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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Cyrus Ahalt, Craig Haney, Sarah Rios, Matthew P. Fox, David Farabee and Brie Williams

Although the reform of solitary confinement is underway in many jurisdictions around world, isolation remains in widespread use in many jails and prisons. The purpose of…

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Abstract

Purpose

Although the reform of solitary confinement is underway in many jurisdictions around world, isolation remains in widespread use in many jails and prisons. The purpose of this paper is to discuss opportunities for reform in the USA that could also be applied globally.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the evidence on solitary confinement policies and practices in the USA to develop recommendations for reform with global application.

Findings

Focusing on this evidence, the authors argue that solitary confinement is overused and recommend a multi-level approach available to correctional systems worldwide including: immediately limiting solitary confinement to only those cases in which a violent behavioral infraction has been committed for which safety cannot otherwise be achieved, ensuring the briefest terms of isolation needed to achieve legitimate and immediate correctional goals, prohibiting its use entirely for some populations, regularly reviewing all isolated prisoners for as-soon-as-possible return to general population, including the immediate return of those showing mental and physical health risk factors, assisting individuals who are transitioning out of isolation (either to the general population or to the community), and partnering with medical, public health, and criminal justice experts to develop evidence-based alternatives to solitary confinement for nearly all prisoners.

Originality/value

This paper provides an overview of the evidence supporting an overhaul of solitary confinement policy in the USA and globally where solitary confinement remains in wide use and offers recommendations for immediate steps that can be taken toward achieving evidence-based solitary confinement reform.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2020

Bojan Bozic, Andre Rios and Sarah Jane Delany

This paper aims to investigate the methods for the prediction of tags on a textual corpus that describes diverse data sets based on short messages; as an example, the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the methods for the prediction of tags on a textual corpus that describes diverse data sets based on short messages; as an example, the authors demonstrate the usage of methods based on hotel staff inputs in a ticketing system as well as the publicly available StackOverflow corpus. The aim is to improve the tagging process and find the most suitable method for suggesting tags for a new text entry.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper consists of two parts: exploration of existing sample data, which includes statistical analysis and visualisation of the data to provide an overview, and evaluation of tag prediction approaches. The authors have included different approaches from different research fields to cover a broad spectrum of possible solutions. As a result, the authors have tested a machine learning model for multi-label classification (using gradient boosting), a statistical approach (using frequency heuristics) and three similarity-based classification approaches (nearest centroid, k-nearest neighbours (k-NN) and naive Bayes). The experiment that compares the approaches uses recall to measure the quality of results. Finally, the authors provide a recommendation of the modelling approach that produces the best accuracy in terms of tag prediction on the sample data.

Findings

The authors have calculated the performance of each method against the test data set by measuring recall. The authors show recall for each method with different features (except for frequency heuristics, which does not provide the option to add additional features) for the dmbook pro and StackOverflow data sets. k-NN clearly provides the best recall. As k-NN turned out to provide the best results, the authors have performed further experiments with values of k from 1–10. This helped us to observe the impact of the number of neighbours used on the performance and to identify the best value for k.

Originality/value

The value and originality of the paper are given by extensive experiments with several methods from different domains. The authors have used probabilistic methods, such as naive Bayes, statistical methods, such as frequency heuristics, and similarity approaches, such as k-NN. Furthermore, the authors have produced results on an industrial-scale data set that has been provided by a company and used directly in their project, as well as a community-based data set with a large amount of data and dimensionality. The study results can be used to select a model based on diverse corpora for a specific use case, taking into account advantages and disadvantages when applying the model to your data.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

Keyur Shah and Brian H. Kleiner

Outlines the eligibility criteria within the California Family Rights Act, before considering the rights to which eligible individuals are entitled. Suggests that…

Abstract

Outlines the eligibility criteria within the California Family Rights Act, before considering the rights to which eligible individuals are entitled. Suggests that employers must keep themselves informed regarding eligibility and what constitutes a serious health condition. Concludes that failure to do so could result in an employee seeking civil action with unlimited compensatory damages for emotional injury and punitive damages.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 20 no. 5/6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2011

Laura Colt

Using netnography, this report analyzes travel blogs to show the take-away impressions of first-time visitors to three South American cities: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil…

Abstract

Using netnography, this report analyzes travel blogs to show the take-away impressions of first-time visitors to three South American cities: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Santiago, Chile. Visitors recount their travel experiences according to the kernel myths of the respective city (Holt, 2003). The report includes concept maps using Heider's (1958) balance theory for each positive and negative blog to decode the visitor's relationship to a particular iconic myth. Furthermore, the study describes the role of storytelling (McKee, 2003) in marketing for destination brand experiences.

Details

Tourism Sensemaking: Strategies to Give Meaning to Experience
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-853-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 6 August 2020

Bárbara Schausteck de Almeida and Wanderley Marchi Júnior

Purpose – To outline the arguments and consequent legislation that prohibited and then allowed alcohol consumption by fans in Brazilian sports arenas since 1996.…

Abstract

Purpose – To outline the arguments and consequent legislation that prohibited and then allowed alcohol consumption by fans in Brazilian sports arenas since 1996.

Design/methodology/approach – We present the social and political debates regarding alcohol consumption by sports fans having the Brazilian legislation as a starting point and using the multiple streams framework (Kingdon, 1995). We identify the problems, policies and politics streams on three phases: the prohibition of sale and consumption of alcohol in sport stadiums, the exceptional allowance for the 2014 FIFA World Cup and its consequences on state laws five years after the 2014 event.

