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Women hold only two per cent of the senior management positions in American companies. What special qualities do these two per cent of women have which have helped them…
Women hold only two per cent of the senior management positions in American companies. What special qualities do these two per cent of women have which have helped them make it to the executive level?
A common charge against qualitative researchers in general and interactionist researchers in particular is that they produce descriptive, a-theoretical accounts of group…
A common charge against qualitative researchers in general and interactionist researchers in particular is that they produce descriptive, a-theoretical accounts of group life. We consider the problem of “analytic interruptus” in contemporary symbolic interactionism – that is, a failure to move beyond analyses of individual cases – and offer a potential to a solution via the pursuit of a generic social process (GSP) research agenda. A GSP approach involves developing, assessing, and revising concepts from the close scrutiny of empirical instances across diverse contexts. By considering criticisms of GSPs from feminist and postmodernist scholars, a more informed, qualified, and better-situated approach to the framework becomes possible. We argue that GSPs remain a quintessential analytical tool to explore subcultural realities and build formal theories of the social world.
Medical errors in obstetric departments are commonly reported and may involve both mother and neonate. The complexity of obstetric care, the interactions between various…
Medical errors in obstetric departments are commonly reported and may involve both mother and neonate. The complexity of obstetric care, the interactions between various disciplines, and the inherent limitations of human performance make it critically important for these departments to provide patient-safe and friendly working environments that are open to learning and participative safety. Obstetric care involves stressful work, and health care professionals are prone to develop burnout, this being associated with unsafe practices and lower probability for reporting safety concerns. This study aims to test the mediating role of burnout in the relationship of patient-safe and friendly working environment with unsafe performance. The full population of professionals working in an obstetrics department in Malta was invited to participate in a cross-sectional study, with 73.6% (n = 184) of its members responding. The research tool was adapted from the Sexton et al.’s Safety Attitudes Questionnaire – Labor and Delivery version and surveyed participants on their working environment, burnout, and perceived unsafe performance. Analysis was done using Structural Equation Modeling. Results supported the relationship between the lack of a perceived patient-safe and friendly working environment and unsafe performance that is mediated by burnout. Creating a working environment that ensures patient safety practices, that allows communication, and is open to learning may protect employees from burnout. In so doing, they are more likely to perceive that they are practicing safely. This study contributes to patient safety literature by relating working environment, burnout, and perceived unsafe practice with the intention of raising awareness of health managers’ roles in ensuring optimal clinical working environment for health care employees.
Estimates of the prevalence of AS in children throughout the entire population of the United States are highly limited and greatly variable. Ozonoff, Dawson, and…
Estimates of the prevalence of AS in children throughout the entire population of the United States are highly limited and greatly variable. Ozonoff, Dawson, and McPartland (2002) stated that estimates of AS range from 0.2 to 0.5% (or 2–5 individuals in 1,000), while Volkmar and Klin (2000) cited studies reporting rates of 36 in 1,000 to approximately 1 in 10,000. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (2000), fourth edition (DSM-IV-TR), states that “definitive data about the prevalence of Asperger Syndrome does not exist.”
According to current estimates, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) ranges from 1 in 500 children to 1 in 150 children (Centers for Disease Control and…
According to current estimates, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) ranges from 1 in 500 children to 1 in 150 children (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/CDC, 2007; Desmon, 2007). In the past such disorders usually were not identified until a child was school-aged, but these disorders are now more likely to be diagnosed in affected individuals during the preschool years (McConachie, Le Couteur, & Honey, 2005; Rutter, 2006). For example, Mandell, Novak, and Zubritsky (2005) surveyed over 900 caregivers of children with ASDs and learned that on an average, children with autistic disorder were diagnosed at 3.1 years of age. These researchers also reported that children who exhibited such characteristics as severe language impairment, toe walking, hand flapping, and sustained unusual play behaviors were diagnosed earlier than children without these features.
Since 1985, Advances in Special Education has aspired to advance theories and best practices essential to understanding, treating, and instructing students with…
Since 1985, Advances in Special Education has aspired to advance theories and best practices essential to understanding, treating, and instructing students with disabilities. At times, advancement involves vision and innovation. At other times, new technologies, cutting edge medical procedures, or innovate pedagogical practices capture the attention of special education professionals globally and substantial changes can result in the way students with special needs are instructed. This volume in Special Education International Perspectives invites a call for common ground and global commonalities in all schools. The main theme of this chapter is that teachers matter. The chapter reviews two decade of scientific evidence that supports this theme. The scientific evidence comes from neuroscience and social cognition findings related to the importance of the teacher–student interaction. Environmental influences are not only the physical world but the all-important social world. The chapter begins with an overview of the “social” brain relative to teaching. A practical guide for teacher use of evidence-based educational practices concludes the chapter.
Borrowing from the literature on social cognition and schema theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine sexual orientation and sex discrimination, to critique and…
Borrowing from the literature on social cognition and schema theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine sexual orientation and sex discrimination, to critique and refine that doctrine, particularly when traditional gender roles are enforced in workplaces. The insights of cognitive schemas on lesbian and gay identity are employed to link models of judicial decision making and gender/sexual orientation.
Methodologically, the paper is located in the sociolegal tradition, but also uses case analysis to supplement and advance its thesis. Because US nondiscrimination law distinguishes between sexuality and gender discrimination, it provides a unique laboratory to critique not only American law, but the structure of nondiscrimination law generally.
Judges' and others' schemas of lesbian and gay men suggest explanations for the analytical confusion in nondiscrimination law. Additionally, the paper's specific findings both supplement and question aspects of extant models of judicial decision making and gender/sexuality.
Social cognition framework enables judges and commentators to reconceptualize facts and relevant doctrine in gender and sexual orientation discrimination cases and to critique some fundamental assumptions of nondiscrimination law. Further, because the paper bridges judicial decision making and gender/sexuality, researchers in those areas can use this analysis of a specific legal context to provide additional insights into how those models work and their underlying, hidden assumptions. This is a conference paper based on this author's work on schema theory and sexual orientation identity in nondiscrimination law.
This article reports on a research project, established to explore future trends and issues in population health and health care in the UK forward to 2015. The aim of the project is to explore how futures thinking can aid policy development in the health sector. The methods adopted in the study are outlined and initial findings are reported. The project, which has already produced several papers, published its policy report, Policy Futures for UK Health: 2000 Report in May.
Purpose – The present research seeks insights into the consumer socialization process of both children and adults in a developing country, Peru. The role played by two…
Purpose – The present research seeks insights into the consumer socialization process of both children and adults in a developing country, Peru. The role played by two socialization agents, media and church, has been explored in terms of how each is related to an important facet of consumer attitudes, level of materialism.
Methodology/approach – Male students attending a faith-based high school in Peru, as well as one of their parents, completed a survey in Spanish seeking information on their television viewing, their faith, and their views regarding possessions.
Findings – The more traditional socialization institution, church, appears to be less important to younger consumers than to their parents; but it has a greater influence on materialism for youth than their parents. The power of media as a socialization agent for both groups is seen not only via television advertising, but also through television programming.
Research implications – As one considers how consumers learn to be consumers, both from a purely theoretical standpoint as well as from a strategic marketing perspective, one should take into account both avenues for information transmission. The role played by both seems to change people's lives, both in terms of perceived importance, as well as actual consumer decision making.