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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2021

Miguel Cordova, Dinorá Eliete Floriani, Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez, Michel Hermans, Santiago Mingo, Fabiola Monje-Cueto, Karla Maria Nava-Aguirre, Carlos Adrian Rodriguez and Erica Salvaj

This paper aims to provide insights into the internationalization strategic responses to the COVID-19 pandemic by higher education institutions (HEIs) in Latin America.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide insights into the internationalization strategic responses to the COVID-19 pandemic by higher education institutions (HEIs) in Latin America.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on information from eight leading Latin American private universities. The data were obtained from official sources such as institutional communications and university administrators.

Findings

The authors identify two main issues that HEIs should consider while responding to the pandemic. First, greater attention and resource allocation to the universities' main local stakeholders can affect traditional internationalization activities. Second, a focus on revitalizing foreign partnerships and strengthening “virtual internationalization” can help maintain and eventually increase international presence.

Research limitations/implications

While this study analyses how these Latin American HEIs responded during the initial stages of the COVID-19 outbreak, it is important to conduct follow-up studies to shed light on how HEIs are adapting to the COVID-19 crisis as it continues to unfold.

Originality/value

This study is based on unique information gathered from leading private, not-for-profit HEIs in Latin America, which, contrary to state-owned HEIs or other private institutions in developed economies, have exhibited different means and conditions to respond to the coronavirus outbreak. Finally, the authors contribute to the literature on the internationalization of HEIs by discussing the role of a significant disruptive event on the internationalization of higher education and, particularly, business schools.

Propósito

Este artículo discute las respuestas estratégicas de internacionalización frente a la pandemia del COVID-19 implementadas por Instituciones de Educación Superior (IES) en América Latina.

Diseño/metodología/aproximación

Este estudio se basa en información de ocho universidades privadas líderes en América Latina. La información fue obtenida de fuentes oficiales tales como comunicados institucionales y autoridades.

Hallazgos

Identificamos dos temas principales que las IES deben considerar mientras responden al COVID-19. Primero, una mayor atención y reubicación de recursos hacia los principales grupos de interés local puede afectar las actividades tradicionales de internacionalización. Segundo, revitalizar las alianzas extranjeras y fortalecer la “internacionalización virtual” puede ayudar a mantener y eventualmente incrementar la presencia internacional.

Limitaciones de investigación/implicaciones

Si bien este estudio analiza cómo un grupo de IES Latinoamericanas respondieron durante las etapas iniciales del COVID-19, es importante continuar analizando cómo las IES se siguen adaptando a medida que la crisis COVID-19 avanza.

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio se basa en datos únicos obtenidos de IES privadas, sin fines de lucro, y líderes en América Latina que, al contrario de las universidades públicas u otras IES en economías desarrolladas, exhiben medios y condiciones diferentes para responder a la expansión del coronavirus. Finalmente, este trabajo contribuye a la literatura sobre internacionalización de IES mediante la discusión del rol de un evento disruptivo de escala mundial en la internacionalización de universidades y, particularmente, escuelas de negocios.

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez, Miguel Cordova, Michel Hermans, Karla Maria Nava-Aguirre, Fabiola Monje-Cueto, Santiago Mingo, Santiago Tobon, Carlos Adrian Rodriguez, Erica Helena Salvaj and Dinorá Eliete Floriani

This study aims to build on embedded approaches to stakeholder management and examines how organizational decision-makers consider social responsibility toward proximal…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to build on embedded approaches to stakeholder management and examines how organizational decision-makers consider social responsibility toward proximal stakeholders in crises that encompass an entire system of stakeholder relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

Within a criterion-based sample of eight Latin American private universities, this paper develops in-depth exploratory case studies to examine the prioritization of stakeholders in higher education institutions’ decision-making during the outbreak of the COVID-19 crisis.

Findings

Contrary to the notion that during crises organizations prioritize stakeholders that provide resources that are critical to survival, this study finds that in contextual crises stakeholder management is informed by social responsibility. In addition, the findings suggest that crises may be tipping points for changes toward mission-driven approaches to governance.

Practical implications

Acknowledging the roles of social responsibility and proximity in stakeholder management during contextual crises allows for more informed governance of organizations that face disruptions in their system of stakeholder relations.

Originality/value

This study contributes unique insights into the decision-maker’s prioritization of stakeholders during the COVID-19 crisis. The uncertainty associated with the emerging “new normal” allowed for an extreme test of socially embedded versus resource-oriented approaches to stakeholder management.

