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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Sandra L. Fielden and Marilyn J. Davidson

Employers in the UK are under a legal obligation to ensure that their recruitment procedures conform with the Sex Discrimination Act (1975), which states that employers…

Abstract

Employers in the UK are under a legal obligation to ensure that their recruitment procedures conform with the Sex Discrimination Act (1975), which states that employers must not discriminate or indicate any hidden intention to discriminate against a potential employee on the grounds of their sex. Yet the very fact that many jobs are still viewed as ‘male’ or ‘female’ is often sufficient to prevent the non‐dominant gender group from applying for those positions (Ray, 1990). Managerial jobs have traditionally been male dominated and organisations are under a legal obligation to ensure that their recruitment procedures do not indicate any intention to discriminate, either overtly or covertly. Therefore, organisations need not only to demonstrate that they have no intention to discriminate, especially in traditionally male dominated occupations such as management, but they also need to ensure that their intention not to discriminate is clearly and explicitly communicated to potential job applicants (Ray, 1990). The aim of this article is to address the similarities and differences between the job search experiences of unemployed female and male managers, and to present the research findings from an in‐depth study of unemployed British managers.

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Equal Opportunities International, vol. 16 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2015

Gail Gilchrist, Sandra Davidson, Aves Middleton, Helen Herrman, Kelsey Hegarty and Jane Gunn

People with a history of depression are more likely to smoke and less likely to achieve abstinence from smoking long term. The purpose of this paper is to understand the…

Abstract

Purpose

People with a history of depression are more likely to smoke and less likely to achieve abstinence from smoking long term. The purpose of this paper is to understand the factors associated with smoking and smoking cessation among patients with depression.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports on smoking prevalence and cessation in a cohort of 789 primary care attendees with depressive symptoms (Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of=16) recruited from 30 randomly selected Primary Care Practices in Victoria, Australia in 2005.

Findings

At baseline, 32 per cent of participants smoked. Smokers were more likely to be male, unmarried, receive government benefits, have difficulty managing on available income, have emphysema, a chronic illness, poor self-rated health, to have more severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, to be taking anti-depressants, to be hazardous drinkers, to report suicidal ideation and to have experienced childhood physical or sexual abuse. At 12 months, 20 participants reported quitting. Females and people with good or better self-rated health were significantly more likely to have quit, while people with a chronic illness or suicidal ideation were less likely to quit. Smoking cessation was not associated with increases in depression or anxiety symptoms. Only six participants remained quit over four years.

Practical implications

Rates of smoking were high, and long-term cessation was low among primary care patients with depressive symptoms. Primary care physicians should provide additional monitoring and support to assist smokers with depression quit and remain quit.

Originality/value

This is the first naturalistic study of smoking patterns among primary care attendees with depressive symptoms.

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Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2001

Su Olsson

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656

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Women in Management Review, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Sandra L. Fielden, Marilyn J. Davidson and Peter J. Makin

The success or failure of a new business is often dependent on overcoming a series of potential barriers, eg securing sufficient financial backing, adequate and…

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4381

Abstract

The success or failure of a new business is often dependent on overcoming a series of potential barriers, eg securing sufficient financial backing, adequate and appropriate guidance and training etc. Yet, in light of the substantial growth rate of micro and small businesses, there has been little research into the experiences of potential and new business owners during the start‐up of such enterprises. To date there has been no systematic study of this group in the UK, and many questions remain unanswered. This study of micro and small business during the initialisation and formation of new venture creation (eg pre‐start‐up, 0‐6 months and 6‐12 months∥ sought to answer some of those questions. It identifies the needs of new business owners, the barriers they encounter, and the strategies they use to overcome those obstacles. The findings indicate that financial difficulties and the attitudes of banks towards new business owners are the main barriers to successful enterprise creation, with mentors and more specific advice cited as the assistance regarded as affording the greatest benefit to potential and new business owners. In addition, small and micro business owners are going out of business, or are unable to fulfil their potential, because they are denied access to those factors that promote success.

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Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Sandra L. Fielden and Cary L. Cooper

Aims to present a critical appraisal of the research relating to the sources of stress and stress reactions experienced by women managers. Considers the available data and…

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1454

Abstract

Aims to present a critical appraisal of the research relating to the sources of stress and stress reactions experienced by women managers. Considers the available data and level of understanding, and the assumptions that traditional approaches have been based upon. Presents conflicting findings and considers the implications of such results. Offers an overview of the current knowledge pertaining to women and managerial stress, raising a number of questions for which there are currently no answers.

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Equal Opportunities International, vol. 20 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2010

Marilyn J. Davidson, Sandra L. Fielden and Azura Omar

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the positive and negative effects of gender and ethnicity in relation to discrimination and the problems encountered in accessing…

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4051

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the positive and negative effects of gender and ethnicity in relation to discrimination and the problems encountered in accessing social support (including emotional and instrumental support).

