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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2020

Michael Clark, David Jolley, Susan Mary Benbow, Nicola Greaves and Ian Greaves

The scaling up of promising, innovative integration projects presents challenges to social and health care systems. Evidence that a new service provides (cost) effective…

Abstract

Purpose

The scaling up of promising, innovative integration projects presents challenges to social and health care systems. Evidence that a new service provides (cost) effective care in a (pilot) locality can often leave us some way from understanding how the innovation worked and what was crucial about the context to achieve the goals evidenced when applied to other localities. Even unpacking the “black box” of the innovation can still leave gaps in understanding with regard to scaling it up. Theory-led approaches are increasingly proposed as a means of helping to address this knowledge gap in understanding implementation. Our particular interest here is exploring the potential use of theory to help with understanding scaling up integration models across sites. The theory under consideration is Normalisation Process Theory (NPT).

Design/methodology/approach

The article draws on a natural experiment providing a range of data from two sites working to scale up a well-thought-of, innovative integrated, primary care-based dementia service to other primary care sites. This provided an opportunity to use NPT as a means of framing understanding to explore what the theory adds to considering issues contributing to the success or failure of such a scaling up project.

Findings

NPT offers a framework to potentially develop greater consistency in understanding the roll out of models of integrated care. The knowledge gained here and through further application of NPT could be applied to inform evaluation and planning of scaling-up programmes in the future.

Research limitations/implications

The research was limited in the data collected from the case study; nevertheless, in the context of an exploration of the use of the theory, the observations provided a practical context in which to begin to examine the usefulness of NPT prior to embarking on its use in more expensive, larger-scale studies.

Practical implications

NPT provides a promising framework to better understand the detail of integrated service models from the point of view of what may contribute to their successful scaling up.

Social implications

NPT potentially provides a helpful framework to understand and manage efforts to have new integrated service models more widely adopted in practice and to help ensure that models which are effective in the small scale develop effectively when scaled up.

Originality/value

This paper examines the use of NPT as a theory to guide understanding of scaling up promising innovative integration service models.

Details

Journal of Integrated Care, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1476-9018

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2017

Laura Di Pietro, Bo Edvardsson, Javier Reynoso, Maria Francesca Renzi, Martina Toni and Roberta Guglielmetti Mugion

The purpose of this paper is to explore why innovative service ecosystems scale up, using a service-dominant logic lens. The focus is on identifying the key drivers of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore why innovative service ecosystems scale up, using a service-dominant logic lens. The focus is on identifying the key drivers of the scaling-up process as the basis for a new conceptual framework on the scaling up of service innovations.

Design/methodology/approach

An inductive research design is used to zoom in on two innovative service ecosystems, Eataly and KidZania, to identify the key drivers that can explain why innovations scale up. For both companies, the triangulation of semi-structured interviews, archival sources and in-store observations is used as complementary data sets. Multiple investigators and multiple coders have been involved in the data collection, coding process and analysis.

Findings

An extended conceptualization of service innovation is obtained, grounded in a framework of four drivers of scaling up: effectuation as the basis for creating the value proposition; sensing and adapting to local contexts; the reconfiguration and alignment of resources and forms for collaboration between actors; and values’ resonance.

Originality/value

This study represents one of the first empirical investigations of the key drivers of the scaling up process of service innovations. The paper contributes with a conceptualization of service innovation and why scaling-up processes emerge, emphasizing the existence of multiple constellations of four drivers.

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2018

Hannah Vaughan-Lee, Lezlie Caro Moriniere, Isabelle Bremaud and Marilise Turnbull

Despite increased attention to, and investment in, scaling up of disaster risk reduction (DRR), there has been little detailed discussion of scalability. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite increased attention to, and investment in, scaling up of disaster risk reduction (DRR), there has been little detailed discussion of scalability. The purpose of this paper is to respond to this critical gap by proposing a definition of scaling up for DRR, what effective scaling up entails, and how to measure and plan for scalability.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review of debates, case studies and good practices in DRR and parallel sectors (i.e. education, health and the wider development field) unveiled and enabled the weighting of key concepts that inform scalability. The mixed methods research then developed, validated and employed a scalability assessment framework to examine 20 DRR and five non-DRR initiatives for which a minimum set of evidence was accessible.

Findings

Support from national, regional and/or local authorities strongly influenced the scalability of all initiatives assessed. Currently, insufficient to support effective scaling up, monitoring and evaluation were also found to be critical to both identify potential for and measure scalability.

Originality/value

The paper ends with a scalability assessment and planning tool to measure and monitor the scalability potential of DRR initiatives, highlighting areas for corrective action that can improve the quality and effectiveness of DRR interventions.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

To ensure that more people will benefit from integrated care initiatives, scaling-up of successful initiatives is the way forward. However, new challenges present themselves as knowledge on how to achieve successful large-scale implementation is scarce. The EU-funded project SCIROCCO uses a step-based scaling-up strategy to explore what to scale-up, and how to scale-up integrated care initiatives by matching the complementary strengths and weaknesses of five European regions involved in integrated care. The purpose of this paper is to describe a multi-method evaluation protocol designed to understand what factors influence the implementation of the SCIROCCO strategy to support the scaling-up of integrated care.

