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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Sandra L. Fielden and Hannah Jepson

The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of lesbians in terms of career progression and development, focusing on several areas including, discrimination in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of lesbians in terms of career progression and development, focusing on several areas including, discrimination in the workplace, career resources, barriers to career development and the importance of disclosing one’s sexual identity in the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews were conducted with 15 participants, 14 of whom had disclosed their sexuality at work. A grounded theory approach was used to conduct the analysis, and the findings suggested six core categories relating to the career experiences of the sample. These categories are: social climate; career choice; work environment; personality; being a lesbian and being a woman; and useful strategies.

Findings

The analysis highlighted several key findings, such as the importance of the relationship between gender and sexuality; the importance of working within a policy-driven environment such as the public sector; the importance of personality and the modification of behaviour as a personal resource for lesbians in the workplace. The research also highlighted the fact that discrimination still occurs at work but manifests itself in different and often more subtle ways and it was reported that, despite protective legislation, one of the greatest challenges for lesbians is working within a heterosexist and heteronormative environment.

Originality/value

There is a great deal of research dedicated to women’s career development but less on certain subgroups of women and even less on the career development of lesbians in organisations, and it is the aim of this paper to address the lack of research pertaining to the careers of lesbians in the UK.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Sandra L. Fielden and Cary L. Cooper

Aims to present a critical appraisal of the research relating to the sources of stress and stress reactions experienced by women managers. Considers the available data and…

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1456

Abstract

Aims to present a critical appraisal of the research relating to the sources of stress and stress reactions experienced by women managers. Considers the available data and level of understanding, and the assumptions that traditional approaches have been based upon. Presents conflicting findings and considers the implications of such results. Offers an overview of the current knowledge pertaining to women and managerial stress, raising a number of questions for which there are currently no answers.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 20 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Sandra L. Fielden, Marilyn J. Davidson and Peter J. Makin

The success or failure of a new business is often dependent on overcoming a series of potential barriers, eg securing sufficient financial backing, adequate and…

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4407

Abstract

The success or failure of a new business is often dependent on overcoming a series of potential barriers, eg securing sufficient financial backing, adequate and appropriate guidance and training etc. Yet, in light of the substantial growth rate of micro and small businesses, there has been little research into the experiences of potential and new business owners during the start‐up of such enterprises. To date there has been no systematic study of this group in the UK, and many questions remain unanswered. This study of micro and small business during the initialisation and formation of new venture creation (eg pre‐start‐up, 0‐6 months and 6‐12 months∥ sought to answer some of those questions. It identifies the needs of new business owners, the barriers they encounter, and the strategies they use to overcome those obstacles. The findings indicate that financial difficulties and the attitudes of banks towards new business owners are the main barriers to successful enterprise creation, with mentors and more specific advice cited as the assistance regarded as affording the greatest benefit to potential and new business owners. In addition, small and micro business owners are going out of business, or are unable to fulfil their potential, because they are denied access to those factors that promote success.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Sandra L. Fielden and Marilyn J. Davidson

Employers in the UK are under a legal obligation to ensure that their recruitment procedures conform with the Sex Discrimination Act (1975), which states that employers…

Abstract

Employers in the UK are under a legal obligation to ensure that their recruitment procedures conform with the Sex Discrimination Act (1975), which states that employers must not discriminate or indicate any hidden intention to discriminate against a potential employee on the grounds of their sex. Yet the very fact that many jobs are still viewed as ‘male’ or ‘female’ is often sufficient to prevent the non‐dominant gender group from applying for those positions (Ray, 1990). Managerial jobs have traditionally been male dominated and organisations are under a legal obligation to ensure that their recruitment procedures do not indicate any intention to discriminate, either overtly or covertly. Therefore, organisations need not only to demonstrate that they have no intention to discriminate, especially in traditionally male dominated occupations such as management, but they also need to ensure that their intention not to discriminate is clearly and explicitly communicated to potential job applicants (Ray, 1990). The aim of this article is to address the similarities and differences between the job search experiences of unemployed female and male managers, and to present the research findings from an in‐depth study of unemployed British managers.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 16 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2008

Sandra L. Fielden

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404

Abstract

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2010

Marilyn J. Davidson, Sandra L. Fielden and Azura Omar

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the positive and negative effects of gender and ethnicity in relation to discrimination and the problems encountered in accessing…

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4104

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the positive and negative effects of gender and ethnicity in relation to discrimination and the problems encountered in accessing social support (including emotional and instrumental support).