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2013

Santiago Mingo

Institutional voids – the lack of institutions that can facilitate the functioning of markets – are ubiquitous in emerging markets. Because of their newness…

Abstract

Purpose

Institutional voids – the lack of institutions that can facilitate the functioning of markets – are ubiquitous in emerging markets. Because of their newness, entrepreneurial ventures are especially susceptible to institutional vacuums. This research seeks to shed light on the role that business groups can play in the development of entrepreneurial ventures in emerging markets.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on detailed fieldwork, the study describes and analyzes the creation and evolution of two biotechnology start-ups that were affiliated to a major Latin American business group. The research cov ers the period between their foundation and later acquisition by a multinational company.

Findings

The article discusses the role that the business group affiliation had in terms of helping the start-ups to interact with multiple institutional voids. The analysis shows that the start-ups benefited from the group's reputation and connections, experience and know-how in managing different types of businesses in the country, strong resource base, long-term vision, and strong organizational culture.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this work is to show that business group affiliation can be an interesting solution that facilitates the development of entrepreneurial ventures in emerging markets.

Propósito

La presencia de vacíos institucionales – la carencia de instituciones que facilitan el funcionamiento de los mercados – es muy común en las economías emergentes. Debido a su novedad, los nuevos emprendimientos son especialmente susceptibles a los vacíos institucionales. Esta investigación trata de entender el papel que pueden desempeñar los grupos económicos en el desarrollo de nuevas empresas en economías emergentes.

Disenño/Metodología

Basado en trabajo de campo, el estudio describe y analiza la creación y evolución de dos start-ups biotecnológicos que estuvieron afiliados a un importante grupo económico latinoamericano. La investigación cubre el período comprendido entre la fundación de las dos empresas y su posterior adquisición por parte de una empresa multinacional.

Resultados

El artículo analiza cómo la afiliación a un grupo económico ayudó a las start-ups a lidiar con múltiples vacíos institucionales. El análisis muestra que las empresas se beneficiaron de la reputación y conexiones del grupo, su experiencia y conocimiento en la gestión de diferentes tipos de negocios en el país, su sólida base de recursos, su visión de largo plazo y su fuerte cultura organizacional.

Originalidad/Valor

La contribución más importante de este artículo es mostrar que la afiliación a un grupo económico puede ser una solución interesante que facilita el desarrollo de nuevos emprendimientos en economías emergentes.

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Abstract

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2013

Niels Ketelhöhn and Enrique Ogliastri

The purpose of this article is to summarize the basic literature and concepts of innovation and entrepreneurship, emphasizing the relevant studies for Latin America. The…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to summarize the basic literature and concepts of innovation and entrepreneurship, emphasizing the relevant studies for Latin America. The authors aim to assess the role of Latin America in the world innovative activity utilizing the production of USPTO patents.

Design/methodology/approac

To achieve the first objective, the authors review and summarize the relevant literature for innovation and entrepreneurship in Latin America. They also introduce each of the papers included in the current special issue of Academia. To achieve the second objective, the authors use the production of USPTO patents by Latin American residents, and examine those levels to the rest of the world.

Findings

The authors find Latin America to be a marginal contributor to the world innovative activity. Although the region represented 8.7 per cent of world GDP in 2011, it only generated 0.19 per cent of the world patents registered at the USPTO between 2008 and 2012, and only 0.17 per cent of all patents registered since 1976. However, countries such as Costa Rica and Uruguay have larger levels of patent production by 100,000 inhabitants with 7.05 and 4.72 for 1976-2012.

Originality/value

This introduction introduces work that continues the intense discussion on innovation and entrepreneurship in Latin America. It is to the extent of the authors' knowledge, one of the first attempts to measure the level of innovation at the regional level, and compare the performance of different countries. This special edition has implications for individuals, firms and governments striving to introduce new products, services and processes in a region that has historically confronted important barriers to innovation.

Resumen

En esta introducción presentamos algunos conceptos básicos sobre innovación y empresariado, y hacemos énfasis en la literatura que ha estudiado estos fenómenos en América Latina. Evaluamos, además, el papel de América Latina en la actividad innovadora mundial, utilizando la producción de patentes registradas en la Oficina de Patentes y Marcas de Estados Unidos (USPTO), y encontramos que América Latina desempeña un papel marginal con relación a otros centros mundiales de innovación. Finalmente, se presentan los artículos de este número de la revista Academia. Esta edición especial tiene implicaciones prácticas para individuos, empresas y gobiernos, que quieran introducir nuevos productos, servicios, y procesos desde una región que históricamente ha tenido que enfrentar barreras a la innovación.

