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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2021

Shubham Dixit, Shiwangi Singh, Sanjay Dhir and Swati Dhir

This study aims to identify the antecedents of strategic thinking and its relationship with competitive advantage. Further, this study analyses the mediating effect of…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the antecedents of strategic thinking and its relationship with competitive advantage. Further, this study analyses the mediating effect of strategic thinking between its antecedents and competitive advantage.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-reported questionnaire with 51 questions was floated among 220 professionals from various industries in India. The response was analysed using the partial least squares-structural equation modelling methodology using SmartPLS software.

Findings

The direct effect of creativity, corporate culture and knowledge management are established with strategic thinking, as well as a competitive advantage. Also, the study finds a significant relationship between strategic thinking and competitive advantage. The study finds no mediation (direct effect) in the case of creativity, corporate culture and knowledge management. Further, no mediation (no relationship) is found in the case of vision.

Practical implications

Business must start adopting strategic thinking practices in their decision-making process to create a competitive advantage. Further, the influence of corporate culture, creativity and knowledge management on strategic thinking highlights their importance.

Originality/value

The study establishes the impact of antecedents of strategic thinking on competitive advantage. The study highlights the importance of other factors along with strategic thinking for achieving competitive advantage.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2018

Sanjay Dhir, Swati Dhir and Payel Samanta

This study aims to derive a sound definition of strategic thinking by horizontal analysis of past research and discussions with professionals.

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to derive a sound definition of strategic thinking by horizontal analysis of past research and discussions with professionals.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design includes three broad stages: item generation, scale development and assessment of scale’s psychometric properties.

Findings

The eclectic composition cuts across vocations, religions, sex and age strengthen the flexibility of application of the scale. The resulting scale shows strong psychometric properties and is expected to be useful for academics, practitioners and organizations alike.

Research limitations/implications

The information on strategic thinking was self-reported through strategic thinking questionnaire (STQ) and is consequently at risk to be influenced by self-bias.

Practical implications

Using the scale of strategic thinking will empower strategic thinkers to draw a more extensive scope of strategies at all levels. This will additionally bring about higher-quality procedures, increased performance and greater competitive advantage.

Social implications

The study represents to be an imperative predecessor to strategic decision-making and may give a key to better comprehend authoritative change marvels and at last survival.

Originality/value

As the sample for our STQ has been collected from all across the country cross-sectioning different culture, gender and position of responsibility, the scale has significant robustness and implicative potential.

Details

foresight, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2022

Ishita Batra and Sanjay Dhir

The study aims to identify, analyse and develop a model for measuring the inter-relationship and interaction among the inter-partner factors. International joint ventures…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to identify, analyse and develop a model for measuring the inter-relationship and interaction among the inter-partner factors. International joint ventures (IJVs) literature has scantly studied the interactions and inter-relationships among the inter-partner factors of IJVs performance. To address this gap, this research creates a hierarchical relationship framework among the inter-partner factors of IJVs performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The comprehensive literature review is used to identify the factors and possible relationships between the factors and IJVs performance. M-TISM (modified total interpretive structural modelling) methodology is used to examine the relationship among the factors of IJVs performance.

Findings

This study highlights 12 inter-partner factors that affect IJVs performance. The results suggest that size asymmetry, commitment, goal incongruency, competitive overlap, trust, control, the interdependency of resources, cooperation, economic distance, cultural distance, geographical distance and administrative distance significantly impact IJVs performance. Commitment is found to be a linkage variable as it has high dependence and driving power. Goal incongruency and competitive overlap have high driving power.

Research limitations/implications

This study gives a proposed list of critical inter-partner factors for policymakers and practitioners to consider when developing rules or recommendations to improve IJVs performance. The focus of policymakers should be on economic and geographical distance, followed by cultural distance, competitive overlap, goal incongruency, size asymmetry and administrative distance to improve inter-relationship among the partners in IJVs. The work contributes to the academician by presenting a modified TISM model that highlights the significance of ambidexterity in driving the performance of IJVs.

Originality/value

This study fills a gap in the literature by analysing the interactions among the inter-partner parameters that influence the performance of IJVs. It offers insights into the variables, such as driver dependence and the relationships between the variables.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 July 2021

Rishabh Rajan, Sanjay Dhir and Sushil

This study aims to identify critical factors and examine their impact on alliance performance from an organizational learning point of view.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify critical factors and examine their impact on alliance performance from an organizational learning point of view.

Design/methodology/approach

A modified total interpretive structural modeling (M-TISM) methodology was used in this study. The different paths/links in the developed M-TISM model were further validated by using the Mahindra-Ford alliance case study.