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data were collected through in‐depth interviews with 40 Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) female small business owners based in north west England. The main aims and objectives of the study were to: investigate the discriminatory experiences of BAME female small business owners related to their gender and ethnicity; and to identify the forms (formal and informal) and types (emotional/instrumental) of social support available in relation to their entrepreneurial activities that enabled them to cope with and overcome, the discrimination they may encounter.

Findings

Over half of the respondents in the study had experienced discriminations because of their gender, ethnic background or both. This was attributed to a number of factors, including stereotypical images of specific ethnic cultures, religions and practices. Many respondents reported difficulties in accessing different types of formal social support, e.g. formal business and financial support. Informal support by respondents' families was reported as a key source of both emotional and instrumental.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is just a starting point for this area of research and, because the sample covers women from a variety of BAME backgrounds, it is not possible to generalize the findings to the wider population of BAME women. However, it does give an indication of what issues need to be considered in the provision of instrumental support for BAME women small business owners.

Practical implications

The paper shows that a key element in the development of a strategy for addressing the needs of the BAME female small business owners is the necessity to appropriately re‐design mainstream business support systems and financial services, in order to provide these women effective access to formal social support.

Originality/value

The experiences of BAME small business owners have received little attention and this paper offers a unique insight into the relationship between social support, gender, ethnicity and business ownership.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 February 2010

Sandra Fielden

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332

Abstract

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Sandra L. Fielden, Adel J. Dawe and Helen Woolnough

This study focuses on the factors affecting equality of access to UK government grant and loan initiatives and the identification of gender differences in the uptake of…

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3646

Abstract

Purpose

This study focuses on the factors affecting equality of access to UK government grant and loan initiatives and the identification of gender differences in the uptake of those initiatives.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative methodology was adopted as quantitative data is already available regarding the sources and levels of financing accessed. In total 32 interviews were conducted with 18 women and 14 men seeking business start‐up capital. A review of the advice and assistance offered by 31 business support agencies to potential and existing male and female business clients across the region also was undertaken.

Findings

The findings revealed that there is a discrepancy in the number of men and women business owners accessing grant and loans schemes. Women do not enter into business ownership with the same amount of capital as men, and women are far more likely to access loans and grants than traditional forms of financing.

Research limitations/implications

This is a preliminary investigation which needs to be extended and the relationship between service providers and small business owners further explored to provide a greater understanding of the complexities that relationship has on accessing government grants/loans.

Practical implications

The grant and loan system is highly complex and fraught with difficulties, which appears to exclude women and more specifically those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, i.e. those they were designed to assist.

Originality/value

Previous research has focused on private sector sources of business finance. This study is the first to look specifically at government grant/loan schemes that are targeted at those business owners who experience discrimination accessing traditional forms of finance.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Helen M. Woolnough and Sandra Lesley Fielden

Literature has shown that mentoring and career development programmes can assist women and minority groups in pursuit of more senior roles. The Challenging Perceptions…

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1066

Abstract

Purpose

Literature has shown that mentoring and career development programmes can assist women and minority groups in pursuit of more senior roles. The Challenging Perceptions 12-month, multi-faceted career development and mentoring programme was specifically designed to aid female mental health participants in their attempts to break the glass ceiling, which can be apparent within senior levels of the UK National Health Service. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a career development and mentoring programme on female mental health nurses' career and personal development compared to a matched comparison group.

Design/methodology/approach

A longitudinal, qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews conducted with female mental health nurse participants and a matched control group at four time points, six months apart over an 18-month period. Female mental health nurses at F, G, H, I and Nurse Consultant Level who applied to participate in the programme were selected by a panel consisting of members of the project team and subsequently randomly allocated a group. Twenty-seven female mental health nurses experienced the programme and 27 female mental health nurses constituted a comparison group.

Findings

Experience as programme participant influenced the career and personal development of participants, particularly compared to the matched control group. Career development outcomes included promotion and additional learning/study. Personal development outcomes included increased self-confidence and increased satisfaction with ability to deliver quality patient care.

Originality/value

Career development and mentoring programmes designed to affect diversity have an important role to play in fostering the career and personal development of nurses in healthcare organisations.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Downloads
544

Abstract

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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