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The just‐in‐time (JIT) production system is notable for its emphasis on employee involvement and participation. However, we suggest that the role of participation that is…
The just‐in‐time (JIT) production system is notable for its emphasis on employee involvement and participation. However, we suggest that the role of participation that is most typically described in the organizational behavior (OB) literature does not match the type of participation practiced in JIT. We introduce a theoretical framework that accounts for these different perspectives: whereas the OB approach treats participation as an intervention and hence as an independent variable, the JIT approach sees it as a side effect of the JIT production system and hence a dependent variable. Understanding of the differences is essential in JIT implementation in the workplace if we are to avoid miscommunication, stress, and disbelief in the system.
The importance of decision maker interpretations in determining organizational responses to performance downturn is underscored and incorporated into a model proposed by…
The importance of decision maker interpretations in determining organizational responses to performance downturn is underscored and incorporated into a model proposed by Ford and Baucus (1987). In this study, we adapted a Ford and Baucus model to examine 25 organizations in an area of economic downturn. Managerial perceptions of the business environment were related to internal and external organizational responses. Findings were interpreted as supporting the portion of the model dealing with active responses. Logical relationships between variables were observed. Moreover, a series of linkages was suggested. While the model shows distinct categories of responses, an important finding of this research is that firms' responses could not be characterized as falling exclusively into any one specific category as predicted by the model. Instead, we found complex networks of internal and external strategies.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between organizational culture, the adoption and extent of use of quality management (QM) programs, as well…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between organizational culture, the adoption and extent of use of quality management (QM) programs, as well as extent of use of traditional information systems (TIS), e‐commerce (E‐C) and customer relationship management (CRM) systems in Jamaica.
A sample of 93 Jamaican managers are surveyed from a variety of companies including small businesses, as well as Jamaican‐based operations units of US companies.
Our results from this exploratory study offer support for several of the relationships we have suggested. There are strong relationships, across organizations, between QM maturity – in terms of traditional QM only – and all three types of information systems (IS)‐CRM effectiveness, IS: traditional effectiveness and extensiveness, and E‐C extensiveness and effectiveness. In terms of relationships to culture, also notable are the unexpected results found in the negative relationship between the Person‐centered culture and E‐C and TIS use.
This research suggests an intriguing series of relationships between IS and QM maturity and, we believe, indicates that further study could lead to an understanding of the impacts which could be helpful to managers seeking competitiveness and researchers hoping to learn more about organizations and quality.
This study examines how deans and associate deans of a group from similar universities use networking. Specifically, we consider whether the deans, traditionally…
This study examines how deans and associate deans of a group from similar universities use networking. Specifically, we consider whether the deans, traditionally considered to perform boundary‐spanning functions, make more use of external networking than do the associate deans, who are their subordinates. We examine the relationship between accuracy in perceiving a network and influence in the network. Finally, we consider the relationship between reports of networking outside the sample and influence within the sample. We find support for our first two propositions and raise several issues related to our final one.
Describes a longitudinal study which examined the social style profile(SSP) as a predictive tool for managerial success over a ten‐yearperiod. The SSP has been used…
Describes a longitudinal study which examined the social style profile (SSP) as a predictive tool for managerial success over a ten‐year period. The SSP has been used extensively in the USA to measure leadership behaviours and has served as a foundation for a wide variety of leadership development programmes in organizations. The analyses indicated that there is no clear cut relationship between the dimensions of the SSP and managerial success in the long run.
Examines the behaviour of hotel employees who, even when they say they are “satisfied”, move from job to job for reasons unrelated to that “satisfaction”. Suggests that an…
Examines the behaviour of hotel employees who, even when they say they are “satisfied”, move from job to job for reasons unrelated to that “satisfaction”. Suggests that an important reason for leaving jobs is that such movement may represent an important way to “get ahead”. Reports on a study which is a preliminary investigation of what is described as a “hobo phenomenon” in the hotel sector. Explains that limited longitudinal data (over eight months), were collected and analysed; and implications were pursued through in‐depth interviews with hotel employees. Results suggest that the hobo phenomenon may have potential as an explanatory variable in voluntary turnover research in the hotel sector. Discusses the implications, emphasizing the need to consider employee perceptions of promotion opportunities, and specifically the importance of considering promotion opportunities separate from promotion fairness, a factor neglected in current job satisfaction measures.
Many organizations devote considerable time and effort to improving job satisfaction, hoping for improved performance. To the extent that happiness and satisfaction are a result of one′s heredity and past experiences, management clearly has a very limited role in effecting change. To the degree that happiness and satisfaction are a direct result of one′s present work experiences, management has the opportunity for some, albeit small, impact. Suggests that, because of the complexities associated with one′s level of satisfaction, executives and managers take a conservative approach to methods or programmes that promise high job satisfaction and enhanced productivity.
Seeks to conduct serious academic study of the Generation X phenomenon.
Considers how the literature (primarily the popular press) has viewed the contrast between Generation X and its predecessor, the Baby Boomer generation. Uses Fey's acceptance of others scale to consider what differences may exist between these individuals and those who preceded them.
The popular literature and anecdotal evidence from practicing managers hold that the impact of a new, radically different generation, often referred to as Generation X, is just now beginning to be felt in US organizations as well as in society as a whole. Many observations and informal reports from practicing managers describe how different the “new breed” of employees is and how difficult they are to manage. Finds that issues of trust and independence surface repeatedly. Interprets the results as providing some evidence that generational differences may exist.
Considerable future research will be required to clarify the extensiveness of the differences and their significance.
Considers the impact of a radically different generation on US organizations and on society as a whole.
Examines two distinctly different reasons for resistance to total quality management (TQM) in US corporations. One of these is that workers will perceive TQM as…
Examines two distinctly different reasons for resistance to total quality management (TQM) in US corporations. One of these is that workers will perceive TQM as controlling rather than empowering: in effect, seeing it as a ploy to get them to work harder for fewer rewards. Alternatively, it may be that TQM is seen as empowering but that all individuals do not want enriched, empowered jobs. Asks whether personality characteristics, and especially equity sensitivity, growth need strength, and willingness to engage in organizational citizenship behavior, are related to each other and whether they will influence individuals’ reactions to job characteristics associated with the quality environment. Findings offer support for the second of the possibilities raised, with results suggesting that resistance is not related to perceptions that jobs under TQM are seen as controlling. Finds evidence that personality characteristics, and especially growth needs strength (GNS) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), are related to preferences for enriched jobs of the type associated with the quality environment.
Investigates the relationships between organizational adoption and extent of use of quality management (QM) programs and customer relationship management systems (CRM) in…
Investigates the relationships between organizational adoption and extent of use of quality management (QM) programs and customer relationship management systems (CRM) in health‐care and non‐health‐care organizational settings. In referring to QM, recognizes that there has been widespread adoption, across organizations generally, of programs aimed at delivering superior quality to the customer. Focuses on this group of programs when considering QM, and looks at how adoption of QM may impact the CRM programs. Specifically, contends that organizations from the two settings may vary considerably in QM maturity. Begins by considering whether there are differences in the paths which health‐care and non‐health‐care organizations have used in approaching and implementing QM. Finds no differences, however, in this research. Instead, finds that there were systematic changes which appeared to accompany higher‐quality QM implementations in both health‐care and non‐health‐care organizations.