Findings

In this study, a total of seven critical factors were identified using an extensive literature review, and a hierarchical model was developed. Results show that prior alliance experience, inter-partner learning, knowledge transfer, absorptive capacity and knowledge internalization have a positive on the alliance productivity and performance. Furthermore, the findings indicate that prior alliance experience remains essential for alliance productivity and performance, while knowledge transfer and absorptive capacity can contribute to inter-partner learning and knowledge internalization in strategic alliances.

Research limitations/implications

This study can help managers and policymakers to understand the identified critical factors from an organizational learning perspective and understand their impact on the alliance performance in a competitive environment. The managers should know that previous alliance experience, learning from partner firms, building an absorptive capacity, etc., are necessary to achieve superior alliance productivity and performance. For academicians, the M-TISM methodology used in this study can provide a mechanism to perform exploratory research and build a hierarchical model in different management research fields.

Originality/value

The study fills research gaps by identifying key factors, developing a hierarchical model, and examining their impact on the performance of strategic alliances in the Indian automotive industry.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 December 2021

Kamakshi Sharma, Mahima Jain and Sanjay Dhir

This study explores the variables that drive the impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on the competitiveness of a tourism firm. The relationship between the variables is…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the variables that drive the impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on the competitiveness of a tourism firm. The relationship between the variables is established using the modified total interpretive structural modelling (m-TISM) methodology. The factors are identified through literature review and expert opinion. This study investigates the hierarchical relationship between these variables.

Design/methodology/approach

The modified total interpretive structural modelling (m-TISM) method is used to develop a hierarchical interrelationship among variables that display direct and indirect impact. The competitiveness of a tourism firm is measured by investigating the effect of variables on the firm's financial performance.

Findings

The study identifies ten key factors essential for analysing the impact of AI on a firm's competitiveness. The m-TISM methodology gave us the hierarchical relationship between the factors and their interpretation. A theoretical TISM model has been constructed based on the hierarchy and relationship of the elements. The elements that fall in Level V are “AI Skilled Workforce”, “Infrastructure” and “Policies and Regulations”. Level IV includes the elements “AI Readiness”, “AI-Enabled Technologies” and “Digital Platforms”. Elements that fall under Level III are “Productivity” and “AI Innovation”. Level II and Level I comprise “Tourist Satisfaction” and “Financial Performance”, respectively. The levels indicate the elements' hierarchical level, with Level I the highest and Level V the lowest.

Research limitations/implications

Tourism and AI scholars can analyse the given variables by including the transitive links and incorporate new variables depending upon future research. The m-TISM model constructed from literature review and expert opinion can act as a theoretical base for future studies to be conducted by researchers.

Practical implications

Management/Practitioners can focus on the available characteristics and capitalise on them while working on the factors lacking in their organisation to enhance their competitiveness. Entrepreneurs starting their own business can utilise the elements in understanding the ecosystem of strengthening a firm's competitiveness. They can work to improve on the aspects which are crucial and trigger the impact on competitiveness. The government and management can devise policies and strategies that encompass the essential factors that positively impact the competitiveness of the firms. The approach can then be looked at with a holistic approach to cater to the other related components of the tourism industry.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind to use the modified TISM methodology to understand the impact of AI on the competitiveness of tourism firms.

Article
Publication date: 13 February 2019

Zuby Hasan, Sanjay Dhir and Swati Dhir

The purpose of this paper is to examine the elements of asymmetric motives, i.e., initial cross-border joint venture (CBJV) conditions and relative partner characteristics…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the elements of asymmetric motives, i.e., initial cross-border joint venture (CBJV) conditions and relative partner characteristics in emerging nations. The two main objectives of the present research are to identify the elements affecting asymmetric motives in Indian bilateral CBJV and to construct modified total interpretive structural modelling (TISM) for the identified elements of asymmetric motives.

Design/methodology/approach

For the current study, the qualitative technique named total interpretive structural modelling was used. The TISM (Sushil, 2012) is a novel extension of interpretive structural modelling (ISM) where ISM helps to understand the “what” and “how” of research (Warfield, 1974) and TISM answers the third question, i.e., “why” in the form of TISM; further checks for the correctness of TISM are given in Sushil (2016). TISM provides a hierarchical model of the elements selected for study and the interpretation of each element by iterative process and also a digraph that systematically depicts the relationship among various elements. TISM is an innovative modelling technique used by researchers in varied fields (Srivastava and Sushil, 2013; Wasuja et al., 2012; Nasim, 2011; Prasad and Suri, 2011). Steps involved in TISM are shown in Figure 1. It uses reachability matrix and partitioning of elements similar to ISM. Also, along with traditional TISM, the modified TISM process was also used where both paired comparisons and transitivity checks were done simultaneously which helped in minimising the redundant comparisons being made in the original process. Furthermore, for identifying the elements of study, SDC Platinum database was used, which was taken from research papers of major journals namely British Journal of Management, Administrative Science Quarterly, Strategic Management Journal, Management Science, Academy of Management Journal and Organization Science (Schilling, 2009). The database included all joint ventures that were formed in India, having India as one of the partner firms during fiscal year April 2000 and March 2010. From these, 361 CBJVs and 76 domestic joint ventures were identified. Although 54 CBJVs were excluded from these, a total number of 307 CBJVs were studied in the current research. Among these 307 CBJVs, 201 were from super-advanced nations (G7), 40 CBJVs from developing nations and 66 CBJVs from other developed nations. As 65 per cent of the CBJVs came from G7 nations (France, Italy, Japan, Canada, Germany, USA and UK), in the current study, we tried to examine Indian CBJVs with G7 partners only for a period of ten years as mentioned above.

