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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2012

Sami J. Habib and Paulvanna N. Marimuthu

Energy constraint is always a serious issue in wireless sensor networks, as the energy possessed by the sensors is limited and non‐renewable. Data aggregation at…

Abstract

Purpose

Energy constraint is always a serious issue in wireless sensor networks, as the energy possessed by the sensors is limited and non‐renewable. Data aggregation at intermediate base stations increases the lifespan of the sensors, whereby the sensors' data are aggregated before being communicated to the central server. This paper proposes a query‐based aggregation within Monte Carlo simulator to explore the best and worst possible query orders to aggregate the sensors' data at the base stations. The proposed query‐based aggregation model can help the network administrator to envisage the best query orders in improving the performance of the base stations under uncertain query ordering. Furthermore, it aims to examine the feasibility of the proposed model to engage simultaneous transmissions at the base station and also to derive a best‐fit mathematical model to study the behavior of data aggregation with uncertain querying order.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper considers small and medium‐sized wireless sensor networks comprised of randomly deployed sensors in a square arena. It formulates the query‐based data aggregation problem as an uncertain ordering problem within Monte Carlo simulator, generating several thousands of uncertain orders to schedule the responses of M sensors at the base station within the specified time interval. For each selected time interval, the model finds the best possible querying order to aggregate the data with reduced idle time and with improved throughput. Furthermore, it extends the model to include multiple sensing parameters and multiple aggregating channels, thereby enabling the administrator to plan the capacity of its WSN according to specific time intervals known in advance.

Findings

The experimental results within Monte Carlo simulator demonstrate that the query‐based aggregation scheme show a better trade‐off in maximizing the aggregating efficiency and also reducing the average idle‐time experienced by the individual sensor. The query‐based aggregation model was tested for a WSN containing 25 sensors with single sensing parameter, transmitting data to a base station; moreover, the simulation results show continuous improvement in best‐case performances from 56 percent to 96 percent in the time interval of 80 to 200 time units. Moreover, the query aggregation is extended to analyze the behavior of WSN with 50 sensors, sensing two environmental parameters and base station equipped with multiple channels, whereby it demonstrates a shorter aggregation time interval against single channel. The analysis of average waiting time of individual sensors in the generated uncertain querying order shows that the best‐case scenario within a specified time interval showed a gain of 10 percent to 20 percent over the worst‐case scenario, which reduces the total transmission time by around 50 percent.

Practical implications

The proposed query‐based data aggregation model can be utilized to predict the non‐deterministic real‐time behavior of the wireless sensor network in response to the flooded queries by the base station.

Originality/value

This paper employs a novel framework to analyze all possible ordering of sensor responses to be aggregated at the base station within the stipulated aggregating time interval.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Sami J. Habib and Paulvanna N. Marimuthu

Continuous exposure and over‐utilization of sensors in harsh environments can lead some sensors to fail, and thereby not covering the service area effectively and…

Abstract

Purpose

Continuous exposure and over‐utilization of sensors in harsh environments can lead some sensors to fail, and thereby not covering the service area effectively and efficiently. The purpose of this paper is to propose a two‐level coverage restoration scheme for the failing sensors by the existing sensors deployed in the immediate neighborhood of the failing sensors. The restoration scheme extends the search process to the set of failed sensors' corner neighbors at a second stage, with non‐available immediate active neighboring sensors at its first stage. Thus, the coverage restoration scheme attempts to sustain a maximum area of coverage with failed sensors.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have considered a wireless sensor network (WSN), comprised of sensors deployed in a grid‐based arrangement in an inaccessible arena. The authors have formulated the coverage restoration problem as an optimization problem, to find the nearest and most apt neighbor sensors to reach solutions of maximizing the coverage area with failed sensors, while minimizing the energy consumption. Simulated annealing has been utilized as a search algorithm to find out the neighboring sensors with maximal energy in the vicinity of the failed node to cover its area.

Findings

The experimental results within the optimization algorithm have demonstrated that the restoration scheme shows a better trade‐off in maximizing the coverage area up to 90 per cent with a decrease of 26 per cent lifespan. The performance of the algorithm is further improved with extended search space including the corner neighbors in addition to the immediate neighbors.

Practical implications

The proposed coverage restoration can be embedded within applications using WSN to restore the coverage and maintain its functionality with optimized energy consumption.

Originality/value

The paper employs a novel framework to restore the coverage of the failed sensors by doubling the sensing area of the neighborhood sensors, and it utilizes an optimization scheme to search for neighborhood sensors with maximal energy to extend the lifespan of WSN.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Ismail Khalil

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Abstract

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1988

Mushtaq Luqmani, Ghazi M. Habib and Sami Kassem

This articles provides a managerial framework to examine and analyse factors that may influence government decision making in less developed countries. In order to market…

Abstract

This articles provides a managerial framework to examine and analyse factors that may influence government decision making in less developed countries. In order to market successfully to these buyers, a series of hurdles has to be cleared. These include meeting eligibility, following procedures, establishing critical linkages, developing competitive offers and exerting appropriate influence. International firms can enhance their success and profits by taking a serious, long‐term approach to these markets.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1987

Ghazi Habib, Ugur Yavas, Sami Kassem and Khalid Al‐Modaifer

The macro‐environment of the banking industry in Saudi Arabia is considered, the development of commercial banking is discussed, and present banking activities with regard…

Abstract

The macro‐environment of the banking industry in Saudi Arabia is considered, the development of commercial banking is discussed, and present banking activities with regard to branches, services and promotion are examined. This comprehensive look at the Saudi bank marketing scene draws on the work of published writers, interviews with banking officials and the authors' own observations and experiences.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Sami Habib and Maytham Safar

The purpose of this paper is to propose a four‐level hierarchy model for multimedia documents representation to be used during the dynamic scheduling and altering of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a four‐level hierarchy model for multimedia documents representation to be used during the dynamic scheduling and altering of multimedia contents.

