The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors associated with three modes of firms’ exit (voluntary liquidation, involuntary liquidation and acquisition) in a…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors associated with three modes of firms’ exit (voluntary liquidation, involuntary liquidation and acquisition) in a mutually exclusive environment. In particular, three modes of exit are treated as independent events given that different causes and consequences exist for each exit mode. The data set is a panel of 4,408 US manufacturing firms spanning over the period 1976–1995.
The discrete choice model is used to establish a relationship between modes of exit and a set of explanatory variables, which are specific to the firm, industry and macroeconomic conditions. Use of panel data encourages us to estimate a random effects multinomial logistic regression model, which allows exit modes as mutually exclusive events and at the same time controls the firm-specific unobserved heterogeneity in the sample.
The analysis suggests that the determinants of voluntary liquidation are age, size, profitability, technology intensity and inflation level. The determinants of involuntary liquidation are size, leverage, profitability and inflation level. For acquisition, determinants are age, size, advertising intensity, Tobin’s q, GDP growth, inflation level and interest rate. The findings suggest that exit modes have a different set of determinants and the scale of effects of some common determinants such as age, size and profitability differs between exit modes.
The analysis presented in this study relies on data from US manufacturing firms only. Thus, there is a need to explore the determinants of exit modes in other countries as well using the proposed econometric model.
The findings presented in this paper are useful for managers and policymakers to design strategies/actions for avoiding particular mode of exit.
This study provides empirical evidence on the differences in factors associated with exit modes and confirms the existence of mutually exclusive nature of exit modes. Findings suggest that for future empirical studies on firm exit, the exit modes must be treated as a heterogeneous event.
The purpose of this study is to examine the firms’ determinants of being acquired in Indian manufacturing sector. There is evidence of relationship between likelihood of…
The purpose of this study is to examine the firms’ determinants of being acquired in Indian manufacturing sector. There is evidence of relationship between likelihood of being acquired and several firm specific characteristics such as age, size, research and development (R&D), advertising intensity, productivity, leverage, profitability, intangible assets and financial constraints. However, little is known about the association between these characteristics and likelihood of acquisition in Indian manufacturing sector.
The sample is a panel of 2,189 Indian manufacturing firms spanning almost 10 years (1998-2007). Random effects logistic (REL) regression model is adopted to control the firm specific unobserved heterogeneity in the sample. This is an essential requirement for providing accurate and effective determinants of being acquired.
Empirical results reveal that the determinants of being acquired in Indian manufacturing sector are age, size, R&D intensity, advertising intensity, productivity and leverage. The findings indicate that increase in firms’ age, size, R&D intensity and advertising intensity increases the likelihood of being acquired. However, increase in productivity and leverage decreases the likelihood of being acquired.
Findings of this study may be useful for potential targets to arrive at more thoughtful assessment of their attractiveness and, accordingly, promote their acquisition as a more efficient mode of exit.
The paper contributes some empirical evidence on the determinants of being acquired in Indian manufacturing sector by using panel data and REL regression model.