Design/methodology/approach

The first part of the protocol focuses on the assessment of the implementation fidelity of the SCIROCCO step-based strategy. The objective is to gain insight in whether the step-based strategy is implemented as it was designed to explore what works and does not work when implementing the scaling-up strategy. The second part concerns a realist evaluation to examine what it is about the SCIROCCO’s strategy that works for whom, why, how and in which circumstances when scaling-up integrated care.

Findings

The intended study will provide valuable information on the implementation of the scaling-up strategy which will help to explain for what specific reasons the implementation succeeds and will facilitate further improvement of project outcomes.

Originality/value

The expected insights could be useful to guide the development, implementation and evaluation of future scaling-up strategies to advance the change towards more sustainable health and care systems.

Details

Journal of Integrated Care, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1476-9018

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Jonas Meyer, Marlene Mader, Friedrich Zimmermann and Ketrina Çabiri

The purpose of this paper is to examine sustainability-related challenges in the two Western Balkan countries – Albania and Kosovo. It discusses the opportunities of local…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine sustainability-related challenges in the two Western Balkan countries – Albania and Kosovo. It discusses the opportunities of local higher education institutions (HEIs) taking responsibility to tackle these challenges by providing professional development through science–society collaboration in innovative training sessions for university educators.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review on actual challenges and transformations of higher education for sustainable development (ESD) in Albania and Kosovo will be the starting point of this paper. Subsequently, experiences from the on-going European Union (EU) project “ConSus” will be used to draw both a competence framework for ESD within science–society collaboration based on the training sessions, as well as possible scaling opportunities.

Findings

The paper draws possible approaches of training sessions for university educators promoting sustainable development and science–society collaboration in higher education. They will be concluded by addressing possible scaling opportunities of the project’s activities.

Practical implications

The experiences of the ConSus training sessions will outline competences of university educators in ESD gained in relation to transdisciplinary collaboration in research and teaching.

Originality/value

The paper will contribute to ESD approaches in higher education in Albania and Kosovo. Furthermore, scaling possibilities will be discussed to systematically implement ESD approaches also in higher hierarchical levels and other HEIs.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2019

Stefan Kleinschmidt, Christoph Peters and Jan Marco Leimeister

While scaling is a viable approach to respond to growing demand, service providers in contact-intensive services (CIS) – such as education, healthcare and social services…

Abstract

Purpose

While scaling is a viable approach to respond to growing demand, service providers in contact-intensive services (CIS) – such as education, healthcare and social services – struggle to innovate their offerings. The reason is that the scaling of CIS – unlike purely digital settings – has resource limitations. To help ease the situation, the purpose of this paper is to identify and describe the practices used in scaling CIS to support ICT-enabled service innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The research draws on an in-depth analysis of three CIS to examine service innovation practices. The analysis informs model development for service scaling.

Findings

The analysis uncovers three practices for service scaling – service interaction analysis, service pivoting and service validation – and their related activities that are applied in a cyclic and iterative logic.

Research limitations/implications

While the findings reveal that the scalability of CIS is limited and determined by the formative characteristic of personal interaction, this study and its findings describe how to leverage scalability in CIS.

Practical implications

The insights into the practices enable service providers of CIS to iteratively revise their service offerings and the logic of creating value with the service.

Originality/value

This research identifies and describes for the first time the practices for the scaling of CIS as an operationalisation of ICT-enabled service innovation.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2014

Christian Seelos and Johanna Mair

Social entrepreneurs create novel approaches to social problems such as poverty. But scaling these approaches to the dimension of the problem can be a difficult task. In…

Abstract

Purpose

Social entrepreneurs create novel approaches to social problems such as poverty. But scaling these approaches to the dimension of the problem can be a difficult task. In the social enterprise sector, the subject of scaling has become a key dimension of organizational performance. This chapter advances the scholarly literature on the scaling of social enterprises, a literature which is currently in an embryonic stage and characterized by conceptual ambiguity and fragmented perspectives.

Methodology/Approach

We engage realist philosophy of science to develop mechanism-based causal explanations of the scaling performance of social enterprises. We also develop a coding scheme to guide systematic empirical analysis and highlight the explanatory power of counterfactuals. Counterfactuals have been largely neglected in empirical research as they represent mechanisms that are enabled but remain unobservable – in a state of suppression or neutralization of their effects.

Findings

We question the ability of organizations to “socially engineer” desired outcomes and introduce a new construct – organizational closure competence. Anchored in realism, this construct provides a basis for productive approaches to social engineering. We elaborate on the importance of organizational closure competencies for scaling, derive a series of propositions, and develop ideas for future research and for practice.