Design/methodology/approach

The four‐level hierarchy model (object, operation, timing, and precedence), offers a fine‐grain representation of multimedia contents and is embedded within a research tool, which is called WEBCAP. WEBCAP utilizes the four‐level hierarchy to synchronize the retrieval of objects in the multimedia document employing Allen's temporal relations, and then applies the Bellman‐Ford's algorithm on the precedence graph to schedule all operations (fetch, transmit, process, and render), while satisfying the in‐time updating and all web workload's resources constraints.

Findings

The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the model in scheduling the periodical updating multimedia documents while considering a variety of workloads on web/TCP.

Research limitations/implications

WEBCAP should be enhanced to automatically measure and/or approximate the available bandwidth of the system using sophisticated measurement of end‐to‐end connectivity. In addition, WEBCAP should be expanded and enhanced to examine system infrastructure for more real‐time applications, such as tele‐medicine and e‐learning.

Practical implications

WEBCAP can be used as an XML markup language for describing multimedia presentations. It can be used to create online presentations similar to PowerPoint on desktop environment, or used as an interactive e‐learning tool. An HTML browser may use a WEBCAP plug‐in to display a WEBCAP document embedded in an HTML/XML page.

Originality/value

This paper proposed a dynamic scheduling of multimedia documents with frequent updates taking into consideration the network's workload to reduce the packet lost ratio in the TCP flow, especially in the early stages. WEBCAP can be used to guide distributed systems designers/managers to schedule or tune their resources for optimal or near optimal performance, subject to minimizing the cost of document retrieval while satisfying the in time constraints.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1989

M. Sami Kassem

Aims to fill the gap in understanding about services marketing inthe East. Uses an eclectic methodology in surveying services marketingin the Arabian Gulf, offering some…

Abstract

Aims to fill the gap in understanding about services marketing in the East. Uses an eclectic methodology in surveying services marketing in the Arabian Gulf, offering some East‐West comparison, including explanation for and implications of differences. Demonstrates that environmental constraints have great effects on services produced in a society, concluding that services mirror their society and its culture, history and socioeconomic circumstances.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1986

Ugur Yavas and Ghazi Habib

Management writings in the Middle East region are scarce and scattered. This is due to the lack of doctorate programmes offered by educational institutions, the weak links…

Abstract

Management writings in the Middle East region are scarce and scattered. This is due to the lack of doctorate programmes offered by educational institutions, the weak links between academia and the business world, limited formal and informal networks, the lack of status given to the field of management by national bodies and the lack of a publication culture. A bibliography of management‐related writings in the Middle East is presented, which includes other functional areas such as marketing, finance and accounting. It aims to draw the students' attention to a variety of sources. In compiling the bibliography a review of the literature in Arabic, English and Turkish was undertaken, followed by a survey of the top officials of academic institutions offering management/commerce, business administration degree programmes in the region.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2021

Fakir Al Gharaibeh and Justine O'Sullivan

This research aimed to describe and examine the effects of war followed by forced displacement on Syrian mothers and their children in terms of Reuben Hill's Family Stress…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aimed to describe and examine the effects of war followed by forced displacement on Syrian mothers and their children in terms of Reuben Hill's Family Stress Theory and identify essential elements to consider in social work practice with this population.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 Syrian mothers living in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A thematic analysis at both a semantic and latent level was completed. A case study – “Noor” – was developed to offer insight into one Syrian woman's experiences and response to war-related stressors and displacement.

Findings

The findings from the analysis of the interviews and case study indicated that for Syrian families displaced by conflict the traumas of war were compounded by ongoing and multiple emotional and practical stressors, with ongoing experiences of “loss” being the significant stressor. Giving context to these findings highlights the demand and impost on the host countries, in this study, the UAE, to continue their significant humanitarian efforts to Syrian families.

Research limitations/implications

These findings will assist social workers, humanitarian organisations and their staff and others working with Syrian families, to respond more effectively.

Originality/value

There is no research in evidence in the professional literature that addresses the effects of war on displaced Syrian families in terms of Reuben Hill's Family Stress Theory.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Angela P. Harris

From the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s, several prominent feminist legal scholars made a case for “difference feminism.” Inspired by psychologist Carol Gilligan’s classic…

Abstract

From the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s, several prominent feminist legal scholars made a case for “difference feminism.” Inspired by psychologist Carol Gilligan’s classic text, In a Different Voice, these scholars argued that social relationships, caring, and the emotions should be recognized as important to jurisprudence and legal regulation. Today, difference feminism is no longer a dominant movement within legal scholarship, but reformers are bringing “mindfulness,” “emotional intelligence,” and attention to relationships into law and business – a development dubbed “therapy culture” by its critics. This essay describes some of the manifestations of therapy culture in law and argues for more feminist engagement.

Details

Special Issue: Feminist Legal Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-782-0

Keywords

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