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data were collected through in‐depth interviews with 40 Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) female small business owners based in north west England. The main aims and objectives of the study were to: investigate the discriminatory experiences of BAME female small business owners related to their gender and ethnicity; and to identify the forms (formal and informal) and types (emotional/instrumental) of social support available in relation to their entrepreneurial activities that enabled them to cope with and overcome, the discrimination they may encounter.

Findings

Over half of the respondents in the study had experienced discriminations because of their gender, ethnic background or both. This was attributed to a number of factors, including stereotypical images of specific ethnic cultures, religions and practices. Many respondents reported difficulties in accessing different types of formal social support, e.g. formal business and financial support. Informal support by respondents' families was reported as a key source of both emotional and instrumental.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is just a starting point for this area of research and, because the sample covers women from a variety of BAME backgrounds, it is not possible to generalize the findings to the wider population of BAME women. However, it does give an indication of what issues need to be considered in the provision of instrumental support for BAME women small business owners.

Practical implications

The paper shows that a key element in the development of a strategy for addressing the needs of the BAME female small business owners is the necessity to appropriately re‐design mainstream business support systems and financial services, in order to provide these women effective access to formal social support.

Originality/value

The experiences of BAME small business owners have received little attention and this paper offers a unique insight into the relationship between social support, gender, ethnicity and business ownership.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2010

Stephen Ritch

Much of what Age Concern Isle of Man, a core partner in the Tell Me Project, does is about giving older people a voice: a voice in government, in the media and in the…

Abstract

Much of what Age Concern Isle of Man, a core partner in the Tell Me Project, does is about giving older people a voice: a voice in government, in the media and in the third (voluntary) sector. The Tell Me Project is also about giving older people a voice; one that is being heard and recorded for posterity to make an invaluable contribution to a unique social history of the Isle of Man. This is an intergenerational education project through which the older generation can unlock and share their memories with young people; a project bridging the gap between generations, demonstrating that the young and the not‐so‐young have much to share and learn from each other, and helping fulfil Age Concern Isle of Man's mission: ‘to create an age‐friendly society where every older person counts’.

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Working with Older People, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-3666

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Sandra Fielden and Marilyn J. Davidson

The aim of this paper is to explore the intersection between gender and ethnicity in relation to discrimination and the problems encountered in accessing social support…

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2031

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to explore the intersection between gender and ethnicity in relation to discrimination and the problems encountered in accessing social support (including emotional and instrumental support) experienced by Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) women business owners.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data were collected through in‐depth interviews with 40 BAME women small business owners based in North West England. The main aims and objectives of the study were to: investigate the discriminatory experiences of BAME women small business owners related to the intersection between their gender and ethnicity, and to identify the forms (formal and informal) and types (emotional/instrumental) of social support available in relation to their entrepreneurial activities that enabled them to cope with and overcome, the discrimination they may encounter.

Findings

The degree of discrimination experienced was reported as a result of gender, ethnic background or an intersection between both. This was attributed to a number of factors, including stereotypical difficulties in accessing different types of formal social support, e.g. formal business and financial support. Informal support by respondents' families was reported as a key source of both emotional and instrumental support.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is just a starting point for this area of research and, because the sample covers women from a variety of BAME backgrounds, it is not possible to generalise the findings to the wider population of BAME women. However, it does give an indication of what issues need to be considered in the provision of instrumental support for BAME women small business owners.

Practical implications

The paper shows that a key element in the development of a strategy for addressing the needs of the BAME women small business owners is the necessity to appropriately re‐design mainstream business support systems and financial services, in order to provide these women effective access to formal social support.

Originality/value

The experiences of BAME women small business owners have received little attention and this paper offers a unique insight into the relationship between how the intersection between gender and ethnicity impact on experiences of discrimination and social support. Whilst it highlights many intra group differences, it has also demonstrated the lack of homogeneity between and within women from different ethnic backgrounds.

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Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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538

Abstract

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Women in Management Review, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1998

Sandra L. Fielden and Marilyn J. Davidson

Aims to present the findings of a recent study into the availability of social support to unemployed female managers. It is widely recognised that social support is an…

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935

Abstract

Aims to present the findings of a recent study into the availability of social support to unemployed female managers. It is widely recognised that social support is an important factor in determining well‐being during unemployment, yet its role in managerial unemployment has received very limited attention. Previous research has demonstrated that social support is of particular importance to women, with a strong emphasis on emotional support. This paper investigates the experiences of 115 unemployed female managers in terms of social support, an area which, despite its importance, has to‐date received no specific attention. The findings indicate that the social support available to unemployed female managers is not only unsupportive but is severely restricted because of their unique position in society.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 13 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

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