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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2014

Tarun Khanna

In this paper, I review the concept of “institutional voids” that provides a way to understand the structure of emerging markets. These voids impede would-be buyers from…

Abstract

In this paper, I review the concept of “institutional voids” that provides a way to understand the structure of emerging markets. These voids impede would-be buyers from getting together with would-be sellers, and hence compromise the functioning of markets. Entrepreneurs must respond to these voids. Their endeavors, however, are also the means through which the voids are progressively removed. I review my work on the contours of such entrepreneurship in many emerging markets, with the greatest research emphasis on China and India. I conclude with a focus on attempts to circumvent a particularly insidious class of institutional voids, those that prevent the marginalized two-thirds of the world’s population from participating in the economic mainstream. Cumulatively, my work calls for our profession to think more creatively and eclectically about our research and teaching in a way that displays greater contextual intelligence toward ubiquitous and socially costly voids.

Details

Multidisciplinary Insights from New AIB Fellows
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-038-4

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Mauricio Jara-Bertin, Felix Lopez-Iturriaga and Christian Espinosa

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the corporate ownership diversification, i.e. how the involvement in the ownership of other non-financial firms…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the corporate ownership diversification, i.e. how the involvement in the ownership of other non-financial firms affects the value of listed firms. The authors control for the unrelated diversification when the firm has different business segments in different sectors.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyze a sample of Chilean-listed firms between 2005 and 2009, in two stages. First, the authors compute the diversification premium or discount, defined as the part of the firms’ capitalization that stems from the diversification strategy. Then, the authors regress the premium or discount against the business and ownership diversification measures and other control variables.

Findings

In addition to a discount for unrelated business diversification, the authors find an ownership diversification discount when non-financial firms are shareholders of other firms. However, this discount turns into a premium when the firm gains the control of the owned firm, especially in related sectors.

Originality/value

The authors pioneer the analysis of the ownership diversification in Latin American firms. The results apply not only to Chile but also to a number of Latin American countries since many of these countries have, in common with Chile, a concentrated corporate ownership structure and a weak protection of investors’ rights.

Propósito

En el presente trabajo analizamos el efecto sobre el valor de la empresa de la diversificación de la propiedad, es decir, de su participación en la propiedad y el control de otras compañías. Introducimos como elemento modelador la diversificación en sectores diferentes a los que constituyen el core business de la empresa.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Utilizamos una base de datos de empresas chilenas cotizadas en Bolsa entre 2005 y 2009. Nuestro análisis se estructura en dos fases. En primer lugar, calculamos la prima o descuento por diversificación, medidas como la parte del valor de la empresa originada por esa decisión. En segundo lugar, realizamos un análisis de regresión para explicar cómo la diversificación del negocio y la participación en la propiedad de otras empresas influyen en esa prima o descuento.

Resultados

Encontramos un descuento por la adopción de estrategias de diversificación no relacionadas. Asimismo, nuestros resultados ponen de manifiesto la existencia de un descuento por la participación de una empresa en la propiedad de otras compañías. Sin embargo, ese descuento se convierte en prima cuando dicha participación permite a la empresa obtener el control de las otras compañías, especialmente en segmentos industriales relacionados.

Originalidad/Valor

Nuestro trabajo analiza por primera vez el efecto de la diversificación de la propiedad en empresas latinoamericanas. Nuestros resultados pueden aplicarse a otros países porque Chile comparte con otros países de su entorno rasgos como la concentración de propiedad de sus empresas y la escasa protección de los derechos de los inversores, factores que modelan el efecto de la diversificación.

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2013

Enrique Ogliastri

This issue sees the Emerald Group join the journal as a partner and includes five papers about innovation and two general pieces. The introduction to the theme of…

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716

Abstract

This issue sees the Emerald Group join the journal as a partner and includes five papers about innovation and two general pieces. The introduction to the theme of innovation reviews international and Latin American literature and analyzes Latin American patents in the USA. There is a study of university patents in Mexico from 1995 to 2009, as well as a case study of two new technology companies in Brazil and the positive role played in their development by a family conglomerate which filled the institutional voids around them. A data analysis is conducted on the dissemination of eight electronic products in the nine largest Latin American countries, and econometric studies look at agro‐industrial marketing in Chile. Another paper examines the effect of adopting new international accounting laws (IFRS) on the quality of information provided by companies in the Chilean market. Finally, the paper examines the influence of managerial perceptions on the strategic responses adopted by four Colombian organizations when facing a political crisis. This edition includes contributions from Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Spain, Mexico, Nicaragua and the UK.

