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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2021

Sarah Gardiner and Alexandra Bec

This study aims to explore the evolution of the culture agapic (personal) gift-giving with the advent of new online gifting platforms that provide the opportunity to gift…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the evolution of the culture agapic (personal) gift-giving with the advent of new online gifting platforms that provide the opportunity to gift tourism experiences. This study investigates this well-established cultural behavior in view of this new form of social exchange.

Design/methodology/approach

Focus group interviews with two key target markets – mothers and couples/singles – were conducted (N = 39). Interview questions focused on understanding gifting using online platforms, sharing the experience and the role of various parties in the exchange.

Findings

This study reveals that experiential tourism gifts differ from physical gifts because they offer novelty and symbolic value, heighten positive emotions and have the potential to create lifelong memories for recipients. However, giving an experiential gift can also be a risky option because of the uncertainty of getting the gift–recipient identity match correct, particularly for adventure tourism gifts. The identity of the gift-giver is also considered in gift selection as the experience selected is a reflection of self.

Practical implications

It is recommended that online experiential gifting platforms pay attention to both the identity of the gift-giver and gift-recipient. Sharing the experience through social media posts can reinforce both parties’ social identity, create a positive social exchange and may motivate repeat purchase.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to uncover the motivational factors of online tourism experiential gifting as part of the culture of gift-giving and the parties in this exchange. The findings advance theoretical understanding of this new form of social exchange.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Liubov Skavronskaya, Noel Scott, Brent Moyle, Dung Le, Arghavan Hadinejad, Rui Zhang, Sarah Gardiner, Alexandra Coghlan and Aishath Shakeela

This review aims to discuss concepts and theories from cognitive psychology, identifies tourism studies applying them and discusses key areas for future research. The…

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2087

Abstract

Purpose

This review aims to discuss concepts and theories from cognitive psychology, identifies tourism studies applying them and discusses key areas for future research. The paper aims to demonstrate the usefulness of cognitive psychology for understanding why tourists and particularly pleasure travellers demonstrate the behaviour they exhibit.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews 165 papers from the cognitive psychology and literature regarding pleasure travel related to consciousness, mindfulness, flow, retrospection, prospection, attention, schema and memory, feelings and emotions. The papers are chosen to demonstrate the state of the art of the literature and provide guidance on how these concepts are vital for further research.

Findings

The paper demonstrates that research has favoured a behaviourist rather than cognitive approach to the study of hedonic travel. Cognitive psychology can help to understand the mental processes connecting perception of stimuli with behaviour. Numerous examples are provided: top-down and bottom-up attention processes help to understand advertising effectiveness, theories of consciousness and memory processes help to distinguish between lived and recalled experience, cognitive appraisal theory predicts the emotion elicited based on a small number of appraisal dimensions such as surprise and goals, knowledge of the mental organisation of autobiographical memory and schema support understanding of destination image formation and change and the effect of storytelling on decision-making, reconstructive bias in prospection or retrospection about a holiday inform the study of pleasurable experience. These findings indicate need for further cognitive psychology research in tourism generally and studies of holiday travel experiences.

Research limitations/implications

This review is limited to cognitive psychology and excludes psychoanalytic studies.

Practical implications

Cognitive psychology provides insight into key areas of practical importance. In general, the use of a cognitive approach allows further understanding of leisure tourists’ behaviour. The concept of attention is vital to understand destination advertising effectiveness, biases in memory process help to understand visitor satisfaction and experience design and so on. Use of cognitive psychology theory will lead to better practical outcomes for tourists seeking pleasurable experiences and destination managers.

Originality value

This is the first review that examines the application of concepts from cognitive psychology to the study of leisure tourism in particular. The concepts studied are also applicable to study of travellers generally.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 72 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 7 July 2017

Sarah Gardiner and Noel Scott

This chapter discusses innovation within the tourism small business sector and provides a case study of academic-industry research collaboration and knowledge transfer…

Abstract

This chapter discusses innovation within the tourism small business sector and provides a case study of academic-industry research collaboration and knowledge transfer. Governments of many countries are interested in improving innovation in the tourism industry. Academics have important skills useful for developing innovative new products. However, collaboration between academic and industry partners is complex and difficult to effectively operationalize. A thriving and innovative new experience for Chinese tourists to Australia’s Gold Coast provides evidence of the characteristics of collaboration needed for successful academic-industry innovation.

Details

Knowledge Transfer to and within Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-405-7

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2013

Sarah Gardiner, Debra Grace and Ceridwyn King

The purpose of this paper is to explore congruency between the self-identity of Baby Boomer, Generation X and Generation Y consumers with the generational label and…

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2938

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore congruency between the self-identity of Baby Boomer, Generation X and Generation Y consumers with the generational label and popularised identity of each generational cohort.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a mixed methods approach of focus groups (n=49) followed by an online survey (n=627) of Baby Boomer, Generation X and Generation Y consumers. Focus group data were thematically analysed. Descriptive, ANOVA and factor analysis was conducted on the survey data.

Findings

The results show that most consumers only have a vague association with their generational label and profile and find it easier to characterise generations that are different to their own. Generation self-identity congruency is greater among members of the Baby Boomer cohort compared to the younger generations. Yet, even in the Baby Boomer cohort, generational identity is not homogenous among its members.

Practical implications

The results challenge the explicit use of generational labels and stereotypes in marketing strategy.

Originality/value

Given the immense interest and application of generational cohort segmentation, understanding whether and why consumers identify with cohort labels and profiles is critical. The paper questions the longevity of generational cohort analysis given the limited understanding and relevance of this concept to consumers.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Jianya Ma, Ana Cláudia Campos, Shanshi Li, Sarah Gardiner and Noel Scott

This paper aims to address the central guiding questions: What principles of services management need urgent re-thinking in the Asian Century? What opportunities and…

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810

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the central guiding questions: What principles of services management need urgent re-thinking in the Asian Century? What opportunities and challenges lie ahead?

