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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

Maurice F. Villere and Sandra S. Hartman

A “process” theory of motivation is explored, namelyreinforcement theory. Reinforcement theory is definedand the four primary strategies for implementing it …

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5359

Abstract

A “process” theory of motivation is explored, namely reinforcement theory. Reinforcement theory is defined and the four primary strategies for implementing it – positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction – are described. The advantages and disadvantages of each strategy and the ways of scheduling these are outlined, together with a discussion of current research and practical implications of the theory.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

Jin H. Im, Sandra J. Hartman and Robert Folger

The just‐in‐time (JIT) production system is notable for its emphasis on employee involvement and participation. However, we suggest that the role of participation that is…

Abstract

The just‐in‐time (JIT) production system is notable for its emphasis on employee involvement and participation. However, we suggest that the role of participation that is most typically described in the organizational behavior (OB) literature does not match the type of participation practiced in JIT. We introduce a theoretical framework that accounts for these different perspectives: whereas the OB approach treats participation as an intervention and hence as an independent variable, the JIT approach sees it as a side effect of the JIT production system and hence a dependent variable. Understanding of the differences is essential in JIT implementation in the workplace if we are to avoid miscommunication, stress, and disbelief in the system.

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The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1997

Sandra Hartman, Olof Lundberg and Don Lee

We examined factors contributing to the formation of a communications clique among deans representing a group of AACSB accredited colleges of business. We considered…

Abstract

We examined factors contributing to the formation of a communications clique among deans representing a group of AACSB accredited colleges of business. We considered whether several variables which appeared to be related to clique status could be used to predict clique membership. We found some support for the idea that several factors play a role in determining group membership, but only agreement in opinion had a significant effect. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2002

Augusta C. Yrle, Sandra Hartman and William P. Galle

In this research, the authors examine the relationships between findings from several potentially‐related literature streams including a prescriptive body of communication…

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4391

Abstract

In this research, the authors examine the relationships between findings from several potentially‐related literature streams including a prescriptive body of communication theory involving supervisor‐subordinate communication, contingency ideas involving use of coaching/directive vs counselling/participative leader communication styles, and leader‐member exchange (LMX) theory from the management literature. LMX suggests that supervisors may afford differing treatment, and thus possibly use different communications tactics, with subordinates in higherquality exchange relationships than with those in lower‐quality relationships. This literature, however, leaves unresolved whether supervisors should treat employees differently. In contrast, much of the communication literature has emphasised development of “best” practices which, presumably, should be used with all employees. In this research the authors consider whether there are consistencies between leader communication practices and the perceived quality of the leader‐member exchange. They report evidence that employees perceive differences, especially in the level of participation‐related communication, depending upon whether they believe they are in a higher‐ or lower‐quality LMX relationship. Moreover, they find weak evidence for congruence between supervisor and subordinate perceptions of the quality of the exchange and no significant evidence that similarity of the dyad influences the quality of the exchange.

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

Sandra J. Hartman, Lillian Y. Fok, Jing Li and Wing M. Fok

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between organizational culture, the adoption and extent of use of quality management (QM) programs, as well…

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552

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between organizational culture, the adoption and extent of use of quality management (QM) programs, as well as extent of use of traditional information systems (TIS), e‐commerce (E‐C) and customer relationship management (CRM) systems in Jamaica.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 93 Jamaican managers are surveyed from a variety of companies including small businesses, as well as Jamaican‐based operations units of US companies.

Findings

Our results from this exploratory study offer support for several of the relationships we have suggested. There are strong relationships, across organizations, between QM maturity – in terms of traditional QM only – and all three types of information systems (IS)‐CRM effectiveness, IS: traditional effectiveness and extensiveness, and E‐C extensiveness and effectiveness. In terms of relationships to culture, also notable are the unexpected results found in the negative relationship between the Person‐centered culture and E‐C and TIS use.