Findings – Violence among football supporters was the focal event to approve laws prohibiting alcohol consumption in sports arenas. For the 2014 FIFA World Cup, the sport governing body demanded the opposite, so Brazil and some states approved an exception to their laws. Since then, states see an opportunity to allow the sale and consumption of alcohol in and around the stadiums, questioning the relationship between alcohol and violence. These state laws are under examination by the Supreme Court because they may counteract a national law.

Research limitations/implications – Public safety is the key justification to uphold the laws, but a lack of empirical data and research delimit the arguments on how beneficial alcohol prohibition is to suppress supporters' violence. Lawmakers and groups of interest may also include beer industry lobbying strategies and health-related issues as relevant variables in the debate, although they are not discussed in this chapter.

Details

Sport, Alcohol and Social Inquiry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-842-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2020

Michael A. Abebe, Sarah Kimakwa and Tammi Redd

This paper contributes to research in social entrepreneurship by introducing a typology that describes four distinct types of social entrepreneurs based on the nature of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper contributes to research in social entrepreneurship by introducing a typology that describes four distinct types of social entrepreneurs based on the nature of their lives and career experiences and the scope of their social engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to build a typology of social entrepreneurs, inductive profile analysis and archival research design approaches were used. A large variety of social entrepreneur profiles that are available in prominent social entrepreneurship organizations such as Ashoka Foundation, Echoing Green, Schwab Foundation and Skoll Foundation were examined.

Findings

Using four types of social entrepreneurs from the typology, the authors developed a number of predictions as to how social entrepreneurs with an activist background may benefit more in the short term but possibly struggle in the long term given their attachment to their venture's “original” cause and lack of corporate/business experience.

Originality/value

By developing a typology of social entrepreneurs and discussing the implications of this typology for post-launch social venture performance, the paper advances the current understanding of social entrepreneurs and the performance of their ventures. Additionally, by focusing on social entrepreneurs as agents of social change, this paper sheds some light on who these entrepreneurs are, what kind of life and career experiences they had and what motivates them to engage in social entrepreneurship.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Sarah Hemstock, Siu Fanga Jione, Mark Charlesworth and Patrina Dumaru

A review of the global policy environment for climate change and sustainable development education is contextualised with a case study from the Pacific region. The case…

Abstract

A review of the global policy environment for climate change and sustainable development education is contextualised with a case study from the Pacific region. The case study details how Pacific Island nations have opted for a regional education response to improve their prospects of adapting to climate change – their most pressing contemporary issue. The case study then details what this means in practice using bottom-up examples of successful disaster risk reduction in Tuvalu and Fasi village, Tonga, led by Anglican youth.

Abstract

Details

Women in Leadership 2nd Edition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-064-8

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2022

Bernice Lee, Katherine Liu, Tyler Samuel Warnock, Minji Olivia Kim and Sarah Skett

Higher education institutions (HEI) play a critical role in developing student leaders equipped with the skills and knowledge needed to mobilize societal changes that the…

Abstract

Purpose

Higher education institutions (HEI) play a critical role in developing student leaders equipped with the skills and knowledge needed to mobilize societal changes that the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for. To broaden this understanding, this study aimed to engage with student leaders of a grassroots, student-led initiative at the University of Calgary, the Sustainable Development Goals Alliance (SDGA), to better understand the experience of students who took on leadership roles in organizing SDG engagement activities.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative thematic analysis was used to understand the experiences of 12 student leaders involved in SDG programming. Semi-structured interviews asked participants to reflect on their key learnings, skills development and overall student’s experiences of leaders involved in SDG programming. Thematic analysis was applied to determine emerging themes.

Findings

Analyses showed that taking a leadership role in the SDGA empowered students to deepen their engagement with the SDGs and overcome barriers such as lack of knowledge and feelings of powerlessness. Secondary findings showed that community-building, flexibility and a sense of ownership were key strengths of the program and contributed toward student leaders’ feelings of hopefulness, self-confidence and inspiration.

Originality/value

This work offers a window into the experiences of student leaders who have worked to advance SDG engagement within their institution. Our findings suggest that student-led initiatives represent untapped potential for HEIs to prioritize and support to help deliver on their SDG implementation and engagement efforts. As HEIs offer a vital space for innovation, policy and capacity building towards implementation of the SDGs, this work demonstrates how student leadership can yield grassroots influence on HEI commitments and responses to the needs of students.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2017

Fausto Martin De Sanctis

Given its social importance, Sport (especially Football), which has experienced an astounding transformation into a global industry with significant economic impact, has…

Abstract

Given its social importance, Sport (especially Football), which has experienced an astounding transformation into a global industry with significant economic impact, has been a vehicle for the transmission of cultural and universal values. Its structural complexity (players, transfer agents, clubs and its owners, right holders of different contracts) creates a lot of moving parts that can easily hide illicit activity, especially because this structure incorporates the international market. The movement of large amounts of money, the difficulty in accounting for all transactions, and ironically, the clubs’ own financial needs increase this sector’s vulnerability to organized crime. For many years, this sector has had a relatively free hand in its efforts to make criminal assets legal. This is made possible by some ineffectiveness of current national and international laws and enforcement bodies, which have not kept pace with the changing situation. It is already known that sport historically has been used as a tool for enrichment of a specific group of companies, an issue deserving of public concern. This chapter argues for a sensitive situation involving the actors of the public and private sectors, notably its regulations, in order to curb corruption and money laundering through sport. The purpose is to address these matters by identifying the risks of misconduct within sport organizations, and proposing measures that could prevent, hamper, and punish any attempts to thwart these organizations’ main goal: promoting sport as a way for cultural improvement and teaching people the values of tolerance and civilized coexistence.

Details

The Handbook of Business and Corruption
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-445-7

Keywords

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