Findings

The results of the study indicate that asymmetric motives are directly affected by critical activity alignment and interdependency. Thus, we can conclude that critical activity alignment of partners in CBJV is an antecedent of CBJV motive and thereby minimises the number of asymmetric motives. Bottom level variables such as culture difference and relative capital structure are considered as strong drivers of asymmetric motives. Diversification, resource heterogeneity and inter-partner conflict are middle level elements. Effect of these elements on asymmetric motives can only be improved and enhanced when improvement in bottom level variables is found. It has been believed that as the relative capital structure among firm increases, CBJVs’ asymmetric motives also increase, the reason being that as the difference in capital structure occurs, gradual change in bargaining power will also occur.

Originality/value

TISM used in the present study provides valuable insights into the interrelationship between identified elements through a systematic framework. The methodology of TISM used has its implications for researchers, academicians as well for practitioners. Further study also examines driver-dependent relationship among elements of interest, i.e., relative partner characteristics and initial CBJV conditions by using MICMAC analysis, which can be viewed as a significant step in research related to bilateral CBJV.

Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Aqueeb Sohail Shaik and Sanjay Dhir

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a structured review of the literature on the factors affecting the strategic thinking of an organization. This study offers some…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a structured review of the literature on the factors affecting the strategic thinking of an organization. This study offers some theoretical insights by analysing the divergent or analogous views of authors on these factors by analysing the empirical studies carried out in the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical method of conducting a structured literature review has been adopted in this study. Theory context characteristic methodology framework and meta-analysis are the methodologies applied to analyse the different empirical studies conducted in the literature and determine the variation or similarities in the views of authors over the same factor based on their effect sizes. This study analyses over 45 different empirical studies in the literature conducted on the factors affecting strategic thinking.

Findings

This study explains how the factors have been similarly or differently explained by the authors in the literature. This analysis gives a better understanding of the factors affecting strategic thinking and quantitatively amalgamates the current empirical studies carried out in the literature. The effects sizes generated for each factor helps in determining the homogeneous or heterogeneous nature of the factor.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited only to analyse the homogeneity or heterogeneity of the factors affecting strategic thinking at an organisational level. This study can be further extended by analysing the type of effect these factors have on the strategic thinking of the organisation.

Practical implications

The findings of this study identify the homogeneity or heterogeneity of the factors affecting strategic thinking in an organisation. This helps the top management to concentrate on these factors, which might develop a strategic thinking nature in the organisation, leading to the better formation of strategies, and successfully implement them in their businesses.

Originality/value

The study fills the unattended gaps in the literature by analysing the homogeneous and heterogeneous nature of the factors affecting the strategic thinking of an organisation.

Details

foresight, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2020

Abhilasha Meena, Sanjay Dhir and Sushil

This study aims to identify and prioritize various growth-accelerating factors in the Indian automotive industry. It further develops a hierarchical model to examine the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify and prioritize various growth-accelerating factors in the Indian automotive industry. It further develops a hierarchical model to examine the mutual interactions between the factors, their dependence and their driving power.

Design/methodology/approach

This study first identifies the growth-accelerating factors and then uses the modified total interpretive structural modeling (m-TISM) framework, which is an extended version of TISM. It further uses MICMAC analysis to analyze the mutual interrelation between the identified factors.

Findings

This study highlights the interrelation amongst the factors using m-TISM model. A hierarchical model shows the level of autonomous, dependence, linkage and independent factors considering the Indian automotive industry. This study also provides the understanding related to the interdependence of growth-accelerating factors.

Research limitations/implications

The government and practitioners could evaluate the growth-accelerating factors which have higher driving power for implementing efficient policies and strategy formulation. By implementing m-TISM model in the Indian automotive industry, auto manufacturers can become more productive and profitable. Future studies could use other methods such as expert opinion to derive the factors, and further model could be verified using structural equation modeling technique.

Originality/value

This study uses a novel m-TISM framework for the analysis of growth-accelerating factors in the context of the Indian automotive industry. It further provides a detailed theoretical and conceptual understanding relating to the philosophy and establishes an interrelation amongst these under-researched growth-accelerating factors.

