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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Bhavana Jharia, S. Sarkar and R.P. Agarwal

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of scaling on the impact ionization and subthreshold current in submicron MOSFETs.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of scaling on the impact ionization and subthreshold current in submicron MOSFETs.

Design/methodology/approach

The effects of the various scaling techniques on a 100 nm device performances and the dependence of subthreshold current parameters on applied scaling technique are analyzed.

Findings

The results show that as the channel length is scaled down, multiplication factor increases slowly in the higher regime and rises rapidly in the lower regime of channel length. This result also justifies the inclusion of impact‐ionization effect on subthreshold current. The analysis shows that there is insignificant dependence of multiplication factor on the method of scaling. Similar variations in subthreshold current with channel length scaling have been observed in the analytical results for different scaling techniques.

Originality/value

The paper offers insight into the challenges of MOSFET scaling.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2014

Christian Seelos and Johanna Mair

Social entrepreneurs create novel approaches to social problems such as poverty. But scaling these approaches to the dimension of the problem can be a difficult task. In…

Abstract

Purpose

Social entrepreneurs create novel approaches to social problems such as poverty. But scaling these approaches to the dimension of the problem can be a difficult task. In the social enterprise sector, the subject of scaling has become a key dimension of organizational performance. This chapter advances the scholarly literature on the scaling of social enterprises, a literature which is currently in an embryonic stage and characterized by conceptual ambiguity and fragmented perspectives.

Methodology/Approach

We engage realist philosophy of science to develop mechanism-based causal explanations of the scaling performance of social enterprises. We also develop a coding scheme to guide systematic empirical analysis and highlight the explanatory power of counterfactuals. Counterfactuals have been largely neglected in empirical research as they represent mechanisms that are enabled but remain unobservable – in a state of suppression or neutralization of their effects.

Findings

We question the ability of organizations to “socially engineer” desired outcomes and introduce a new construct – organizational closure competence. Anchored in realism, this construct provides a basis for productive approaches to social engineering. We elaborate on the importance of organizational closure competencies for scaling, derive a series of propositions, and develop ideas for future research and for practice.

Research, Practical and Social Implications

Applying a realist lens allows us to add empirical rigor to research on social enterprises and scaling. Our approach constitutes a move from rich narratives to causal models and informs the way we design and evaluate efforts to address important societal challenges.

Originality/Value of Chapter

This chapter demonstrates how to operationalize realist philosophy of science for causal explanations of complex social phenomena and better utilize its theoretical and practical value.

Details

Social Entrepreneurship and Research Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-141-1

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 November 2020

Alberto Moscatello, Anna Chiara Uggenti, Gaetano Iuso, Domenic D'Ambrosio, Gioacchino Cafiero, Raffaella Gerboni and Andrea Carpignano

The purpose of this paper is to present a procedure to design an experimental setup meant to validate an innovative approach for simulating, via computational fluid…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a procedure to design an experimental setup meant to validate an innovative approach for simulating, via computational fluid dynamics, a high-pressure gas release from a rupture (e.g. on an offshore oil and gas platform). The design is based on a series of scaling exercises, some of which are anything but trivial.

Design/methodology/approach

The experimental setup is composed of a wind tunnel, the instrumented scaled (1:10) mock-up of an offshore platform and a gas release system. A correct scaling approach is necessary to define the reference speed in the wind tunnel and the conditions of the gas release to maintain similarity with respect to the real-size phenomena. The scaling of the wind velocity and the scaling of the gas release were inspired by the approach proposed by Hall et al. (1997): a dimensionless group was chosen to link release parameters, wind velocity and geometric scaling factor.

Findings

The theoretical scaling approaches for each different part of the setup were applied to the design of the experiment and some criticalities were identified, such as the existence of a set of case studies with some release parameters laying outside the applicability range of the developed scaling methodology, which will be further discussed.

Originality/value

The resulting procedure is one of a kind because it involves a multi-scaling approach because of the different aspects of the design. Literature supports for the different scaling theories but, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, fails to provide an integrated approach that considers the combined effects of scaling.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2020

Ambuj Anand, Sanjiv D. Vaidya and Sanawi M. Sharahiley

Scaling is an important concern in the management of information systems projects. E-Government projects are no exception to the challenges of scaling. The problem is more…

Abstract

Purpose

Scaling is an important concern in the management of information systems projects. E-Government projects are no exception to the challenges of scaling. The problem is more severe because of a large and diverse population of target users and more crucial because of the vulnerability of the target population in case of failure of such initiatives (in projects, such as public distribution system of food). In spite of a significant awareness of its importance among implementers, scaling still remains a challenge. This paper aims to examine this important issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study method has been used to demonstrate the relationship between integration and scaling of e-Government projects. This study uses analytic generalization from field case as a method to theorize a broad framework for the integration of information and communications technology projects. The context of this study is an e-Government project in West Bengal, India. The selection of the case involved theoretical sampling apart from considerations for the possibility of access to the project and its appropriateness with respect to the topic under study.

