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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2019

Khee Giap Tan, Sasidaran Gopalan and Jigyasa Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of real effective exchange rates (REER), both in terms of levels and volatility, on the export performance of India’s…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of real effective exchange rates (REER), both in terms of levels and volatility, on the export performance of India’s sub-national economies, given the recent slowdown in India’s exports.

Design/methodology/approach

India’s export distribution is highly asymmetric, with 90 percent of India’s exports concentrated in 11 sub-national economies. Exploiting this concentration, this paper constructs a panel data set using available data between 2002 and 2014 to understand the relationship between REER and exports from the top exporting cluster. Moreover, the paper constructs a sub-national competitiveness index to capture the supply capacity of the states.

Findings

The empirical findings of this paper reveal that a higher REER volatility deters exports and movements in REER do not matter as much as volatility. The most significant finding of the paper is that state competitiveness is the most crucial factor affecting trade. Therefore, policy makers at the state level must lay more emphasis on the supply side such as addressing logistical bottlenecks to help revive exports growth.

Originality/value

This study makes a departure from the plethora of extant aggregate-level studies by examining the relationship between REER and exports at the sub-national level for India. Considering the highly skewed distribution of India’s exports, the study provides important insights into the exporting patterns and determinants that are at play at the sub-national level.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2018

Khee Giap Tan, Sasidaran Gopalan and Will Nguyen

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature by introducing a novel index that measures ease of doing business (EDB) at the sub-national level. The authors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature by introducing a novel index that measures ease of doing business (EDB) at the sub-national level. The authors provide a comprehensive assessment of both de jure and de facto business conditions in 21 sub-national economies of India, with the help of a holistic framework that encompasses indicators capturing Attractiveness to Investors, Business Friendliness and Competitive Policies (ABC), the three broad environments that constitute the EDB–ABC index.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors’ index EDB–ABC index is constructed using 81 indicators. The index values reported are standardized scores and the framework is applied to 21 Indian sub-national economies. The bottom-up approach takes into account the various operational issues that firms face at the ground level, with the emphasis being on de facto issues. A unique feature of the index is its emphasis on collecting extensive survey data at the sub-national level, given that several constraints that businesses face lie under the purview of the sub-national governments. It also combines publicly available macroeconomic data through formal statistical publications.

Findings

The findings suggest a positive association between the proposed EDB–ABC index and competitiveness of as well as investments into Indian sub-national economies. In terms of explanatory power, the authors find that indicators capturing attractiveness to investors and business friendliness which are representative of de facto implementation issues at the sub-national matter more than de jure competitive policies. It is also striking that the results are in stark contrast to the existing doing business studies highlighting the importance of the comprehensiveness of the index.

Originality/value

Easing the impediments to doing business is a pre-requisite to enhance both domestic as well as foreign investments. Existing indicators on doing business provide an incomplete picture about the prevailing business conditions as the basis for such rankings are de jure regulations and not de facto. The authors depart from this tradition by dealing with both de jure and de facto business conditions using a combination of primary and secondary data at the sub-national level in India.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Sasidaran Gopalan, Rabin Hattari and Ramkishen S. Rajan

This paper aims to examine the dynamics of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows into Indonesia. It is interested specifically in analysing and deliberating on two…

5324

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the dynamics of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows into Indonesia. It is interested specifically in analysing and deliberating on two important policy questions: First, are all kinds of FDI useful from a policy perspective and what does the existing data on FDI reveal about the type of FDI inflows into Indonesia? Second, does the existing data help understand the extent of de facto bilateral linkages between Indonesia and other countries?

Design/methodology/approach

The paper offers an in-depth case study of Indonesia using extensive exploratory data analysis on FDI inflows into Indonesia. As discussed in the paper, the data investigation uses and reconciles available FDI data both from national and international sources to understand the usefulness of such data for policy analysis.

Findings

A data investigation of the trends in different types of FDI flows reveals a discernible downward trend in the ratio of mergers and acquisitions (M&A)–FDI ratio over the years. The paper argues that from a sequencing perspective, while a medium-to-long-term framework encouraging both domestic and foreign Greenfield investments could help Indonesia regain its growth luster, in the near term much more attention needs to be paid to FDI inflows in the form of M&As. Further, reconciling FDI and M&A data might help identify the original sources of FDI flows because existing data are based on flow of funds rather than ultimate ownership.

Practical implications

Since the Asian financial crisis, Indonesia has successfully embarked on a phase of economic and political transition post-Suharto, with the cornerstones of such a strategy being a process of greater democratisation and decentralisation. However, there have been growing concerns of economic growth stagnation in recent years. One of the policies to revive the economy’s lustre adopted by the government has been to attract greater FDI inflows. In this light, this paper examines the dynamics of FDI into Indonesia and deliberates on what kinds of FDI policymakers should focus on attracting to restore the country’s growth lustre.

Originality/value

The question of whether a policy to attract FDI should be careful in distinguishing the kind of FDI it wants to attract has not been sufficiently addressed in the related literature. This paper provides a framework to understand the different macroeconomic policy implications of types of FDI and provides extensive data analysis to not only understand the types of FDI but also sources of bilateral FDI inflows to Indonesia by reconciling FDI and M&A data.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Kenneth A. Reinert

The purpose of this paper is to develop a formal representation of the imperfect substitutes model (ISM) of partial equilibrium, trade policy analysis and to conduct…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a formal representation of the imperfect substitutes model (ISM) of partial equilibrium, trade policy analysis and to conduct sensitivity analysis on the behavioral parameters of the model.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper develops an ISM in a manner that is conformable to more complex, applied general equilibrium models of trade policy analysis.

Findings

The paper presents a set of sensitivity analyses on key behavioral parameters for a better understanding of the model's properties.

Research limitations/implications

Sensitivity analysis on the values of behavioral parameters in ISMs needs to be conducted by trade policy modelers.

Practical implications

The ISM is made more explicit here than in most representations, something that will be of great use to practitioners.

Originality/value

While widely used in trade policy circles, the ISM is rarely explicitly formulated, nor the role of its behavioral parameters explored.

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