Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Munish Chhabra and Rupinder Singh

This paper seeks to review the industrial applications of state‐of‐the‐art additive manufacturing (AM) techniques in metal casting technology. An extensive survey of…

Downloads
3547

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to review the industrial applications of state‐of‐the‐art additive manufacturing (AM) techniques in metal casting technology. An extensive survey of concepts, techniques, approaches and suitability of various commercialised rapid casting (RC) solutions with traditional casting methods is presented.

Design/methodology/approach

The tooling required for producing metal casting such as fabrication of patterns, cores and moulds with RC directly by using different approaches are presented and evaluated. Relevant case studies and examples explaining the suitability and problems of using RC solutions by various manufacturers and researchers are also presented.

Findings

Latest research to optimize the current RC solutions, and new inventions in processing techniques and materials in RC performed by researchers worldwide are also discussed. The discussion regarding the benefits of RC solutions to foundrymen, and challenges to produce accurate and cost‐effective RC amongst AM manufacturers concludes this paper.

Research limitations/implications

The research related to this survey is limited to the applicability of RC solutions to sand casting and investment casting processes. There is practically no implication in industrial application of RC technology.

Originality/value

This review presents the information regarding potential AM application – RC, which facilitates the fabrication of patterns, cores and moulds directly using the computer‐aided design data. The information available in this paper serves the purpose of researchers and academicians to explore the new options in the field of RC and especially users, manufacturers and service industries to produce casting in relatively much shorter time and at low cost and even to cast complex design components which otherwise was impossible by using traditional casting processes and CNC technology.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Henrique Guilherme da Silva, João Carlos Espíndola Ferreira, Vikas Kumar and Jose Arturo Garza-Reyes

The purpose of this research was to develop new sustainability indicators consistent with the sand mould casting industry, through benchmarking of cleaner production (CP)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research was to develop new sustainability indicators consistent with the sand mould casting industry, through benchmarking of cleaner production (CP), in order to identify the levels of practice and performance of companies of the casting sector. In addition, a lean manufacturing checklist was specified in order to verify the presence of lean manufacturing techniques employed to eliminate waste towards CP. No previous work was found in the literature that attempts to assess practices and performance of companies performing sand mould casting (a significantly polluting manufacturing process) in the context of CP and lean manufacturing.

Design/methodology/approach

For the application of this benchmarking, nine companies from the sand mould casting sector were studied, where the profile of each company was analysed through eight variables and 47 indicators. Data was obtained through face-to-face visits and questionnaire application in the companies, and the data was analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively.

Findings

The results obtained were the diagnosis of companies' practices and performance resulting from their position in the benchmarking charts, as well as the identification of the areas in which companies should implement improvements aiming at achieving CP.

Research limitations/implications

This research was developed specifically for sand mould casting companies, and each process has its own characteristics

Practical implications

14 companies were invited to participate in this survey, but nine companies agreed to participate. Unfortunately, there were companies that declined to participate in the survey.

Originality/value

It is important to diagnose casting companies regarding CP practices, performance and deployment potential. Thus, important negative issues in the company can be identified, and with this information, they can develop actions focussed on cases that need more attention. In addition, this work contributes to evaluate the relationship and efficiency of improvement actions developed by companies in the context of both lean manufacturing and CP, aiming to reduce or eliminate the environmental impact. The improvement of practices and performance of a company regarding CP is considered to be beneficial to supply chain management in the context of sustainability, as the other participating companies are likely to seek ways to reduce environmental impact, and the diagnostics provided by this work may also be used by those companies.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 January 2017

Philip Mark Hackney and Richard Wooldridge

Metal casting industry is in recovery phase after the crisis in 2008; customer demand continues to increase, with 98.6 million metric tons cast in 2011. Traditional…

Abstract

Purpose

Metal casting industry is in recovery phase after the crisis in 2008; customer demand continues to increase, with 98.6 million metric tons cast in 2011. Traditional ferrous and non-ferrous casting techniques require one shot or permanent moulds which require tooling to produce. Tooling particularly for developmental projects can be costly and take valuable time to produce. Additive manufacturing (AM) has been used to manufacture sand patterns for metal sand casting using laser sintering and sand bonding. This research aims to focus on characterising the sand-bonded process developed by ExOne GmbhH Germany.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach taken in this research is to evaluate characteristics of parts built in the build volume for dimensional accuracy, tensile and compressive crush strength, density, impact strength and high temperature resistance. These properties are required to compare the 3D sand printing (3DSP) process to direct laser sand sintering (DLSS) and traditional Furan-based casting sand mixtures. The samples were taken from a production machine over a period of 30 days to ensure consistency.

Findings

The 3DSP process has the capability to manufacture sand patterns to an accuracy of ±0.5 mm or error less than 0.3 per cent; it has also demonstrated the best build position to achieve accurate parts. The research has demonstrated the 3DSP patterns are comparable to traditional methods for important casting material characteristics such as tensile, compression and impact strength. It has been shown that the 3DSP process is capable manufacturing significantly larger parts, with build production rates up to 30 times higher compared to similar parts manufactured via the DLSS process.