Case study
Publication date: 24 June 2017

Sanjay Dhir and Swati Dhir

COMFED, Bihar State Co-operative Milk Federation Ltd., which involved 6 lakh farmers across India in 2012, was a rural organisation established in 1983 as the implementing…

Abstract

Subject area

COMFED, Bihar State Co-operative Milk Federation Ltd., which involved 6 lakh farmers across India in 2012, was a rural organisation established in 1983 as the implementing agency of Operation Flood programme of dairy development on “Anand” pattern in Bihar. In 1983, COMFED started with just 1,030 cooperatives, which had risen to 11,400 in 2012. Apart from B2C segment of milk and milk products in Bihar and Jharkhand, COMFED’s major revenue source was its B2B business where they sent bulk milk to Kolkata, Manesar and Delhi. They supplied to Amul and Mother Dairy, which were the biggest Indian cooperatives, and allowed them to use their own brand names. In 2012, Mrs Harjot Kaur, the Managing Director of COMFED, aspired to market COMFED products all over India under the “Sudha” brand, with special focus on National Capital Region region. Moreover, Mrs Kaur also wanted to expand COMFED’s geographical reach to other countries such as Bangladesh and Bhutan.

Study level/applicability

Strategic management, Diversification.

Case overview

Mrs Harjot Kaur was the Managing Director of Bihar State Co-operative Milk Federation (COMFED). COMFED is a rural organisation involving 6 lakh farmers. Starting with just 1,030 cooperatives in 1983, the number of cooperatives had risen to 11,400 in 2012. The milk production was 11 lakh litres per day, and the annual turnover in 2011-2012 was Rs 1,503.00 crore, 11 per cent more than that of previous year. Mrs Kaur was committed to serve COMFED customers and realise the dream of having at least one dish of Bihar in the plate of every Indian. Mrs Kaur envisaged COMFED producing 44 lakh litres milk per day from the existing 11 lakh litres per day, covering around 60 per cent villages of the state against the existing 33 per cent in 2013. COMFED was also trying to capture new markets. At present COMFED sent bulk milk to Delhi, Manesar and Kolkata, where it was sold by various dairy cooperatives such as Amul and Mother Dairy under their own brand names. Mrs Kaur aspired to market COMFED milk under the “Sudha” brand all over India. Moreover, Mrs Kaur was also looking to export to other countries such as Bangladesh and Bhutan. As Mrs Kaur was crafting the future path for COMFED, she also realised that above all the external challenges that exist, an internal vice – complacency – was the biggest hurdle her company had to face.

Expected learning outcomes

The case would be helpful for students to understand the concepts of competitive advantage, sustainable competitive advantage, industry structure, general environment, strategic positioning, diversification, internal analysis, external analysis and business level strategy in a strategic management course.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 11: Strategy.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 February 2020

Vivek Gupta, Laxmi Gupta and Sanjay Dhir

The purpose of this paper is to analyze customers’ purchasing behavior with respect to perceived benefit and the perceived risk towards customer competency in firms. In…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze customers’ purchasing behavior with respect to perceived benefit and the perceived risk towards customer competency in firms. In this research, the authors validate the concept of customer competency in eight dimensions (i.e. e-trust, quality of products and services, customer support, application design, reasonable price, availability of user-generated content, replacement and returns and risk in purchasing products) and examine empirically its impression on company’s decision-making performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The findings are based on an empirical analysis of survey data from 69 respondents and demonstrate a large, significant and positive relationship between customer competency and firm’s decision-making performance.

Findings

The results reveal that majorly three dimensions of competency, i.e. application design, reasonable price and user-generated content (UGC), will impact significantly the decision making performance of firm. This is the empirical study to conceptualize, operationalize and validate the concept of customer competency and to study its impact on decision-making performance. The validity of customer competency constructs as conceived and operationalized suggests the potential future scope by evaluating its relationship with possible antecedents and consequences. For practitioners, the result provides important guidelines for increasing firm’s decision-making performance through the use of customer behavior.

Research limitations/implications

Further in this research, it is critical to understand that other constructs of customer competency may likewise play an important part in the advancement of expectations of customers. These constructs comprise customers’ self-effectiveness, encouragement and innovation thinking (i.e. observed comparative advantage, complexity and compatibility) of business-to-customer firms in e-commerce. Future research studying these constructs could improve the understanding of success factors for e-commerce firms. The model used in this study can further be extended to understand the variance in a firm’s decision-making.

Originality/value

The prime target of this questionnaire was to gather all of the information about how consumers behave while interacting with e-commerce portals. The questions were based on the factors identified in literature reviews. Previous studies also look at consumer competency toward a particular internet portal and its vendors; however, through this survey, the authors want to look at how consumers behave while shopping on e-commerce portals. This was a clear representation of the authors’ research strategy.

Details

foresight, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

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