Research, Practical and Social Implications

Applying a realist lens allows us to add empirical rigor to research on social enterprises and scaling. Our approach constitutes a move from rich narratives to causal models and informs the way we design and evaluate efforts to address important societal challenges.

Originality/Value of Chapter

This chapter demonstrates how to operationalize realist philosophy of science for causal explanations of complex social phenomena and better utilize its theoretical and practical value.

Details

Social Entrepreneurship and Research Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-141-1

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Fei Chong Ng, Mohamad Aizat Abas, MZ Abdullah, MHH Ishak and Gean Yuen Chong

This paper aims to present experimental and finite volume method (FVM)-based simulation studies on the scaling effect on the capillary contact angle and entrant pressure…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present experimental and finite volume method (FVM)-based simulation studies on the scaling effect on the capillary contact angle and entrant pressure for a three-dimensional encapsulation process of ball-grid array (BGA).

Design/methodology/approach

With the development of various sizes of BGA packages, the scaling effect of BGA model on capillary underfill (CUF) process is investigated together with the influences of different industrial standard solder bump arrangements and dispensing methods used as case study.

Findings

The experimental results agree well to the simulation findings with minimal deviation in filling time and similar flow front profiles for all setups. The results revealed that the capillary contact angle of flow front decreases in scale-up model with larger gap height observed and lengthens the encapsulation process. Statistical correlation studies are conducted and accurate regression equations are obtained to relate the gap height to the completion filling time and contact angle. CUF threshold capillary pressures were computed based on Leverett-J function and found to be increasing with the scale size of the package.

Practical implications

These statistical data provide accurate insights into the impact of BGA’s scale sizes to the CUF process that will be benefiting the future design of BGA package. This study provided electronic designers with profound understanding on the scaling effect in CUF process of BGA, which may be extended to the future development of miniature-sized BGA and multi-stack device.

Originality/value

This study relates the flow behaviour of encapsulant to its capillary contact angle and Leverett-J pressure threshold, in the CUF process of different BGA and dispensing conditions. To date, no research has been found to predict the threshold pressure on the gap between the chip and substrate.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2015

Hendrik Cramer, Hans Voordijk and Geert Dewulf

The purpose of this paper is to provide new insights into barriers to sustaining and scaling-up housing and community-care innovations related to changing the long-term…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide new insights into barriers to sustaining and scaling-up housing and community-care innovations related to changing the long-term care (LTC) system.

Design/methodology/approach

Two housing and community-care experiments were studied. The 11 barriers and four core themes identified to the scaling-up of these experiments were analysed using the three theoretical concepts from the transitions literature: shielding, nurturing, and empowering innovations.

Findings

The barriers included shielding through subsidies without having organizational or political commitment, nurturing networks that underestimated the size of the housing and community-care innovations, and a failed empowerment because of regulatory uncertainty – not knowing the rules of tomorrow and ignoring the reality that it takes time to spread the lessons learnt in experiments.

Research limitations/implications

Housing and community-care innovations need to pay less attention to subsidies and focus more on learning from the experiments, spreading the ideas, and creating commitment from policymakers so that the innovations become empowered.

Originality/value

Empirical insights into the barriers to sustaining and scaling-up housing and community-care innovations into the LTC system are provided and propositions for future transition programmes formulated.

Details

Housing, Care and Support, vol. 18 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-8790

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Larissa Medianeira Bolzan, Claudia Cristina Bitencourt and Bibiana Volkmer Martins

Social innovation is a recent theme, and the practices related to this area are characterized by punctual actions and projects restricted by time and space that make it…

Abstract

Purpose

Social innovation is a recent theme, and the practices related to this area are characterized by punctual actions and projects restricted by time and space that make it difficult to develop strategies that can be sustained in this field. Therefore, one point that deserves to be highlighted in studies on social innovation is a matter of scalability. This paper aims to deal with a bibliometry whose objective was to map the existing studies about scalability of social innovation carried out in the Capes and EBSCOHost portals.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper deals with a bibliometry. The topic researched in this bibliometry is scalability of social innovation. The databases chosen for this research were Portal Periódico Capes and EBSCOHost because they are the leading providers of search databases.

Findings

A total of 42 papers were considered, distributed between 2002 and 2017. The analysis criteria for the study were origin (composed by year, author, country of origin, periodical and impact factor), focus of the investigations, justification, method and main techniques of research, contributions and theoretical advances and challenges and paths.

Originality/value

Among the main results found, one of them is that scalability is a topic that began to be researched recently, so that the USA and Brazil lead the research. Most of the studies focused on the scalability process and justified the importance of studies on the subject as a way to explore the potential of expanding the social impacts of a social innovation. Several studies have emphasized the role of networks as being quite positive for the scalability process and have been concerned with identifying factors that contribute to the scalability process. The challenge that most stood out among the papers was the financial sustainability of a social innovation. At the end, a research agenda was proposed.

Details

Innovation & Management Review, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-8961

Keywords

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