Research limitations/implications

As they has been very few 3DSP machines sold in Europe and particular UK, they has been little research into this new technique, and, therefore, they is a reliance on machine manufactures data for assessment. This research into 3DSP has increased the knowledge of this process significantly.

Practical implications

This research would be of interest to designers and manufacturing engineers wishing to take advantage of the implications of having new design freedom, tool less manufacturing with short lead times in a wide range of materials using fundamentally tried and tested century’s old casting techniques.

Originality/value

The research for this paper revealed very little published academic research in this area; therefore, this work will increase the body of knowledge for this niche AM process.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 June 2020

Paul Lynch, C.R. Hasbrouck, Joseph Wilck, Michael Kay and Guha Manogharan

This paper aims to investigate the current state, technological challenges, economic opportunities and future directions in the growing “indirect” hybrid manufacturing…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the current state, technological challenges, economic opportunities and future directions in the growing “indirect” hybrid manufacturing ecosystem, which integrates traditional metal casting with the production of tooling via additive manufacturing (AM) process including three-dimensional sand printing (3DSP) and printed wax patterns.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted among 100 participants from foundries and AM service providers across the USA to understand the current adoption of AM in metal casting as a function of engineering specifications, production demand, volume and cost metrics. In addition, current technological and logistical challenges that are encountered by the foundries are identified to gather insight into the future direction of this evolving supply chain.

Findings

One of the major findings from this study is that hard tooling costs (i.e. patterns/core boxes) are the greatest challenge in low volume production for foundries. Hence, AM and 3DSP offer the greatest cost-benefit for these low volume production runs as it does not require the need for hard tooling to produce much higher profit premium castings. It is evident that there are major opportunities for the casting supply chain to benefit from an advanced digital ecosystem that seamlessly integrates AM and 3DSP into foundry operations. The critical challenges for adoption of 3DSP in current foundry operations are categorized into as follows: capital cost of the equipment, which cannot be justified due to limited demand for 3DSP molds/cores by casting buyers, transportation of 3DSP molds and cores, access to 3DSP, limited knowledge of 3DSP, limitations in current design tools to integrate 3DSP design principles and long lead times to acquire 3DSP molds/cores.

Practical implications

Based on the findings of this study, indirect hybrid metal AM supply chains, i.e. 3DSP metal casting supply chains is proposed, as 3DSP replaces traditional mold-making in the sand casting process flow, no/limited additional costs and resources would be required for qualification and certification of the cast parts made from three-dimensional printed sand molds. Access to 3DSP resources can be addressed by establishing a robust 3DSP metal casting supply chain, which will also enable existing foundries to rapidly acquire new 3DSP-related knowledge.

Originality/value

This original survey from 100 small and medium enterprises including foundries and AM service providers suggests that establishing 3DSP hubs around original equipment manufacturers as a shared resource to produce molds and cores would be beneficial. This provides traditional foundries means to continue mass production of castings using existing hard tooling while integrating 3DSP for new complex low volume parts, replacement parts, legacy parts and prototyping.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 October 2018

Tugdual Amaury Le Néel, Pascal Mognol and Jean-Yves Hascoët

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current state of the art manufacturing techniques using sand molds for the casting industry by the means of additive…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current state of the art manufacturing techniques using sand molds for the casting industry by the means of additive manufacturing (AM). In particular, this review will cover two families of 3D printing in regards to sand mold fabrication.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper will discuss the sand casting manufacturing processes of AM by binder jetting (3D printing) and selective laser sintering. Scientific articles, patents and case studies are analyzed. Topics ranging from the technology types to the economic implications are covered.

Findings

The review investigates new factors and methods for mold design, looking at mechanical properties and cost analysis as influenced by material selection, thermal characteristics, topological optimization and manufacturing procedure. Findings in this study suggest that this topic lacks vigorous scientific research and that the case studies by manufacturers thus far are not useful.

Research limitations/implications

As demonstrated by the limited data from previous published studies, a more comprehensive and conclusive analysis is needed due to the lack of interest and resources regarding the AM of sand molds.

Practical implications

This study is a useful tool for any researchers with an interest in the field of AM of sand molds.

Social implications

Key perspectives are proposed.

Originality/value

This review highlights current gaps in this field. The review goes beyond the scientific articles by curating patents and professional case studies.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 May 2001

R.W. Lewis, M.T. Manzari and D.T. Gethin

The general procedure of thermal optimisation in the sand casting process is addressed. Various aspects of design including the size and position of feeders and chills are…

Downloads
1387

Abstract

The general procedure of thermal optimisation in the sand casting process is addressed. Various aspects of design including the size and position of feeders and chills are discussed and practical approaches are presented to search for optimum design configurations. An algorithm is also presented for finding the optimum size, position and number of chills in a sand casting process. The presence of the chill(s) in the casting configuration is simulated using a one‐dimensional heat conduction model and proper inter‐facial heat transfer coefficients. The method is efficient as all computations are carried out on the same grid and there is no need for re‐meshing due to re‐sizing or re‐positioning of the chills. A finite element thermal analysis module is linked to a commercial optimisation tool to search for the optimum set of design variables and a computationally efficient sensitivity analysis method is introduced. Three sand casting test cases are solved to validate and demonstrate the optimisation procedure and these show its use to determine the optimum size, location and number of feeders and chills on a section through a casting.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 18 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Sushil Kumar, P.S. Satsangi and D.R. Prajapati

The purpose of this paper is to explore Six Sigma practices in a casting industry, that could improve the green sand casting process in a foundry by reducing the casting

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore Six Sigma practices in a casting industry, that could improve the green sand casting process in a foundry by reducing the casting defects. The goal was to determine which variables influenced this evolution and the relative weight of critical success factors as the methodology developed.