Originality/value

This research suggests an intriguing series of relationships between IS and QM maturity and, we believe, indicates that further study could lead to an understanding of the impacts which could be helpful to managers seeking competitiveness and researchers hoping to learn more about organizations and quality.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Sandra J. Hartman, Augusta C. Yrle and Olof H. Lundberg

The importance of decision maker interpretations in determining organizational responses to performance downturn is underscored and incorporated into a model proposed by…

Abstract

The importance of decision maker interpretations in determining organizational responses to performance downturn is underscored and incorporated into a model proposed by Ford and Baucus (1987). In this study, we adapted a Ford and Baucus model to examine 25 organizations in an area of economic downturn. Managerial perceptions of the business environment were related to internal and external organizational responses. Findings were interpreted as supporting the portion of the model dealing with active responses. Logical relationships between variables were observed. Moreover, a series of linkages was suggested. While the model shows distinct categories of responses, an important finding of this research is that firms' responses could not be characterized as falling exclusively into any one specific category as predicted by the model. Instead, we found complex networks of internal and external strategies.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 8 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1995

Stephen M. Crow and Sandra J. Hartman

Many organizations devote considerable time and effort to improvingjob satisfaction, hoping for improved performance. To the extent thathappiness and satisfaction are a…

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3570

Abstract

Many organizations devote considerable time and effort to improving job satisfaction, hoping for improved performance. To the extent that happiness and satisfaction are a result of one′s heredity and past experiences, management clearly has a very limited role in effecting change. To the degree that happiness and satisfaction are a direct result of one′s present work experiences, management has the opportunity for some, albeit small, impact. Suggests that, because of the complexities associated with one′s level of satisfaction, executives and managers take a conservative approach to methods or programmes that promise high job satisfaction and enhanced productivity.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1994

Lillian Y. Fok, Stephen M. Crow, Sandra J. Hartman and Alger Moore

Describes a longitudinal study which examined the social style profile(SSP) as a predictive tool for managerial success over a ten‐yearperiod. The SSP has been used…

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763

Abstract

Describes a longitudinal study which examined the social style profile (SSP) as a predictive tool for managerial success over a ten‐year period. The SSP has been used extensively in the USA to measure leadership behaviours and has served as a foundation for a wide variety of leadership development programmes in organizations. The analyses indicated that there is no clear cut relationship between the dimensions of the SSP and managerial success in the long run.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 13 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Augusta C. Yrle, Sandra J. Hartman, Charles Grenier and Olof H. Lundberg

This study examines how deans and associate deans of a group from similar universities use networking. Specifically, we consider whether the deans, traditionally…

Abstract

This study examines how deans and associate deans of a group from similar universities use networking. Specifically, we consider whether the deans, traditionally considered to perform boundary‐spanning functions, make more use of external networking than do the associate deans, who are their subordinates. We examine the relationship between accuracy in perceiving a network and influence in the network. Finally, we consider the relationship between reports of networking outside the sample and influence within the sample. We find support for our first two propositions and raise several issues related to our final one.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Anthony L. Patti, Sandra J. Hartman and Lillian Y. Fok

Reports an initial study to validate a brief instrument which could be useful as a tool to permit researchers to gain insight into a construct termed QM maturity – the…

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1217

Abstract

Reports an initial study to validate a brief instrument which could be useful as a tool to permit researchers to gain insight into a construct termed QM maturity – the quality of an organization’s adoption of (QM) programs. Notes that investigators have frequently confounded the length of time an organization reports that it has “been on” QM with the quality of its QM adoption. Yet it is entirely possible that an organization that reports that it has had quality programs in place for a considerable period of time may have adopted those programs poorly and superficially. The researchers were aware that a significant research stream was in place and investigating these issues, but were concerned that the available instruments tended to be extremely lengthy, aimed at top management rather than the workforce as a whole, or oriented toward a manufacturing rather than service environment. Reports initial work to validate a brief instrument that is potentially useful at all organizational levels and in both service and manufacturing. Suggests that the findings indicate that the instrument is consistent with an instrument from the existing research stream and that it also shows relationships to worker perceptions of organizational culture, Baldrige criteria, and job enrichment in directions that would be expected in the quality environment.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 18 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

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