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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Bhavana Jharia, S. Sarkar and R.P. Agarwal

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of scaling on the impact ionization and subthreshold current in submicron MOSFETs.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of scaling on the impact ionization and subthreshold current in submicron MOSFETs.

Design/methodology/approach

The effects of the various scaling techniques on a 100 nm device performances and the dependence of subthreshold current parameters on applied scaling technique are analyzed.

Findings

The results show that as the channel length is scaled down, multiplication factor increases slowly in the higher regime and rises rapidly in the lower regime of channel length. This result also justifies the inclusion of impact‐ionization effect on subthreshold current. The analysis shows that there is insignificant dependence of multiplication factor on the method of scaling. Similar variations in subthreshold current with channel length scaling have been observed in the analytical results for different scaling techniques.

Originality/value

The paper offers insight into the challenges of MOSFET scaling.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2021

Philippe Eiselein and Nikolay A. Dentchev

Purpose: This literature review aims to answer the calls for further exploration of scaling challenges and opportunities for social entrepreneurs (SEs). We address the…

Abstract

Purpose: This literature review aims to answer the calls for further exploration of scaling challenges and opportunities for social entrepreneurs (SEs). We address the scaling issue of social entrepreneurship through the theoretical lens of sustainable business models. Methodology: This paper investigates, on a multilevel approach, 340 journal articles published in one of the 20 peer-reviewed journals in management, entrepreneurship, CSR, organizational behavior, and nonprofit. It also considers influential articles due to their relatively high citation count (i.e., more than 150 times) outside of those selected journals. This paper furthermore analyses in-depth 32 scaling articles. Findings: This study positions the topics of social entrepreneurship over the last decades, together with the six types of scaling strategies: scaling up, scaling down, scaling across, scaling deep, scaling out, and diversification. It also discusses 15 challenges related to the scaling efforts by SEs. It furthermore elaborates on potential leads for research and practice regarding scaling social impact. Social Implications: There are many pathways for SEs to increase their impact on society, even though it remains quite challenging to achieve for most. Understanding what possibilities or limitations apply to individual SEs is but a first step in developing the full potential of social entrepreneurship. Originality: This paper approaches scaling from three complementary levels of analysis, i.e., individual, organizational, and institutional. Thus we provide more clarity and a nuanced perspective on past and future research regarding scaling challenges and opportunities.

Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2014

Christian Seelos and Johanna Mair

Social entrepreneurs create novel approaches to social problems such as poverty. But scaling these approaches to the dimension of the problem can be a difficult task. In…

Abstract

Purpose

Social entrepreneurs create novel approaches to social problems such as poverty. But scaling these approaches to the dimension of the problem can be a difficult task. In the social enterprise sector, the subject of scaling has become a key dimension of organizational performance. This chapter advances the scholarly literature on the scaling of social enterprises, a literature which is currently in an embryonic stage and characterized by conceptual ambiguity and fragmented perspectives.

Methodology/Approach

We engage realist philosophy of science to develop mechanism-based causal explanations of the scaling performance of social enterprises. We also develop a coding scheme to guide systematic empirical analysis and highlight the explanatory power of counterfactuals. Counterfactuals have been largely neglected in empirical research as they represent mechanisms that are enabled but remain unobservable – in a state of suppression or neutralization of their effects.

Findings

We question the ability of organizations to “socially engineer” desired outcomes and introduce a new construct – organizational closure competence. Anchored in realism, this construct provides a basis for productive approaches to social engineering. We elaborate on the importance of organizational closure competencies for scaling, derive a series of propositions, and develop ideas for future research and for practice.

Research, Practical and Social Implications

Applying a realist lens allows us to add empirical rigor to research on social enterprises and scaling. Our approach constitutes a move from rich narratives to causal models and informs the way we design and evaluate efforts to address important societal challenges.

Originality/Value of Chapter

This chapter demonstrates how to operationalize realist philosophy of science for causal explanations of complex social phenomena and better utilize its theoretical and practical value.

Details

Social Entrepreneurship and Research Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-141-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 March 2022

Argyrios Loukopoulos and Dimitra Papadimitriou

The repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic and the organizational scaling strategies of the social impact are still under-researched and remain one of the most significant…

Abstract

Purpose

The repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic and the organizational scaling strategies of the social impact are still under-researched and remain one of the most significant issues in the social entrepreneurship field, with scarce empirical research so far. This paper aims to present the organizational growth strategies that Greek social enterprises have used to scale their social impact during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on development studies, organization theory and social movement research, this study addresses how Greek social enterprises scale their social impact following organizational growth strategies during the pandemic, based on a sample of ten social enterprises and following a qualitative method approach through a multiple case study.