Design/methodology/approach

The DMAIC (Define, Measurement, Analyze, Improve, and Control)‐based Six Sigma approach is implemented to improve the green sand casting process and has made the process more robust to quality variations. Analysis of various critical process parameters of the melt shop is also carried out with the help of Taguchi's method of experimental design.

Findings

The proposed techniques optimized control factors, resulting in superior quality and stability of the green sand castings process, which contributes to minimizing the casting defects and improving the Sigma level of the industry.

Research limitations/implications

This study was carried out with some boundaries such as the number of castings of differential housings, available resources, time constraints, etc.

Practical implications

This paper is most valuable for the foundry industry, which can avail the direct benefit of Six Sigma results from the reduction in the number of defects due to improved casting processes and dispels the myths concerning the hardly ever use of Six Sigma in the casting industry.

Originality/value

The novelty of the paper lies in conducting a comparative study on the performance of a Six Sigma project. The paper will be valuable for quality professionals and management personnel in the casting industry.

To view the access options for this content please click here

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyse the problem of high binder content in sand mould and to solve it. Meanwhile, to increase build speed, especially for heavy casting’s sand mould with a high value in layer height, such as 2 mm in construction instead of the industry standard of 0.3 mm, line forming for three-dimensional (3D) sand mould printing is researched.

Design/methodology/approach

Brief introduction of 3D sand mould printing and key issues are given first. Then, this paper quantitatively analyses binder content in sand mould. Finally, to acquire sand mould with appropriate binder content and high build speed, line forming combining traditional furan no-bake sand manufacture technique is researched, as well as relevant feasible schemes and current progress.

Findings

The study shows that compared with traditional technique, binder content in sand mould produced by available 3D printing technique is too high, bad for sand mould’s properties and quality of castings, while line forming brings guaranteed binder content and improved build speed.

Research limitations/implications

More experiments are needed to demonstrate quantitative analysis of binder content and to obtain flowability of moist sand, detailed structure design of nozzle and practical build speed, as well as methods of circulation of materials considering solidification time.

Practical implications

Line forming with higher build speed and suitable binder content means excellent properties of sand mould and castings as well, bringing obvious implication for moulds industries and manufacturing industry.

Originality/value

This new method could increase build speed and meanwhile guarantee binder content. Thus, its application prospect is promising.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Donghua Zhao, Weizhong Guo, Baibing Zhang and Feng Gao

The purpose of this paper is to review available technologies, analyse their features, propose a new approach of 3D sand mould printing based on line forming, introduce…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review available technologies, analyse their features, propose a new approach of 3D sand mould printing based on line forming, introduce the manufacturing principle and show advantages of this approach, especially for larger parts with large Z steps in the build, such as 2 mm stepwise.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper introduces 3D sand mould printing, compares and analyses technological process and existing fabrication approaches among available technologies first. Then, a new approach of 3D sand mould printing is proposed to improve build speed. In addition, the proposed system will be analysed or benchmarked against existing systems.

Findings

A new approach based on line forming of sand mould printing is put forward by reviewing and analysing available technologies, to improve build speed from the aspect of basic moulding movement instead of optimization of moulding methods and process parameters. The theoretical calculation and analysis shows that build speed can be improved greatly, and it is more suitable for the manufacture of large-scale casting’s sand mould when considering dimensional accuracy and printing error, as well as uniformity of each layer.

Research limitations/implications

The specific implement scheme of line forming and nozzle’s specific structure of this new approach need further study.

Practical implications

Much higher build speed of 3D sand mould printing with new approach brings evident implication for moulds companies and manufacturing industry, having a far-reaching influence on the development of national economy.

Originality/value

This paper reviews available technologies and presents a new approach of 3D sand mould printing for the first time. Analysis of the new approach shows that this new method of sand mould printing can boost build speed greatly. So, its application prospect is great.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 1970

Reid, Hodson, Guest, Viscount Dilhorne and Upjohn

November 27, 1969 Factory — Maintenance — Floor — Freedom from Obstruction — Obligation — Foundry — Sand floor — Pieces of metal embedded — Whether “reasonably…

Abstract

November 27, 1969 Factory — Maintenance — Floor — Freedom from Obstruction — Obligation — Foundry — Sand floor — Pieces of metal embedded — Whether “reasonably practicable” to keep floor clear — Factories Act, 1961 (9 & 10 Eliz.II,c.34), s.28(1).

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

1 – 10 of over 1000