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a review of relevant literature on hedonic consumption and related issues of emotion, attention, mental time travel and, importantly, how these phenomena may be measured.

Findings

The paper addresses this question from a psychological and customer perspective. Services managers are well-positioned and have a great future for two reasons. First, services in general are the growing part of the global economy. Second, services managers provide the experiences required by increasingly affluent consumers. On the other hand, there is in general within the services sector, a lack of knowledge and expertise in understanding the consumer psychology of hedonic consumption. Additionally, and especially in Western countries, there is lack of knowledge about the cultural differences in experiential requirements of Asian consumers.

Originality/value

The paper provides directions for future research in the area of tourism experiences and emotion.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 7 July 2017

Abstract

Details

Knowledge Transfer to and within Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-405-7

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Abstract

Purpose

Although medical leadership and management (MLM) is increasingly being recognised as important to improving healthcare outcomes, little is understood about current training of medical students in MLM skills and behaviours in the UK. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study used validated structured interviews with expert faculty members from medical schools across the UK to ascertain MLM framework integration, teaching methods employed, evaluation methods and barriers to improvement.

Findings

Data were collected from 25 of the 33 UK medical schools (76 per cent response rate), with 23/25 reporting that MLM content is included in their curriculum. More medical schools assessed MLM competencies on admission than at any other time of the curriculum. Only 12 schools had evaluated MLM teaching at the time of data collection. The majority of medical schools reported barriers, including overfilled curricula and reluctance of staff to teach. Whilst 88 per cent of schools planned to increase MLM content over the next two years, there was a lack of consensus on proposed teaching content and methods.

Research limitations/implications

There is widespread inclusion of MLM in UK medical schools’ curricula, despite the existence of barriers. This study identified substantial heterogeneity in MLM teaching and assessment methods which does not meet students’ desired modes of delivery. Examples of national undergraduate MLM teaching exist worldwide, and lessons can be taken from these.

Originality/value

This is the first national evaluation of MLM in undergraduate medical school curricula in the UK, highlighting continuing challenges with executing MLM content despite numerous frameworks and international examples of successful execution.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Richard Teare and Leonardo (Don) A.N. Dioko

The purpose of this paper is to profile the Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes (WHATT) theme issue “Services management and the growing number of Asian travellers…

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134

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to profile the Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes (WHATT) theme issue “Services management and the growing number of Asian travellers: what needs re-thinking?” with reference to the experiences of the theme editor and the theme issue outcomes from countries within and beyond Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses structured questions to enable the theme editor to reflect on the rationale for the theme issue question, the starting point, the selection of the writing team and material and the editorial process.

Findings

This paper reports on research and discussions between academics and practitioners about an issue faced by many countries with established hospitality, tourism and travel industries. Specifically, what are the adjustments needed to mirror the radically changing demographic landscape of inbound tourism – now characterized by more affluent and mobile Asian visitors?

Practical implications

This paper builds on the outcomes of an international conference on “Managing and Delivering Services in the Asian Century”, and offers a response to the changes needed to better serve Asian travellers.

Originality/value

It provides guidelines for destinations, hospitality organizations and travel operators that have traditionally relied on European and American source markets to help them re-think their service delivery process, management and operations.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Peter Gardiner and Sarah Quinton

Increasing competitiveness in the marketplace has led to pressure being applied to brands and past poor brand management in the 1980s saw brands suffering under…

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5809

Abstract

Increasing competitiveness in the marketplace has led to pressure being applied to brands and past poor brand management in the 1980s saw brands suffering under short‐term, profitability‐based aims. The need for stability throughout the commercial environment in the 1990s has led to the longer‐term view now being adopted by marketing practitioners. This paper will highlight how direct marketing can be employed as a strategic marketing management tool to build a brand through the establishment of a mutually beneficial relationship. In this paper the authors will demonstrate the important role that direct marketing can play in establishing and building a brand through the in‐depth analysis of a single case study within the business‐to‐business arena. By using the case study approach the authors will combine relevant theory and practice to illustrate the potential of direct marketing in brand building.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2019

Alex Opoku and Sarah A. Mills

As part of the UK Government’s strategy to address the current shortage of primary school places is the construction of standardised designed schools. The UK Government…

Abstract

Purpose

As part of the UK Government’s strategy to address the current shortage of primary school places is the construction of standardised designed schools. The UK Government has been facing an uphill battle to meet the demand for the ever-increasing number of school places it requires. This paper aims to explore the use of standardised school design in addressing the problem of primary school places in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to the exploratory nature of this investigation, a pragmatic research philosophy is utilised and mixed-method data collection techniques are used. Quantitative data collection is in the form of a survey involving 306 construction professionals and stakeholders; this has been consolidated using qualitative data collection in the form of nine purposefully selected semi-structured interviews.

Findings

The research highlighted the influence that people and their perceptions have on the successful implementation of standardisation. The results show that a high level of misunderstanding exists around the concept of standardisation and its definition. Standardised design has shown to have a remarkable influence in reducing the cost and time required for delivering the construction of new schools.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the exploratory nature of this research, the results obtained have not been wholly conclusive but have instead provided a contribution to the area of standardisation in construction.

Originality/value

The research has uncovered that, to truly promote and drive standardisation in the delivery of schools, a joint approach is required with designers, contractors, clients and manufacturers, working in partnership to develop successful solutions. The paper will, therefore, help the key stakeholders delivering standardised schools in UK to fully understand the concept and turn the challenges into opportunities.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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