Findings

Five different levels of integration in e-Government projects, namely, interface, data, electronic communication, application, and knowledge, have been identified. Further, it has been demonstrated that each of these integration mechanisms impacts scaling of e-Government projects. Also, the nature of the impact has been identified.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates the impact of integration on the scaling of e-Government projects. It analyzes the phenomenon of integration in terms of five different levels. All the levels of integration impact scaling of e-Government projects in different ways.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2020

Michael Clark, David Jolley, Susan Mary Benbow, Nicola Greaves and Ian Greaves

The scaling up of promising, innovative integration projects presents challenges to social and health care systems. Evidence that a new service provides (cost) effective…

Abstract

Purpose

The scaling up of promising, innovative integration projects presents challenges to social and health care systems. Evidence that a new service provides (cost) effective care in a (pilot) locality can often leave us some way from understanding how the innovation worked and what was crucial about the context to achieve the goals evidenced when applied to other localities. Even unpacking the “black box” of the innovation can still leave gaps in understanding with regard to scaling it up. Theory-led approaches are increasingly proposed as a means of helping to address this knowledge gap in understanding implementation. Our particular interest here is exploring the potential use of theory to help with understanding scaling up integration models across sites. The theory under consideration is Normalisation Process Theory (NPT).

Design/methodology/approach

The article draws on a natural experiment providing a range of data from two sites working to scale up a well-thought-of, innovative integrated, primary care-based dementia service to other primary care sites. This provided an opportunity to use NPT as a means of framing understanding to explore what the theory adds to considering issues contributing to the success or failure of such a scaling up project.

Findings

NPT offers a framework to potentially develop greater consistency in understanding the roll out of models of integrated care. The knowledge gained here and through further application of NPT could be applied to inform evaluation and planning of scaling-up programmes in the future.

Research limitations/implications

The research was limited in the data collected from the case study; nevertheless, in the context of an exploration of the use of the theory, the observations provided a practical context in which to begin to examine the usefulness of NPT prior to embarking on its use in more expensive, larger-scale studies.

Practical implications

NPT provides a promising framework to better understand the detail of integrated service models from the point of view of what may contribute to their successful scaling up.

Social implications

NPT potentially provides a helpful framework to understand and manage efforts to have new integrated service models more widely adopted in practice and to help ensure that models which are effective in the small scale develop effectively when scaled up.

Originality/value

This paper examines the use of NPT as a theory to guide understanding of scaling up promising innovative integration service models.

Details

Journal of Integrated Care, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1476-9018

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2021

George C. Joseph, Nimitha Aboobaker and Zakkariya K.A.

This study aims to explore the behavioral patterns of entrepreneurs, their cognitive styles and personality characteristics that can lead to a self-destructive chain of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the behavioral patterns of entrepreneurs, their cognitive styles and personality characteristics that can lead to a self-destructive chain of events during the transition from a fledgling business to one capable of long-term, profitable growth. This study adopts the self-regulation attitude theory to uncover the reasons for premature start-up scaling, which will help founders to study on their cognitive biases, emotions and behaviors and make efforts to do what does not come naturally to them.

Design/methodology/approach

The respondents for this qualitative study were selected from a group of entrepreneurs with extensive experience with technology start-ups that have either failed or succeeded during their development stages. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight participants, who were selected through snowball sampling, on the theme of understanding “How do premature scaling mistakes happen?”. Thematic analysis was used to unearth common themes.

Findings

The results of this study identified the following themes, “comparison,” “emotional over-reaction,” “impatience,” “mistaken customer priorities,” “overestimation” and “overconfidence,” which eventually leads to premature scaling. The underlying decision-making heuristics of entrepreneurs can be identified as engulfed in different cognitive biases and emotions resulting in negative behavioral patterns, as in the case of premature scaling. Of the six themes, “comparison,” “mistaken customer priorities,” “overestimation” and “overconfidence relates to cognitive bias” and “emotional over-reaction” and “impatience” relate to emotional factors.

Research limitations/implications

The study was made possible with the support of the voluntary participants chosen by purposive and snowballing data sampling. The interviewee and interviewer biases could have also crept in as part of this qualitative approach. The study pertains only to start-ups in the information technology sector and further studies need to be done to generalize the results across industries as well.

Practical implications

This early-stage underestimation of unexpected obstacles in the entrepreneurship journey necessitates a focus on the entrepreneur too, as much as the concept. In these hectic and fast-paced circumstances, aspiring entrepreneurs must be taught how to deal objectively with themselves and others, as well as think strategically. Leaders who scale do so because they take purposeful measures to overcome their weaknesses through self-discipline, soliciting advice from others and using their right to change their attitude and points of view.

