization of skill and human potential, and better employee motivation, leading, in turn, to various improvements in organizational and employee outcomes.

However, there are also costs to increased employee involvement and the authors review the important economic and sociopolitical contingencies that help to explain the incidence or distribution of HIWPs and HIWSs. The authors also review the research on the outcomes of higher employee involvement for firms and workers, discuss the quality of the research methods used, and consider the tensions with which the model is associated. This chapter concludes with an outline of the research agenda, envisaging an ongoing role for both quantitative and qualitative studies. Without ignoring the difficulties involved, the authors argue, from the societal perspective, that the high-involvement pathway should be considered one of the most important vectors available to improve the quality of work and employee well-being.

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Abstract

Details

Bureaucracy and Society in Transition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-283-3

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Article

David Evans

The purpose of this paper is to review and analyse current research in the field of women leadership. It deals with fundamental changes observed in the past 20 years and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review and analyse current research in the field of women leadership. It deals with fundamental changes observed in the past 20 years and tries to establish any common traits and tendencies. The question of whether changing leadership styles, emotional intelligence and different organisational requirements have favoured the emergence of women leaders is addressed. Attention is then switched to France to determine whether this country is in line with the general trends or not.

Design/methodology/approach

Current research in the field is reviewed and it is demonstrated that, with the advent of globalisation and changing leadership styles, there are some encouraging signs for the female graduates of the 21st century's international business schools, although progress is painstakingly slow. Concerning women leaders in France, 12 in‐depth, semi‐directive interviews were performed with women occupying leadership positions in medium‐sized to large companies. A cluster and content analysis is applied and conclusions drawn.

Findings

Leadership styles have changed dramatically over the past 20 years. We can say that there is a male and female leadership style. Emotional intelligence has facilitated the emergence of women leaders as have changing societal factors. The situation in France has changed drastically since the milestone date of 1968. Although there are certain aspects which are peculiar to French culture, no evidence was found to suggest that France is in any way a “cultural exception”. On the contrary, patterns observed in French companies were very much in line with the findings in the review section.

Research limitations/implications

The sample of 12 women interviewees was obviously a little limited and a more extensive survey might be conducted in the near future. There was however a large degree of convergence in the responses. The two parts of the article demonstrate that the situation for women is definitely improving even if progress is slow and painstaking. The research should be extended to a more pan‐European study as a follow‐up.

Practical implications

In view of the employment crisis predicted in 2040, more efforts will have to be made to integrate women into the workplace especially at top management level in business and engineering; emphasis should be placed on effective team management and better management training for women in general. Networking and child care facilities will have to be improved in order to keep women leaders in the system and thus avoid the “gender drain”.

Originality/value

The paper illustrates how a country born in the spirit of social justice has managed, although belatedly, to come to terms with changing gender roles and to provide the necessary infrastructures for women to attain higher levels of career advancement. In the latter case they have certainly progressed quicker than their European counterparts.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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