Findings

Results highlight that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the organizational scaling of social enterprises has supported social impact through expanding services, building new interorganizational collaborations and serving additional beneficiaries. Furthermore, new and viable growth strategies include advocacy-oriented scaling for resources and local and remote markets through prompt digitalization.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first systematic attempt to explore the organizational scaling strategies undertaken by Greek social enterprises in the context of the difficulties placed by the COVID-19 crisis. What emerged from this study was a new prominent organizational scaling strategy of the social enterprises’ social impact called strategic organizational change.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 January 2022

Juan Martin Ireta Sanchez

This multiple case study research aims to identify the characteristics of scaling up SMEs in Chile for exploring how and why some entrepreneurship in the information…

Abstract

Purpose

This multiple case study research aims to identify the characteristics of scaling up SMEs in Chile for exploring how and why some entrepreneurship in the information technology (IT) sector are able to scale up and develop sustainable strategies, based on three consecutive years. The average sales of the companies during the last period analysed was around US$1,323,579, with an average annual growth rate of 66.7%. Scaling up SMEs may require several attributes to achieve positive revenue and develop effective high growth rates that allow them to succeed over several years.

Design/methodology/approach

To discern the phenomenon of entrepreneurship, the methodology of multiple case study research was conducted in three parts. The first was to define and design the research process, in which the study should settle the theory analysis and then show that research propositions and questions. The second part of the research was to prepare, collect and analyse the data through crafting instruments and data collection protocols as a source of evidence to conduct the pilot and multiple case study. In this stage, interviews were scheduled, transcribed, analysed and coded to explore how individual attributes may create a scaling-up entrepreneurial process for maintaining or developing high performance in the IT sector. The last part of the research concludes and validates the research propositions for the identification for potential attributes, which were obtained during the qualitative study.

Findings

Attributes were selected when 13 or more SMEs reported the importance of this initiative for the process of scaling up their SMEs. As a result of the data analysis, the empirical findings suggest on the importance of the academic background, budgetary control, negative entrepreneurial experiences, building teams, geographical expansion and first critical experience as key attributes for scaling-up. Additionally, the data propose that constructive entrepreneurial ecosystem and reforms financing markets and programmes are two additional components that could moderate the interaction between the scaling-up process and the achievement of rapid sales results as a key outcome measure.

Research limitations/implications

The first limitation was the lack of consensus on the phenomenon of the scaling up of entrepreneurship. Information in Latin America and emerging countries is scarce, which also represents an opportunity for other researchers to deepen and validate the results reported here. Even though it was an attempt to understand the issue of environmental change, this additional limitation did not allow the evaluation of these adjustments over time that can positively or negatively drive the strategies corresponding to the evolution in each of the moderator variables.

Practical implications

Because of the characteristics of the sample in terms of size of the SMEs, industrial sector, location, culture, socio-economic environment and years of establishment of the company, the study cannot be generalised in terms of other industrial sectors or countries. The results of this research are also limited to SMEs in Chile, and to the extent that it can be applied to emerging countries IT sectors with similar sample characteristics, it must be done so with caution. Yin states that eight cases “are sufficient replications to convince the reader of a general phenomenon”.

Social implications

Policymakers have the option to identify what skills and knowledge the entrepreneur requires to be trained to scale up their established ventures. In this context, they will also benefit from the empirical contribution of knowing what the restrictions that limit this process are, such as adverse tax systems and public strategies. Additionally, it is of public interest because no national records exist on the presence of theoretical terms.

Originality/value

Even though the literature promotes the present findings, it shows that there is an absence of empirical evidence in emerging economies to better comprehend which factors may affect the development process of scaling up entrepreneurship in the IT sector. Both deliberate and emergent strategic initiatives are necessary for the scaling-up process where six critical factors are the basis of the scaling-up. This empirical contribution for entrepreneurs will support the achievement of rapid and sustained sales results for scaling up their ventures.

Article
Publication date: 10 February 2020

Ambuj Anand, Sanjiv D. Vaidya and Sanawi M. Sharahiley

Scaling is an important concern in the management of information systems projects. E-Government projects are no exception to the challenges of scaling. The problem is more…

Abstract

Purpose

Scaling is an important concern in the management of information systems projects. E-Government projects are no exception to the challenges of scaling. The problem is more severe because of a large and diverse population of target users and more crucial because of the vulnerability of the target population in case of failure of such initiatives (in projects, such as public distribution system of food). In spite of a significant awareness of its importance among implementers, scaling still remains a challenge. This paper aims to examine this important issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study method has been used to demonstrate the relationship between integration and scaling of e-Government projects. This study uses analytic generalization from field case as a method to theorize a broad framework for the integration of information and communications technology projects. The context of this study is an e-Government project in West Bengal, India. The selection of the case involved theoretical sampling apart from considerations for the possibility of access to the project and its appropriateness with respect to the topic under study.