Originality/value

The study frames the new approach into the entrepreneurial literature, linking it to self-regulation attitude theory and adds to the nascent literature on neuroentrepreneurship which discuss entrepreneurial cognition, decision-making, and entrepreneurial behavior. This study attempted to explore the reasons behind the premature scaling of startups on an individual level. This study is pioneering in exploring the cognitive factors underlying an entrepreneur’s decision that results in premature scaling. This study provides insights for academicians, entrepreneurs and policymakers and helps understand the cognitive journey that leads to premature scaling.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2019

Stefan Kleinschmidt, Christoph Peters and Jan Marco Leimeister

While scaling is a viable approach to respond to growing demand, service providers in contact-intensive services (CIS) – such as education, healthcare and social services…

Abstract

Purpose

While scaling is a viable approach to respond to growing demand, service providers in contact-intensive services (CIS) – such as education, healthcare and social services – struggle to innovate their offerings. The reason is that the scaling of CIS – unlike purely digital settings – has resource limitations. To help ease the situation, the purpose of this paper is to identify and describe the practices used in scaling CIS to support ICT-enabled service innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The research draws on an in-depth analysis of three CIS to examine service innovation practices. The analysis informs model development for service scaling.

Findings

The analysis uncovers three practices for service scaling – service interaction analysis, service pivoting and service validation – and their related activities that are applied in a cyclic and iterative logic.

Research limitations/implications

While the findings reveal that the scalability of CIS is limited and determined by the formative characteristic of personal interaction, this study and its findings describe how to leverage scalability in CIS.

Practical implications

The insights into the practices enable service providers of CIS to iteratively revise their service offerings and the logic of creating value with the service.

Originality/value

This research identifies and describes for the first time the practices for the scaling of CIS as an operationalisation of ICT-enabled service innovation.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2017

Laura Di Pietro, Bo Edvardsson, Javier Reynoso, Maria Francesca Renzi, Martina Toni and Roberta Guglielmetti Mugion

The purpose of this paper is to explore why innovative service ecosystems scale up, using a service-dominant logic lens. The focus is on identifying the key drivers of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore why innovative service ecosystems scale up, using a service-dominant logic lens. The focus is on identifying the key drivers of the scaling-up process as the basis for a new conceptual framework on the scaling up of service innovations.

Design/methodology/approach

An inductive research design is used to zoom in on two innovative service ecosystems, Eataly and KidZania, to identify the key drivers that can explain why innovations scale up. For both companies, the triangulation of semi-structured interviews, archival sources and in-store observations is used as complementary data sets. Multiple investigators and multiple coders have been involved in the data collection, coding process and analysis.

Findings

An extended conceptualization of service innovation is obtained, grounded in a framework of four drivers of scaling up: effectuation as the basis for creating the value proposition; sensing and adapting to local contexts; the reconfiguration and alignment of resources and forms for collaboration between actors; and values’ resonance.

Originality/value

This study represents one of the first empirical investigations of the key drivers of the scaling up process of service innovations. The paper contributes with a conceptualization of service innovation and why scaling-up processes emerge, emphasizing the existence of multiple constellations of four drivers.

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2018

Hannah Vaughan-Lee, Lezlie Caro Moriniere, Isabelle Bremaud and Marilise Turnbull

Despite increased attention to, and investment in, scaling up of disaster risk reduction (DRR), there has been little detailed discussion of scalability. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite increased attention to, and investment in, scaling up of disaster risk reduction (DRR), there has been little detailed discussion of scalability. The purpose of this paper is to respond to this critical gap by proposing a definition of scaling up for DRR, what effective scaling up entails, and how to measure and plan for scalability.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review of debates, case studies and good practices in DRR and parallel sectors (i.e. education, health and the wider development field) unveiled and enabled the weighting of key concepts that inform scalability. The mixed methods research then developed, validated and employed a scalability assessment framework to examine 20 DRR and five non-DRR initiatives for which a minimum set of evidence was accessible.

Findings

Support from national, regional and/or local authorities strongly influenced the scalability of all initiatives assessed. Currently, insufficient to support effective scaling up, monitoring and evaluation were also found to be critical to both identify potential for and measure scalability.

Originality/value

The paper ends with a scalability assessment and planning tool to measure and monitor the scalability potential of DRR initiatives, highlighting areas for corrective action that can improve the quality and effectiveness of DRR interventions.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

C. Shu, X.H. Mao and Y.T. Chew

This paper aims to give some guidance on the selection of particle numbers per cell and the number of molecules per particle in the micro flow simulation by using DSMC method.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to give some guidance on the selection of particle numbers per cell and the number of molecules per particle in the micro flow simulation by using DSMC method.

Design/methodology/approach

The numerical investigation is performed to study the effects of particle number per cell and the scaling factor of real molecules to a simulated particle on accuracy of DSMC simulation of two‐dimensional micro channel flows in the “slip flow” and “transition flow” regimes.

Findings

Numerical results show that both the particle number per cell and the scaling factor have effect on the accuracy of the DSMC results from the statistical error and the physical aspects. In the “slip flow” regime, a larger value of scaling factor can be used to obtain accurate results as compared to the “transition flow” regime. However, in the “transition flow” regime, much less number of particles in each cell can be used to generate accurate DSMC results as compared to the “slip flow” regime.

Research limitations/implications

The present work is limited to the two‐dimensional case.

Practical implications

The results of this paper are very useful for the two‐dimensional micro flow simulation by DSMC.

Originality/value

The work in this paper is original and provides guidance on micro flow simulation.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 15 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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