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Book part
Publication date: 30 October 2020

Carlo Zappia

This chapter documents an exchange between Leonard Savage, founder of the subjective probability approach to decision-making, and Karl Popper, advocate of the so-called…

Abstract

This chapter documents an exchange between Leonard Savage, founder of the subjective probability approach to decision-making, and Karl Popper, advocate of the so-called propensity approach to probability, of which there is no knowledge in the literature on probability theory. Early in 1958, just after being informally tested by Daniel Ellsberg with a test of consistency in decision-making processes that originated the so-called Ellsberg Paradox, Savage was made aware that a similar argument had been put forward by Popper. Popper found it paradoxical that two apparently similar events should be attributed the same subjective probability even though evidence supporting judgment in one case was different than in the other case. On this ground, Popper rejected the subjective probability approach. Inspection of the Savage Papers archived at Yale University Library makes it possible to document Savage’s reaction to Popper, of which there is no evidence in his published writings. Savage wrote to Popper denying that his criticism had paradoxical content and a brief exchange followed. The chapter shows that while Savage was unconvinced by Popper’s argument he was not hostile to an axiomatically founded generalization of his theory.

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Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology: Including a Symposium on Sir James Steuart: The Political Economy of Money and Trade
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-707-7

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Joseph G. Eisenhauer

Some labor supply curves exhibit inflection points at which they bend backward or fall forward; thus, some workers alternate between increasing and decreasing their labor…

Abstract

Purpose

Some labor supply curves exhibit inflection points at which they bend backward or fall forward; thus, some workers alternate between increasing and decreasing their labor hours as wages increase. No consensus has yet been reached on the underlying motive for such behavioral inconsistencies. This paper aims to develop a unified theory to explain each of these variations in labor supply.

Design/methodology/approach

The author employs a simple model of labor supply with additively separable utility over income and leisure. The sub-utility function for income is of the Friedman-Savage type, exhibiting preferences that alternate between increasing and diminishing marginal utility of income.

Findings

Labor supply curves slope downward where relative risk aversion is strong, and upward where relative risk aversion is weak or negative. Thus, utility functions with inflection points can form the basis of labor supply curves with inflection points.

Research limitations/implications

Friedman-Savage utility can explain virtually any observed labor supply functions, including convex, backward-bending, forward-falling, and inverted-S curves.

Practical implications

Inflection points on the labor supply curve can create multiple and unstable market equilibria. Labor-market policies, including legislation pertaining to minimum wages and collective bargaining, and policies to enhance education and economic security, may reduce aversion to risk and thereby decrease the prevalence of unstable equilibria.

Originality/value

This paper unites two lines of research – labor supply and Friedman-Savage utility – which have, rather remarkably, been separate to date. In doing so, it provides a new application of the classic Friedman-Savage paradigm, and a new explanation of labor supply curves with negatively-sloped regions.

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Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 27 February 2009

Haim Hazan

Old age, in its most intense and extreme aspects involving frailty, dementia, Alzheimer's and death, is more often ignored rather than discussed in contemporary…

Abstract

Purpose

Old age, in its most intense and extreme aspects involving frailty, dementia, Alzheimer's and death, is more often ignored rather than discussed in contemporary anthropology, remaining largely inaudible and invisible. This paper explores the marginal position of the study of old age in contemporary anthropology against the backdrop of the prominence of the post‐colonial agenda. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the comparison between the neglected Third Age and the abundantly discussed Third World in the context of the anthropological discourse on others.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a theoretical paper on ageing.

Findings

This paper explores the marginal position of the study of old age in contemporary anthropology against the backdrop of the prominence of the post‐colonial agenda. The comparison between the neglected Third Age and the abundantly discussed Third World is discussed in the context of the anthropological discourse on others. Studying the old‐as‐other reveals two types of alterity: that which is culturally constructed as different vs that which is essentially different. The others that dominate the agenda of contemporary anthropology are culturally constructed, while the old‐as‐other is an ontological essence. The condition of being old, it is argued, is essentially beyond culture, constituting an extra‐cultural materiality. As such, the old‐as‐other does not answer to the anthropological dictum of representing the “natives' point of view” and cannot fit the contemporary hermeneutics of anthropological relativism. Contemporary anthropology, which resists essential objects such as the savage and the old, thus ignores the raw materiality of old age while producing ethnographically‐informed commentaries on eldercare.

Originality/value

The paper is original in highlighting the juxtaposition between the savage and old age that is used to facilitate an understanding of the contemporary discipline of anthropology as a regime of social constructionism, which fails to confront and represent the bare materiality of old age.

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 29 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 31 March 2010

David Prochaska

This chapter is an exercise in speaking, letting individuals speak for themselves insofar as possible. As Marx famously put it, “they cannot represent themselves, they…

Abstract

This chapter is an exercise in speaking, letting individuals speak for themselves insofar as possible. As Marx famously put it, “they cannot represent themselves, they must be represented.” The “they” were peasants, potato farmers in 1840s France, and by extension peasants, workers, and other lower class groups, not to mention women and minorities who rarely made it into the historical record, and even more rarely in their own words. To give “voice to the voiceless,” as the now old new social historians of the 1960s and 1970s put it, I consciously include here numerous speakers, arranged in two sets of different voices: quotes in the text and endnotes to further document and amplify points. With this plethora of voices, the aim is not to complicate but to speak clearly, listen carefully, and engage respectfully. To multiply the speakers speaking is the single best way to make two primary points concerning what is most important about the Chief Illiniwek mascot controversy: that the sheer number of individuals speaking out is in itself significant, and that this community colloquy all comes down to identity – who we are, individual identity, communal identity.