Findings

Five different levels of integration in e-Government projects, namely, interface, data, electronic communication, application, and knowledge, have been identified. Further, it has been demonstrated that each of these integration mechanisms impacts scaling of e-Government projects. Also, the nature of the impact has been identified.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates the impact of integration on the scaling of e-Government projects. It analyzes the phenomenon of integration in terms of five different levels. All the levels of integration impact scaling of e-Government projects in different ways.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 September 2019

Stefan Kleinschmidt, Christoph Peters and Jan Marco Leimeister

While scaling is a viable approach to respond to growing demand, service providers in contact-intensive services (CIS) – such as education, healthcare and social services…

Abstract

Purpose

While scaling is a viable approach to respond to growing demand, service providers in contact-intensive services (CIS) – such as education, healthcare and social services – struggle to innovate their offerings. The reason is that the scaling of CIS – unlike purely digital settings – has resource limitations. To help ease the situation, the purpose of this paper is to identify and describe the practices used in scaling CIS to support ICT-enabled service innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The research draws on an in-depth analysis of three CIS to examine service innovation practices. The analysis informs model development for service scaling.

Findings

The analysis uncovers three practices for service scaling – service interaction analysis, service pivoting and service validation – and their related activities that are applied in a cyclic and iterative logic.

Research limitations/implications

While the findings reveal that the scalability of CIS is limited and determined by the formative characteristic of personal interaction, this study and its findings describe how to leverage scalability in CIS.

Practical implications

The insights into the practices enable service providers of CIS to iteratively revise their service offerings and the logic of creating value with the service.

Originality/value

This research identifies and describes for the first time the practices for the scaling of CIS as an operationalisation of ICT-enabled service innovation.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 December 2017

Laura Di Pietro, Bo Edvardsson, Javier Reynoso, Maria Francesca Renzi, Martina Toni and Roberta Guglielmetti Mugion

The purpose of this paper is to explore why innovative service ecosystems scale up, using a service-dominant logic lens. The focus is on identifying the key drivers of the…

2201

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore why innovative service ecosystems scale up, using a service-dominant logic lens. The focus is on identifying the key drivers of the scaling-up process as the basis for a new conceptual framework on the scaling up of service innovations.

Design/methodology/approach

An inductive research design is used to zoom in on two innovative service ecosystems, Eataly and KidZania, to identify the key drivers that can explain why innovations scale up. For both companies, the triangulation of semi-structured interviews, archival sources and in-store observations is used as complementary data sets. Multiple investigators and multiple coders have been involved in the data collection, coding process and analysis.

Findings

An extended conceptualization of service innovation is obtained, grounded in a framework of four drivers of scaling up: effectuation as the basis for creating the value proposition; sensing and adapting to local contexts; the reconfiguration and alignment of resources and forms for collaboration between actors; and values’ resonance.

Originality/value

This study represents one of the first empirical investigations of the key drivers of the scaling up process of service innovations. The paper contributes with a conceptualization of service innovation and why scaling-up processes emerge, emphasizing the existence of multiple constellations of four drivers.

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2018

Hannah Vaughan-Lee, Lezlie Caro Moriniere, Isabelle Bremaud and Marilise Turnbull

Despite increased attention to, and investment in, scaling up of disaster risk reduction (DRR), there has been little detailed discussion of scalability. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite increased attention to, and investment in, scaling up of disaster risk reduction (DRR), there has been little detailed discussion of scalability. The purpose of this paper is to respond to this critical gap by proposing a definition of scaling up for DRR, what effective scaling up entails, and how to measure and plan for scalability.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review of debates, case studies and good practices in DRR and parallel sectors (i.e. education, health and the wider development field) unveiled and enabled the weighting of key concepts that inform scalability. The mixed methods research then developed, validated and employed a scalability assessment framework to examine 20 DRR and five non-DRR initiatives for which a minimum set of evidence was accessible.

Findings

Support from national, regional and/or local authorities strongly influenced the scalability of all initiatives assessed. Currently, insufficient to support effective scaling up, monitoring and evaluation were also found to be critical to both identify potential for and measure scalability.

Originality/value

The paper ends with a scalability assessment and planning tool to measure and monitor the scalability potential of DRR initiatives, highlighting areas for corrective action that can improve the quality and effectiveness of DRR interventions.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

C. Shu, X.H. Mao and Y.T. Chew

This paper aims to give some guidance on the selection of particle numbers per cell and the number of molecules per particle in the micro flow simulation by using DSMC method.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to give some guidance on the selection of particle numbers per cell and the number of molecules per particle in the micro flow simulation by using DSMC method.

Design/methodology/approach

The numerical investigation is performed to study the effects of particle number per cell and the scaling factor of real molecules to a simulated particle on accuracy of DSMC simulation of two‐dimensional micro channel flows in the “slip flow” and “transition flow” regimes.

Findings

Numerical results show that both the particle number per cell and the scaling factor have effect on the accuracy of the DSMC results from the statistical error and the physical aspects. In the “slip flow” regime, a larger value of scaling factor can be used to obtain accurate results as compared to the “transition flow” regime. However, in the “transition flow” regime, much less number of particles in each cell can be used to generate accurate DSMC results as compared to the “slip flow” regime.

Research limitations/implications

The present work is limited to the two‐dimensional case.

Practical implications

The results of this paper are very useful for the two‐dimensional micro flow simulation by DSMC.

Originality/value

The work in this paper is original and provides guidance on micro flow simulation.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 15 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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