Resumen

En este número el Grupo Editorial Emerald ha ingresado como socio a la revista. Se publican cinco artículos sobre innovación, más dos artículos de índole general. El artículo de introducción a innovaciones revisa la literatura internacional y latinoamericana y hace un análisis de las patentes latinoamericanas en Estados Unidos. Se presenta un estudio sobre las patentes universitarias en México 1995‐2009. Se estudian dos casos de nuevas empresas tecnológicas en Brasil, y el positivo papel que tuvo para su desarrollo un conglomerado familiar que compensó los vacíos institucionales del entorno. Se analizan los datos sobre la difusión de ocho productos electrónicos en los nueve mayores países latinoamericanos. Se realizan estudios econométricos sobre las innovaciones en mercadeo de negocios agroindustriales en Chile. Otro artículo trabaja el efecto de adoptar las nuevas normas contables internacionales (NIIF o IFRS) en la calidad de la información que emiten las empresas en el mercado chileno. Finalmente, un artículo estudia la influencia de la percepción gerencial sobre las respuestas estratégicas adoptadas por cuatro empresas colombianas ante una crisis política. Este número contiene contribuciones provenientes de Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, España, México, Nicaragua y Reino Unido.

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Asghar Afshar Jahanshahi

– The purpose of this paper is to examine how network externalities impact on perception of environmental uncertainties.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how network externalities impact on perception of environmental uncertainties.

Design/methodology/approach

The source of sample comes from the Science & Technology Parks database, a major association of corporate information of new technology ventures in Iran. The sampling frame comprises a wide range of industry segments including electronics, chemicals, agriculture, computer equipment, pharmaceuticals and medicines, telecommunication equipment, and others. The author used the conventional method of back-translation to translate the measures from English to Persian. There were 380 NTVs that the author could reach to send the survey. Among 380 NTVs, 177 entrepreneurs fully completed all the items (46 percent response rate).

Findings

The findings showed that what might decrease the state uncertainty perception, at same time it can give arise to other types of uncertainty. Thus, the result confirmed that the three types of uncertainty are differentiable.

Research limitations/implications

In the study, the author used cross-sectional self-report data, which cannot suggest causal relationships very well.

Practical implications

Investigating factors that influence the perception of environmental uncertainty may help explain why organizations, under the same environment, can behave heterogeneously.

Originality/value

By providing a clear picture about the relationship between market with network effect and perception of environmental uncertainty, this study contributes to the theoretical and empirical understanding of the emergence of environmental uncertainty perception.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Miguel Pardellas Santiago, Pablo Meira Cartea and Lucía Iglesias da Cunha

This paper deals with the experiences of three European universities that have implemented transition initiatives, using the Transition Network’s methodology to promote…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper deals with the experiences of three European universities that have implemented transition initiatives, using the Transition Network’s methodology to promote their sustainability plans. The Transition Communities’ model for change is presented from a socio-educational perspective as an effective methodology for encouraging university environmental sustainability processes. In this context, the purpose of this paper was to analyze Transition Communities at universities using an environmental–educational approach in three different scenarios: the Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), the University of Edinburgh (UEd) and the Universidade do Minho (UMinho).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors engaged in a comparative analysis of multiple case studies in the Transition “phenomenon”, looking for convergences and divergences among them.

Findings

The comparative analysis revealed three very different scenarios, which ironically shared an absence of explicit theoretical–methodological references in the design, execution and evaluation of the educational actions that were implemented. Examination of the impact and continuity of these initiatives uncovered the existence of a “glass ceiling” in university environmental sustainability strategies. Even the innovative Transition methodology was unable to subvert the established academic, corporate, organizational and cultural structures and dynamics that perpetuate unsustainability.

Originality/value

This study was carried out from an innovative perspective with few precedents in the Transition context. The authors’ educational–environmental approach provides insight for articulating educational strategies for environmental sustainability at universities and for constructing a Transition model for education.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

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