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Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-961-9

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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2014

Scott V. Savage, David Melamed and Aaron Vincent

This study examines how the distribution of opinions and social status combine in a collectively oriented task group to affect perceptions about the correctness of a final…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines how the distribution of opinions and social status combine in a collectively oriented task group to affect perceptions about the correctness of a final decision.

Design/methodology/approach

We relied on data from a controlled laboratory experiment to test a series of theoretically derived hypotheses.

Findings

The study shows that both the distribution of opinions and status affect perceptions of correctness. It also establishes that the effects of status on uncertainty are strongest when the group is initially evenly split about the correctness of an opinion, and that like the distribution of opinions, the effects of status on uncertainty are curvilinear.

Research limitations/implications

Previous research shows that by integrating research on faction sizes with status characteristics theory (SCT), more accurate predictions of social influence are possible. Assumed therein is that people use information about the distribution of opinions and status to reduce uncertainty about correctness of a choice. The current study establishes this point empirically by examining the effects of the distribution of opinions and status in a four-person, collectively oriented task group. Future research should consider groups of different sizes and other moderating factors.

Originality/value

This study advances and elaborates upon previous research on social influence that integrates research on faction sizes with SCT.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-976-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Hiroaki Seto

Savage concentrated on building a small world, which is not a probabilistic, but the definite world, in which sure‐thing principle works. He reached Kullback‐Leibler’s…

Abstract

Savage concentrated on building a small world, which is not a probabilistic, but the definite world, in which sure‐thing principle works. He reached Kullback‐Leibler’s information through Bayes’ theorem, in which he intends to improve personal probability as the a posteriori probability. However, he stopped his thinking there. Akaike obtained Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) by starting from the K‐L information. AIC enables us to evaluate which model is the closest to the true value which we cannot recognise. If we call the context of sure‐thing principle personal probability, Bayes’ theorem and AIC the logical structure of information, the author thinks we have the same structure in relation to the Japanese production and distribution system.

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Logistics Information Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6053

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1950

L.R.

In our Spring number we published an article by Dr. E. A. Savage under the above title. The following comments are to hand from Mr. White of Wallasey and Mr. Kemp of…

Abstract

In our Spring number we published an article by Dr. E. A. Savage under the above title. The following comments are to hand from Mr. White of Wallasey and Mr. Kemp of Princeton Street College. Dr. Savage's reply is appended to the correspondence.

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Library Review, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1966

IT IS WITH DEEP REGRET that we record the death on Friday, 4 February 1966, of Dr Ernest A. Savage, Principal Librarian of Edinburgh Public Libraries from 1922 to 1942…

Abstract

IT IS WITH DEEP REGRET that we record the death on Friday, 4 February 1966, of Dr Ernest A. Savage, Principal Librarian of Edinburgh Public Libraries from 1922 to 1942, President of the Scottish Library Association from 1929 to 1931, and President of the Library Association in 1936.

Details

Library Review, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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Book part
Publication date: 30 October 2009

Debra Merskin

During early childhood, Indians and non-Indians learn a definition of “Indianness” (Merskin, 1998, p. 159). Around 18 months of age, human beings begin to recognize…

Abstract

During early childhood, Indians and non-Indians learn a definition of “Indianness” (Merskin, 1998, p. 159). Around 18 months of age, human beings begin to recognize themselves as distinct and separate from their mothers and others (Lacan, 1977). By age 6, most attributes of personality formation are already established (Biber, 1984). The content of the information that consciously and unconsciously reaches children is critical for the formation of a healthy, grounded sense of self and respect for others. Today, in the absence of personal interaction with an indigenous person, non-Indian perceptions inevitably come from other sources. These mental images, the “pictures in our heads” as Lippmann (1922/1961, p. 33) calls them, come from parents, teachers, textbooks, movies, television programs, cartoons, songs, commercials, art, and product logos. American Indian images, music, and names have, since the beginning of the 20th century, been incorporated into many American advertising campaigns and marketing efforts, demarcating and consuming Indian as exotic “Other” in the popular imagination (Merskin, 1998). Whereas a century ago sheet music covers and patent medicine bottles featured “coppery, feather-topped visage of the Indian” (Larson, 1937, p. 338), today's Land O’ Lake's butter boxes display a doe-eyed, buckskin-clad Indian “princess.” The fact that there never were Indian “princesses” (a European concept), and most Indians do not have the kind of European features and social “availability” that trade characters do, goes largely unquestioned. These stereotypes are pervasive, but not necessarily consistent, varying over time and place from the “artificially idealistic” (noble savage) to images of “mystical environmentalists or uneducated, alcoholic bingo-players confined to reservations” (Mihesuah, 1996, p. 9). Today, a trip down the grocery store aisle still reveals ice cream bars, beef jerky, corn meal, baking powder, malt liquor, butter, honey, sugar, sour cream, chewing tobacco packages, and a plethora of other products emblazoned with images of American Indians. To discern how labels on products and brand names reinforce long-held stereotypical beliefs, we must consider embedded ideological beliefs that perpetuate and reinforce this process.

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Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-785-7

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Abstract

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Advances in Accounting Education Teaching and Curriculum Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-035-7

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